Published on January 30, 2009
ENUM in Austria From high expectations to low usage figures. And then? Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting The opinions expressed in this presentation are the personal view of the author and do not prejudge decisions of the Austrian regulatory authorities.
One of my slides from 2001 … nce ? v er g e The Key to Con EN UM: ENUM The Internet c Switched ditionalquot; Publi “Tra rk (PSTN) lephone Netwo Te Best Effort y (No) Plug & Pla Easy to use Reliable Spam els Viruses 64 kBit/s Chann vices Multitude of Ser e Simple and Saf SIP AORs High Availability User Accounts Domain Names bers Telephone num 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 2
… and Usage Figures from 2008 tions overall delega 8000 7000 6000 tions overall delega 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Q0308 Q0108 Q0208 0307 Q0407 07 Q0207 Q Q0406 Q01 0 Q0206 Q0306 Q0405 Q0106 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 3
Agenda What is ENUM? >> 0 The Austrian ENUM Story 1 Lessons Learned 2 Way Forward 3 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 4
1 The Austrian ENUM Story
Phases of the Austrian ENUM Story Warming Forming Storming Mourning Norming Performing 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 6
From Warming to Forming … August 2001 First public consultation conducted by RTR (i.e. the Austrian Regulatory Authority) February 2002 (User) ENUM Workshop organized by RTR Group of interested partners formed Austrian ENUM Trial Platform May 2002 Delegation request by RTR to RIPE, ITU-TSB for 3.4.e164.arpa June 2002 3.4.e164.arpa delegated to RTR ENUM Tier 1 Registry in operation by NIC.AT (i.e. Austrian ccTLD Registry) September 2002 Austrian ENUM Trial Platform officially established 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 7
ENUM Tier 1 Registry Responsibility for Numbering in Austria (+43) RTR, i.e. the Regulatory Authority Responsibility for Austrian ENUM Domain (3.4.e164.arpa) RTR Responsibility for ENUM Tier 1 Registry General RTR Admin Contact RTR Tech + Zone Contact Outsourced to nic.at (later to found enum.at) ENUM trial framework between RTR-GmbH and trial partners Policy framework for ENUM trial in Austria Evaluating processes between registry and registrars Working on (re-)validation processes regarding the right to use number 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 8
From Storming to Norming … September 2002 ENUM Tier 2 Name Server in operation by Telekom Austria November 2002 Policy Framework available Official start of Austrian ENUM trial First Live Demo in Atlanta, GA (Fall VON) December 2002 Ready to invite friendly ENUM subscribers and users October 2003 1st part of trial completed, 2nd phase (business customers) started December 2003 Large Scale ENUM and VoIP Pilot started at Vienna University (AT43) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 9
The Legal Framework (I) New Austrian Telecommunication Law (TKG 2003) In force since August 20th 2003 Based on the New European Legal Framework New Numbering Ordinance in Austria In force since May 12th 2004, Amendment of October 18th 2006 Taking ENUM into account +43 720 for national portable numbers and VoIP (semi-nomadic) +43 780 for VoIP and ENUM (nomadic) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 10
Number Ranges made available for ENUM Designated for the use with ENUM Numbers for convergent A services – (0)780 Gateway to the PSTN required Usable for VoIP Location independent fixed B network numbers - (0)720 Also possible as „Personal Numbers“ numbers directly assigned to end-user C Private networks - 05 validation via assignment document Also pre-paid numbers are usable D Mobile numbers – (0)6 Validation by premium rate SMS Most common numbers E Geographic numbers Validation by postal mail and PIN [ + (0)800 toll free numbers ] 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 11
ENUM-driven Number Range (0)780 Format: +43 780 abcdef (ghi) Prior delegation of ENUM domain required for assignment of number Registrar has to provide a Generic Gateway (for this number range) Cancellation of ENUM domain will (also) relinquish the number No validation problem as the domain delegation is necessary as the first step (domains delegated on a first come first served policy) Decoupling of number range allocation and gateway operator Any gateway may route the whole number range, just needs to be able to query ENUM These gateways are called Generic Gateways (GG) Commercial delegation of domains starting May 2005
The Generic Gateway ENUM Tier 1 Calling Party A ENUM Tier 2 Generic Gateway Internet PSTN Registration Called Party B 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 13
And finally from Performing to Mourning … October 2003 Decision to start preparation for commercial deployment May 2004 New Numbering Ordinance defines ENUM-driven number range (780) August 2004 Contract signed with enum.at concerning a commercial phase November 2004 End of ENUM trial / Commercial ENUM services made available May 2005 ENUM enabled number range 780 finally added April 2006 Addendum to ENUM Agreement allowing Infrastructure ENUM in Austria Since then Desperately seeking ENUM users … 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 14
The Legal Framework (II) Contract between RTR and Tier 1 Registry (enum.at) Signed in August 2004 for a period until the end of 2007 (now ext. to 2009) Policy framework for ENUM in Austria for 3.4.e164.arpa domain Basic technical, operational and administrative requirements Validation guidelines for Registrars E.g. defining error values depending on the number of delegations with several procedures occurring when this values are exceeded Addendum to the existing agreement between RTR and enum.at Signed in April 2006 allowing the commercial usage of Infrastructure ENUM Allowing communication service providers to enter numbers of their subscribers into a separate sub-domain and to add provider-relevant information (e.g. for routing or billing). 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 15
enum.at - The official Austrian ENUM Registry http://www.enum.at 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 16
IPcom - One of 13 Austrian ENUM Registrars http://www.my-enum.at/ 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 17
ENUM Delegations in Austria by Q3/2008 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 18
Numbers in ENUM by 26.01.2009 http://crawler.enum.at 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 19
2 Lessons learned
