Entry Skills

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Published on November 19, 2007

Author: Lilly

Source: authorstream.com

Passing the Entry Skills Test:  Passing the Entry Skills Test If you understand the rules of writing, you can pass the test (and do well in your classes and get a great job).:  If you understand the rules of writing, you can pass the test (and do well in your classes and get a great job). Slide3:  We’ll start with some material that seems too easy. But if you can understand that, you’ll be answering difficult questions before you realize it. Easy Review:  Easy Review First, you need to know where subjects, verbs and objects are. Think it’s easy? Find the subject, verb and object here (hint: subject = one word, verb = one word. Two objects.) The professor gives a test to the students. (if you can figure this out, you’ll understand who / whom) Easy Review:  Easy Review Rule No. 1 The subject is always a noun that does the action. The verb is always the action word, or a being verb like am, is, are, was, were… The objects always receive action. The professor gives a test to the students. There are three nouns here: professor, test and students. Only one does the action. Easy Review:  Easy Review So, the subject, which does action, here is professor The verb is gives The objects, which receive action, are test students The professor gives a test to the students. Who / Whom:  Who / Whom Rule No. 2: Who usually DOES action and is a subject. Whom RECEIVES action and is an object. Try it: Who / Whom gives a test to the students? The professor gives a test to who / whom? (They call this nominative and objective CASE) Answers:  Answers Who gives a test to the students? The professor gives a test to whom? Who / Whom (case):  Who / Whom (case) These are harder: Who / Whom took the last slice of pizza? Who / whom will he take to the party? The woman whom / who spoke about violence enjoys long walks in the park. Remember: who does action. Whom is an object that receives action. Answers:  Answers Who took the last slice of pizza? Whom will he take to the party? The woman who spoke about violence enjoys long walks in the park. Who / Whom (case):  Who / Whom (case) The rule is the same for other words. Some do action and some receive action . Who / Whom (case) :  Who / Whom (case) Try it with the same simple sentence: Doing Receiving Who gives a test to whom? He gives a test to him. She gives a test to her. I give a test to you. You give a test to me. We give a test to them. They give a test to us. Who / Whom (Case):  Who / Whom (Case) These are harder. We’re still talking about subjects, verbs and objects (nominative and objective case on the Writer’s Workshop). So, you need to find the subject and the verb first, then choose the right answer based on that chart. How do you think we / us students should study for the test? The guard detained us / we reporters at the plant gate. Who / Whom (case):  Who / Whom (case) How do you think we students should study for the test? The guard detained us reporters at the plant gate. Who / Whom (case):  Who / Whom (case) This is why you need to know how to find subjects and verbs. Find the verbs and ask, “Who is doing the action? Who is receiving the action?” End of Who/Whom:  End of Who/Whom End the PowerPoint show here. Take a practice test from the Writing Center or practice who/whom (case) online at the Writer’s Workshop from the www.bsu.edu/journalism main page. When you’re ready, move on to the next slide: Agreement. Agreement:  Agreement Some Singular Action Nouns Each Every Everyone Organizations, like BSU or the YMCA Either Neither The number Some Plural Action Nouns A number Media Phenomena Could be singular or plural: Either / or Neither / nor Rule No. 4: (Actually, this is a lot of little rules to memorize) Know which subjects are plural and which are singular. Agreement:  Agreement If you’re good at finding the noun that does the action in the sentence, agreement will be easy. Find the noun doing the action in the sentence and the noun receiving the action here, decide whether the noun doing the action is singular or plural, then choose the right answer. The news media is / are under attack again. Each of the women has / have impressive speaking skills. Agreement:  Agreement Rule No. 3 Always find the correct noun that does the action of the sentence to choose the right answer! Some are plural and some are singular. The news media are under attack again. Each of the women has impressive speaking skills. Media is plural. Each is singular. When you choose the right verb