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Enterprise Archecture for Knowledge Management

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Information about Enterprise Archecture for Knowledge Management
Business & Mgmt

Published on February 20, 2009

Author: pastinson

Source: slideshare.net

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Enterprise Architecture (EA): A framework for Knowledge Management 18 Feb 2009 Knowledge Management Seminar Houston, TX

Office of Performance Management & Decision Support (CG-0931) in conjunction with CG-6B Captain Joe Re Mr. David Bandel Ms. Bridgette Garchek

What is EA? Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a system that many business agencies use to improve their overall organization and effectiveness help manage their technological assets help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a system that many business agencies use to

improve their overall organization and effectiveness

help manage their technological assets

help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals

What is EA (cont.)? EA is not limited to technological information. It is applied in all business areas as a way of managing and improving the effectiveness of an organization as a whole.

EA is not limited to technological information. It is applied in all business areas as a way of managing and improving the effectiveness of an organization as a whole.

What does EA do? Helps leaders view complex information in a simple way Helps executives make decisions to improve efficiency Provides the information needed by decision-makers to identify both redundancies and gaps in capability among organizational units

Helps leaders view complex information in a simple way

Helps executives make decisions to improve efficiency

Provides the information needed by decision-makers to identify both redundancies and gaps in capability among organizational units

EA Defines… The Mission Information and/or technologies necessary to perform the mission Transitional processes for implementing new practices and/or technologies in response to the changing needs of the mission

The Mission

Information and/or technologies necessary to perform the mission

Transitional processes for implementing new practices and/or technologies in response to the changing needs of the mission

EA Defined As defined by OMB (Circular A-130) An EA is the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired relationships among business and management processes and information technology As defined by the CIO Council, 2003 EA establishes an organization-wide vision to achieve the mission through optimal performance of the core business processes with an efficient IT environment Methodology for Developing System Requirements in Context with Customer Processes and Mission Operations

As defined by OMB (Circular A-130)

An EA is the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired relationships among business and management processes and information technology

As defined by the CIO Council, 2003

EA establishes an organization-wide vision to achieve the mission through optimal performance of the core business processes with an efficient IT environment

EA Links CG Objectives to Missions, Governance, Funding, Initiatives, Standards, Information &Technology Wikipedia says “Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences… efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with Organizational Learning, and may be distinguished from by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the exchange of knowledge.”

What does Coast Guard Enterprise Architecture look like today?

Today’s EA: Urban Sprawl Bottom Up development of the systems & the business Overlapping and/or incongruent delivery Not aligned with corporate strategy

Bottom Up development of the systems & the business

Overlapping and/or incongruent delivery

Not aligned with corporate strategy

EA Mandates and Drivers FY05 DoD Appropriations Bill Effective October 1, 2005, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be obligated for a defense business system modernization that will have a total cost in excess of $1,000,000 unless the [designated] approval authority…certifies to the Defense Business Systems Management Committee established by section 186 of this title that the defense business system modernization is in compliance with the enterprise architecture… “ Congress is enforcing its mandate that the Defense Department develop systems compatible with the DOD Business Enterprise Architecture—with the threat of jail time and hefty fines for the department’s comptroller.” continued

FY05 DoD Appropriations Bill

Effective October 1, 2005, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be obligated for a defense business system modernization that will have a total cost in excess of $1,000,000 unless the [designated] approval authority…certifies to the Defense Business Systems Management Committee established by section 186 of this title that the defense business system modernization is in compliance with the enterprise architecture…

“ Congress is enforcing its mandate that the Defense Department develop systems compatible with the DOD Business Enterprise Architecture—with the threat of jail time and hefty fines for the department’s comptroller.”