User ENUM General Principle End-users should opt-in to ENUM with their existing phone numbers on the PSTN under the domain e164.arpa to provide other end-users with the capability to look up contact URIs on the Internet the above end-user wants to link to his number Weaknesses Most VoIP providers do not provide end-users with SIP URIs to be reached on the Public Internet (i.e. without generating termination income) Only the calling party benefits from an ENUM Record of the called party Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law1 Country opt-in regulators involvement slowing process down End-user opt-in slowing process down further more Skepticism from providers 1) the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system (n2) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 21
User ENUM (cont’d) Weaknesses National level: High tariffs to ENUM-driven number range (+43 780) International level ENUM-driven number ranges not routed from abroad at all “Unknown” number range not implemented “Suspect” number range not implemented High tariffs to “unknown” number range 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 22
Infrastructure ENUM General Principle Providers should opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a defined domain (e.g. i.3.4.e164.arpa for Austria) to provide other providers with details of their networks‘ ingress points. Weaknesses Provider Opt-In Country Opt-In (again) Single Tree What type of tree? Who is responsible? How to get all providers on that tree? How to deal with private ENUM deployments? Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law (again) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 23
Private ENUM General Principle Providers opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a defined domain (e.g. e164.info) to provide fellow providers with details of their subscribers SIP AoRs. Also called Operator ENUM, Enterprise ENUM or Carrier ENUM Current service provider interconnect Private ENUM in a walled garden scenario SIP Exchange with restricted access on the Internet Public tree not in e164.arpa Weaknesses Limited reach No global solution How to peer with other federations? 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 24
3 Way forward
General Benefits of ENUM remain ENUM is using the DNS it’s there, it works, it’s global, it scales, it’s reliable, it’s open, anyone can use it… Saving CAPEX Enables originating administrative domain to do an All Call Query (ACQ) to find destination network Ultimate solution in Number Portability Provisioning is done only by the destination (recipient) administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is hosting Saving OPEX Enables all multimedia (MM) services for E.164 numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end Enables convergence (remember first slide: ENUM – Key to Convergence?) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 26
Benefits once more … The major benefits of Infrastructure ENUM for (VoIP) carriers and (VoIP) service providers is to save costs Minimal CAPEX for setting up the required infrastructure to provide the routing data Minimal OPEX for maintaining routing data Announce the E.164 numbers you host (in ENUM) Announce the domains you host (in DNS) Make bilateral or multilateral peering agreements Query ENUM and DNS to find any other destination provider 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 27
A matter of time ... ENUM already successfully used ... in Private ENUM deployments XConnect, e164.info, SPIDER, … ENUM still strongly in the focus of standardisation IETF: WG ENUM, WG SPEERMINT, WG P2PSIP ETSI/3GPP: ENUM as a building block of the NGN control layer Future mobile service framework GSMA: strongly promoting Private ENUM to be used in their IPX framework Private domain e164enum.net Not connected to the public DNS Database possibly linking 2 billion mobile subscriber within the reach of GSMA 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 28
Finally from a regulatory point of view ... ENUM has been well supported in its infancy ENUM has gained some attention ENUM is deployed in some places ENUM is ready to stand on its own feet ENUM now needs more industry support Standardisation Bodies Operators and Service Providers Service Developers Technological innovation will do its part Migration to IP-based NGNs will further promote the ENUM case Industry solutions will emerge 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 29
! Thank you. Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting
3 Backup - What is ENUM?
What is ENUM? Electronic NUmber Mapping: “ … the mapping of Telephone Numbers to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name System (DNS) in the domain e164.arpa …” ENUM is an IETF standard (RFC 3761) finalized in April 2004 that allows users and applications to use a telephone number to access a listing of Internet resources (URI) for that number, such as addresses for IP telephony, e-mail or Web sites URIs are used to identify resources on the Internet (e.g. http://www.rtr.at ) 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 32
What is ENUM? GATEWAY TEL: +43 1 58058 306 VoIP: email@example.com NUMBER TO URI FAX: +43 1 58058 9306 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org MAPPING MOB: +43 664 1234567 Web: www.rtr.at ENUM 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 33
Can somebody ENUM is like an inquiry service help me ? Who is +43 1 58058 306 ? email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org I have some www.rtr.at information ! +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 34
4 Call Scenarios ENUM +43 1 58058 306 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org +43 1 58058 306 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 PSTN Internet 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 35
ENUM Domain Name „Fully qualified E.164 telephone number“ +43 1 58058 306 43158058306 60385085134 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.3.4 „Fully qualified domain name“ 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.3.4.e164.arpa As a result of an ENUM Lookup for this domain one gets back the IP- Address of the server where the data of the user of the corresponding telephone number are stored. Now this information can be retrieved 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 36
ENUM NAPTR RRs ENUM Name Server >> Agenda Kurt.email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. NAMING AUTHORITY POINTER RESOURCE RECORD $ORIGIN 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.3.4.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+voice” “!ˆ^.*$!sip:email@example.com!”. IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+email” “!ˆ^.*$!mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org!”. IN NAPTR 10 20 “u” “E2U+voice” “!ˆ^(.*$)$!tel:+436641234567!”. usw. 27.01.2009 IIR Interconnection World Forum 2009 Page 37
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