to match the subject, that’s agreement. Agreement:  Agreement These are harder. Neither of the apples is / are rotten. Either the women or the man needs / need to drop us off. The number of people at the conference was / were overwhelming. A number of items was / were taken from the room. The YMCA took all of their / its / it’s members on a retreat. Agreement Answers:  Agreement Answers Neither of the apples is rotten. Either the women or the man needs to drop us off. The number of people at the conference was overwhelming. A number of items were taken from the room. The YMCA took all of its members on a retreat. End of Agreement:  End of Agreement End the PowerPoint show here. Take a practice agreement test in the Writing Center or study online at the Writer’s Workshop from the www.bsu.edu/journalism main page. When you’re ready, click for the next slide: That/Which That / Which:  That / Which Now you know how to use who / whom, but what about that and which? Try these: This is one of those questions that / which fooled a lot of students. The girl, that / which / who asked for my help, has disappeared. She is the only one that has / who has been here. The tornado, which / that damaged much of the city, left behind dirt and debris. That / Which read these rules and try again on the next slide:  That / Which read these rules and try again on the next slide Rule No. 5 Never use a comma with the word “that.” Rule No. 6 Always use a comma with the word “which.” Rule No. 7 Always use “who,” not “that,” to refer to people. That / Which:  That / Which Try again: This is one of those questions that / which fooled a lot of students. The girl, that / which / who asked for my help, has disappeared. She is the only one that has / who has been here. The tornado, which / that damaged much of the city, left behind dirt and debris. That / Which Answers:  That / Which Answers This is one of those questions that fooled a lot of students. The girl, who asked for my help, has disappeared. She is the only one who has been here. The tornado, which damaged much of the city, left behind dirt and debris. That / Which:  That / Which One more twist: be sure you understand Writer’s Workshop that/which/who/whom No. 8. Writer’s Workshop No. 8:  Writer’s Workshop No. 8 Separating a clause, or phrase, with commas, like I’m doing here, shows that the phrases set apart are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Can you point out the two phrases I separated in the previous sentence? That / Which:  That / Which Say I got bit by a rabid dog last summer. I might say: “Dogs, which have rabies, are dangerous pets.” Take out that phrase separated by commas and you’re left with “Dogs are dangerous pets.” That’s not true! I didn’t mean to say that. I like dogs, just not dogs with rabies. I did something wrong. That / Which:  That / Which I should NOT have written “Dogs, which have rabies, are dangerous pets.” Because ONLY dogs THAT have rabies are dangerous pets. I should have written: “Dogs that have rabies are dangerous pets.” NO commas. I need that phrase to stay in the sentence because it limits my statement about dogs to only a few specific dogs. Commas indicate that phrases can be removed. Tricky! Practice online. That / Which:  That / Which Rule No. 8 Goes with Writer’s Workshop that/which/who/whom practice No. 8: If a clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence, do not separate it from the sentence with commas. Commas indicate that a phrase can be removed. “Dogs that have rabies are dangerous pets.” Punctuation:  Punctuation Now you know when to use a comma with the words that and which. What about these commas? Are they correct? She told the class, “to read the paper every day.” She hasn’t been at work, because her family is having trouble. She is a homemaker, and a small business owner. “I can’t believe you said that,” Sam said. Punctuation read these rules, then click to try the practice sentences again.:  Punctuation read these rules, then click to try the practice sentences again. Rule No. 9: Only put a comma before a quote if it’s a complete sentence (look for the capital letter). Rule No. 10: No commas before “because.” Rule No. 11: Only use a comma between two phrases separated by “and” when the second phrase is a complete sentence (with a SUBJECT and VERB. Yes, you need to know how to find them both, STILL!) Punctuation:  Punctuation Rule No. 12: Commas at the end of a quote always go inside quotation marks. Try these again: She told the class, “to read the paper every day.” She hasn’t been at work, because her family is having trouble. She