Published on June 21, 2016
1. 1 ENTROPY AND DEATH OF WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM Fernando Alcoforado * Entropy is a thermodynamic quantity that measures the degree of irreversibility of a system that is generally associated with what is called a "disorder" of a thermodynamic system. Entropy measures the degree of disorder of a system. The greater the disorder of a system, the greater its entropy. According to the second law of thermodynamics, a boiler produces work by converting energy of fuel into heat, and hence thermal energy. But, the thermal energy cannot be completely reversed in work. An example of entropy is the lighting provided by incandescent bulbs, in that not all electricity (energy) used is converted in the form of light (useful energy), but a part is lost as heat (useless energy for lighting). The concepts of reversible and irreversible processes may be described mathematically using the concept of entropy. Reversible process is one in which the system can spontaneously return to the position (or state) original. This usually occurs in mechanical transformations frictionless. In case of friction, the body suffers power loss and therefore could not return to the initial situation. In this case, this is an irreversible process that is one where the system cannot spontaneously return to the original state. Ice melting process is a classic example of increase of entropy that this is an irreversible process. The theory of entropy aims, therefore, to measure the degradation of energy that occurs in a system according to the second law of thermodynamics and the fact that in any physical change nor all the energy that is in the initial system and constitutes the body is found in the system and the constitution of the final body. While entropy is a measure of disorder or unpredictability of the performance of a system, syntropy is its opposite, that is, represents the degree of order and predictability existing in a system. The principle of syntropy is a process that precludes the disruption and loss of energy by injection of new energy generated from this same or other process, from outside the system. An example of syntropy is the metabolism of living organisms in which to face the catabolism that lead to consumption and tissue destruction in the body for life and performs anabolism, reconstructs the tissues through the ingestion of foods ie substances removed from the outside world to the body / system. The syntropy is a cybernetic principle of organization, unity, unlike the entropy, which is the disorganization and disintegration. Exists entropy (loss, disorganization) and syntropy (gain, organization) in the context of thermodynamics (energy) and cybernetics (information). A system is cybernetic when processing information and is able to adjust its own operation automatically to process the information (feedback) coming from inside and outside the system itself. Examples of cybernetic systems are living organisms, automatic machines, institutions, etc. Entropy is the tendency of cybernetic systems to disorganize, losing energy and information and goes towards self- destruction. Syntropy is the programming of cybernetic systems to organize and reorganize in order to maintain or restore energy and information in order to preserve its configuration and existence, a self-preservation program. It can be said that capitalism is a system that operates according to the principle of entropy because it presents the universal tendency to evolve into a growing disorder and self-destruction. This situation is evidenced by the downward trend of the profit rate of the United States, largest world economy which was 24% in 1950 and 13% in 2000 and
2. 2 reach a rate of profit equal to zero in 2059, as well as the fall in the rate of profit at historical cost of the fixed capital of US corporations which was 32% in 1947 and 13% in 2007 and will reach zero in 2048. It follows, therefore, that the world capitalist system would become infeasible made impossible between 2048 and 2059 because profit rates will be negative from the mid-twenty-first century. Neoliberalism by denying the regulation of the world capitalist system collaborates on bringing the system to self-destruction. All available data point in the sense that the world capitalist system evolves to a growing disorder and self-destruction because the Earth is now reaching its limits in the use of its natural resources. Today, due to the current rate of consumption, the demand for natural resources exceeds 41% of spare capacity of the Earth. If the escalation of this demand continues at this rate, by 2030, with an estimated global population of 10 billion people, two Earths will be needed to meet it. Currently, over 80% of the world population lives in countries that use more resources than their own ecosystems can renew. The core capitalist countries (European Union, United States and Japan), ecological debtors, have exhausted their own resources and have to import them. An indisputable fact is that humanity already consumes more natural resources than the planet can replenish. The capitalist system is mainly responsible for this situation to deplete the natural resources of planet Earth and pollute the extreme soil, water and the oceans, and threatens the survival of mankind and living beings in general with climate change catastrophic resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the world capitalist system has downward trend of the profit rate that will be zero in the mid-twenty-first century. The world capitalist system is an excellent example of entropy given that tends to growing disorders that inevitably lead to the collapse as an economic system. Georgescu-Roegen (1906-1994), Romanian economist, author of The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (GEORGESCU-Roegen, Nicholas The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), sought integrate the economy with thermodynamics, with evolutionary biology and ecology, which is why he is known as the father of ecological economics. In terms of metaphor, laws such as the trend towards falling rate of profit (Marx) and diminishing returns in the capitalist system can be considered as entropy of the economic system. It also seems clear that the entropy that occurs in the material world is reflected also in economic activity. But this economist went further to try to establish the entropy as economic law [ALDEIA, João. Entropia e (de)crescimento (Entropy and decrease of growth). Available on the website <http://puraeconomia.blogspot.com.br/2004/11/entropia-e- decrescimento.html>, 2004). The foreseeable depletion of mineral resources, particularly energy resources, and the threat of catastrophic climate change, major themes of the green agenda, fit well in the entropic process. Economic activity gives rise to new products and solutions to new and old problems (for diseases, old and new, pharmacology and biotechnology, for example), but at the cost of the disruption of other systems, which ultimately will lead to the death of the whole system. Until the 1960s, economic growth seemed to be the only way to promote the well-being of people. Georgescu-Roegen, versed in mathematics and statistics, dared to challenge the traditional speech and spoke strong words to the contrary to a logic that seemed until then irreproachable. This expert, in his time, said, among other things, that "the growth levels of the economy could no longer continue without that future generations pay the burden of irresponsibility"
3. 3 [OLIVEIRA, Marcus Eduardo. Economia e Entropia: A Economia do Futuro e o Futuro da Economia (The Future Economy and the Future of Economics). Available on the website <https://www.ecodebate.com.br/2010/06/14/economia-e-entropia-a- economia-do-futuro-e-o-futuro-da-economia-artigo-de-marcus-eduardo-de-oliveira/>, 2010]. For all these reasons it becomes imperative to implement a sustainable society on a global scale which is one that meets the current generation needs without diminishing the ability of future generations to meet them and thus contribute to building peace world. The new Global Sustainable Society must be able to regulate the world economy and international relations based on a Planetarium Social Contract to promote global economic prosperity based on the model of sustainable development for the benefit of all human beings. This Planetarium Social Contract should result from the will of the UN General Assembly that would be the new World Parliament that would elect a World Government representative of the will of all peoples of the world. * Fernando Alcoforado, member of the Bahia Academy of Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona, http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011), Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012) and Energia no Mundo e no Brasil- Energia e Mudança Climática Catastrófica no Século XXI (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2015).
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