Three Parts of EA As-Is Transition Target As-Is EA Describes the current state of the environment Transition Plan Mission and business improvement efforts Technology migration strategies Project development initiatives Deployment plans Target Presents a “to-be” picture Several targets developed to phase planning horizons over several time periods (i.e. – 5 years, 10 years) Where we are today… Where we want to be…

As-Is EA

Describes the current state of the environment

Transition Plan

Mission and business improvement efforts

Technology migration strategies

Project development initiatives

Deployment plans

Target

Presents a “to-be” picture

Several targets developed to phase planning horizons over several time periods (i.e. – 5 years, 10 years)

Business Area Example CG Modernization As-Is: LANTAREA, PACAREA Functional statements/lines of business are identical, yet executed differently with multiple redundancies Transition: CG Transformation Teams Using EA to define goals, lines of business, and performance measurement areas Target: FORCECOM + OPCOM Organizational goals defined, unique lines of business/functional areas, eliminated redundancy, clear areas of measurement

CG Modernization

As-Is: LANTAREA, PACAREA

Functional statements/lines of business are identical, yet executed differently with multiple redundancies

Transition: CG Transformation Teams

Using EA to define goals, lines of business, and performance measurement areas

Target: FORCECOM + OPCOM

Organizational goals defined, unique lines of business/functional areas, eliminated redundancy, clear areas of measurement

Technology Example Logistics Transformation As-Is: ALMIS, AOPS Two IT systems performing the same function for aviation and boat force communities Transition: Sector Baltimore Pilot Test pilot for use of ALMIS Target: ALMIS/LIMS only All communities unified to input data into one IT system; unified performance reporting, training, minimized redundancy

Logistics Transformation

As-Is: ALMIS, AOPS

Two IT systems performing the same function for aviation and boat force communities

Transition: Sector Baltimore Pilot

Test pilot for use of ALMIS

Target: ALMIS/LIMS only

All communities unified to input data into one IT system; unified performance reporting, training, minimized redundancy

EA Applications Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Department of Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA) U.S. Coast Guard Enterprise Architecture (CGEA)

Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA)

Department of Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA)

U.S. Coast Guard Enterprise Architecture (CGEA)

FEA A strategic information asset base that defines the business information necessary to operate the business technologies necessary to support the business operations transitional processes for implementing new technologies in response to the changing needs of the business

A strategic information asset base that defines

the business

information necessary to operate the business

technologies necessary to support the business operations

transitional processes for implementing new technologies in response to the changing needs of the business

FEA History In 2001, President George W. Bush created the President’s Management Agenda (PMA), a plan to make the federal government more results-oriented, efficient, and effective. FEA development commenced on February 6, 2002, lead by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

In 2001, President George W. Bush created the President’s Management Agenda (PMA), a plan to make the federal government more results-oriented, efficient, and effective.

FEA development commenced on February 6, 2002, lead by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

EA Mandates and Drivers Clinger-Cohen Act says all Departments must have an enterprise architecture Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130 says you must use a Framework to guide your description of your architecture you must include specific items in your architecture description OMB Criteria: a self-assessment OMB Circular A-11 says capital planning must be related to the [enterprise] architecture General Accounting Office (GAO) will withhold $$ if you don’t have an adequate architecture DoD policies require architecture products

Clinger-Cohen Act says all Departments must have an enterprise architecture

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-130 says

you must use a Framework to guide your description of your architecture

you must include specific items in your architecture description

OMB Criteria: a self-assessment

OMB Circular A-11 says capital planning must be related to the [enterprise] architecture

General Accounting Office (GAO) will withhold $$ if you don’t have an adequate architecture

DoD policies require architecture products

EA Mandates and Drivers GAO Reports GAO-01-190 “Coast Guard Practices can be Improved” GAO-04-40 “Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts” GAO EA Maturity Model Framework OMB EA Assessment Framework Contemporary Case Study: “ FBI Needs an EA to Guide Its Modernization Activities”

GAO Reports

GAO-01-190 “Coast Guard Practices can be Improved”

GAO-04-40 “Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts”

GAO EA Maturity Model Framework

OMB EA Assessment Framework

Contemporary Case Study:

“ FBI Needs an EA to Guide Its Modernization Activities”

FEA History (cont.) Purpose of this initiative: to identify opportunities to simplify processes to unify work across the agencies and within the lines of business of the Federal government All Federal agencies must relate their architectures through linkages to the Business Reference Model (BRM), Performance Reference Model (PRM), Service Component Reference Model (SRM), Data Reference Model (DRM), and Technical Reference Model (TRM).

Purpose of this initiative:

to identify opportunities to simplify processes

to unify work across the agencies and within the lines of business of the Federal government

All Federal agencies must relate their architectures through linkages to the Business Reference Model (BRM), Performance Reference Model (PRM), Service Component Reference Model (SRM), Data Reference Model (DRM), and Technical Reference Model (TRM).