is a homemaker, and a small business owner. “I can’t believe you said that,” Sam said. Punctuation Answers:  Punctuation Answers She told the class, “to read the paper every day.” Incorrect She hasn’t been at work, because her family is having trouble. Incorrect She is a homemaker, and a small business owner. Incorrect “I can’t believe you said that,” Sam said. Correct Punctuation:  Punctuation Rule No. 13: You can separate sentences FOUR ways: You use a period. You capitalize the next word. You use a semicolon; it acts like a period and separates two similar thoughts. You use a comma and a conjunction, and you’ll successfully separate two sentences. Colons can be used to introduce things: This sentence was introduced by the one before it. Pick out the subjects and verbs above to prove each numbered line has two sentences. Punctuation:  Punctuation Are these sentences correct? I am almost finished with this PowerPoint and I know much more about grammar than before. I like this class, I do enjoy grammar. I will take the entry skills test; and I will pass. Punctuation Answers:  Punctuation Answers I am almost finished with this PowerPoint and I know much more about grammar than before. Incorrect. There should be a comma before “and.” I like this class, I do enjoy grammar. Incorrect. There should be a period or semicolon in place of the comma, or you can keep the comma and add “and” before the “I.” I will take the entry skills test; and I will pass. Incorrect. Semicolons do not need conjunctions. Take out the word “and.” OR, change the semicolon to a comma. Punctuation:  Punctuation What about this sentence? I want to take the test; and I want your help. Punctuation:  Punctuation What about this sentence? I want to take the test; and I want your help. No! You can use a semicolon to separate two sentences, or you can use a comma and a conjunction (the word “and”), but you can’t use a semicolon PLUS the conjunction. Punctuation:  Punctuation Is this sentence correct? We hope students will go to the game on Saturday, and take their friends. Punctuation:  Punctuation Is this sentence correct? We hope students will go to the game on Saturday, and take their friends. No! “take their friends” is NOT a complete sentence. How do I know? I don’t see a subject. If we don’t have a subject on the right side, we don’t have a sentence, and we can’t separate the phrases with a comma. Use the word “and” by itself. Punctuation:  Punctuation Do you know the answers to these? He's a wonderful guy, however, he's poor. (right or wrong?) Journalists are only human (a) , nevertheless, (b) ; nevertheless (c) ; nevertheless, readers expect perfection. She is a (a) widely-traveled (b) widely traveled consultant. If you are going to learn anything about punctuation, it should be (a) this, commas (b) this: commas (c) this: Commas are often misused. Punctuation Answers:  Punctuation Answers He's a wonderful guy, however, he's poor. Wrong. Journalists are only human (c) ; nevertheless, readers expect perfection. She is a (b) widely traveled consultant. If you are going to learn anything about punctuation, it should be (c) this: Commas are often misused. Punctuation:  Punctuation The Writer’s Workshop lists lots more punctuation rules. Stop the slide presentation now and take the sample tests in Punctuation I and II on the Writer’s Workshop from the www.bsu.edu/journalism main page. When you’re ready, click for the next slide to learn about clarity. Which words should you never use?:  Which words should you never use? The Writer’s Workshop lists a few under the section “Clarity.” Rule No. 13: Avoid words that don’t tell the reader much: “several students,” “many people” and “very excited.” Be specific: “nine students” “every seat at Emens was full,” “she gasped, jumped out of her seat and hugged the doctor.” What You Should Do Now:  What You Should Do Now 1. Write down punctuation rules you find in the Writer’s Workshop. 2. Take the quizzes in the Writer’s Workshop until you can answer all of the questions correctly. 3. Visit the Journalism Department Writing Center in AJ 382 for extra tips on passing the test and becoming a better writer. Last semester, students who visited the Writing Center raised their score on the test by an average of 12 points out of 100. The Top Five Problems Most Students have (in other words, Things You Should Study) :  The Top Five Problems Most Students have (in other words, Things You Should Study) Agreement 2. Punctuation 3. Who and Whom (Case) 4. Word Use and Wordiness 5. That / Which

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