FEA History (cont.) We are concerned primarily with the BRM and the PRM.

FEA BRM The BRM provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-day business operations of the Federal government. The BRM is the first layer of the FEA, and it is the main viewpoint for the analysis of data, service components, and technology.

The BRM provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-day business operations of the Federal government.

The BRM is the first layer of the FEA, and it is the main viewpoint for the analysis of data, service components, and technology.

FEA BRM (cont.) The BRM provides a framework facilitating a functional (rather than operational) view of the federal government’s operations, independent of the agencies, bureaus and offices performing them. The BRM describes the federal government around common business areas instead of through an agency-by-agency view. It thus promotes agency collaboration. Business Areas Lines of Business Sub-functions

FEA PRM The PRM has three main purposes: help produce enhanced performance information to improve strategic and daily decision-making improve the alignment and better articulate the contribution of inputs to outputs and outcomes, thereby creating a clear “line of sight” to desired results identify performance improvement opportunities that span traditional organizational structures and boundaries

The PRM has three main purposes:

help produce enhanced performance information to improve strategic and daily decision-making

improve the alignment and better articulate the contribution of inputs to outputs and outcomes, thereby creating a clear “line of sight” to desired results

identify performance improvement opportunities that span traditional organizational structures and boundaries

Basic PRM INPUTS Activities & Tasks OUTPUTS OUTCOMES GOALS PROCESSES Inputs: The resources needed for the process to operate Processes: The activities and tasks performed on the inputs Outputs: The immediate products, services, or information produced Outcomes: The benefit that the command/staff/organization seeks to achieve or influence—the eventual process and output effect Goals: Objectives that the command/staff/organization is working towards achieving

FEA PRM Value Strategic Outcomes Customer Benefits Service Coverage Timeliness & Responsiveness Service Quality Service Accessibility Customer Results Financial Productivity Cycle Time and Timeliness Quality Security & Privacy Management & Innovation Processes and Activities Services for Citizens Support Delivery of Services Management of Gov’t Resources Mission and Business Results Human Capital Technology Costs Quality Assurance Efficiency Information and Data Reliability & Availability Effectiveness Technology Other Fixed Assets Outcomes Inputs Outputs Processes

Customer Benefits

Service Coverage

Timeliness & Responsiveness

Service Quality

Service Accessibility

Financial

Productivity

Cycle Time and Timeliness

Quality

Security & Privacy

Management & Innovation

Services for Citizens

Support Delivery of Services

Management of Gov’t Resources

Technology Costs

Quality Assurance

Efficiency

Information and Data

Reliability & Availability

Effectiveness

Relating the BRM and PRM Value Business Area Service for Citizens: Maritime Safety Line of Business Commercial Vessel Safety Response Sub-function Investigate Accidents BRM PRM Strategic Outcomes Human Capital Other Fixed Assets Mission and Business Results Processes and Activities Customer Results Technology

DHS EA The Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA) describes the mission and business functions of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) the performance, data, applications, services and technology required to support those functions

The Homeland Security Enterprise Architecture (DHS EA) describes

the mission and business functions of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

the performance, data, applications, services and technology required to support those functions

DHS EA (cont.) DHS EA 2007 continues to build upon earlier versions by including significant additions and refinements derived from: As-Is inventories developed by DHS Component Agencies Updates from the FISMA inventory Updates from the Enterprise Data Management Office Updates to the Technical Reference Model

DHS EA 2007 continues to build upon earlier versions by including significant additions and refinements derived from:

As-Is inventories developed by DHS Component Agencies

Updates from the FISMA inventory

Updates from the Enterprise Data Management Office

Updates to the Technical Reference Model

DHS EA (cont.) The most comprehensive repository of DHS Enterprise Information An Enterprise view and description of the As Is state of the Department and its component agencies Repository Department Stakeholders, Locations, Systems, Programs, Functions, IT Investments An Enterprise view and description of the Target architecture for the Department DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:

The most comprehensive repository of DHS Enterprise Information

An Enterprise view and description of the As Is state of the Department and its component agencies

Repository Department Stakeholders, Locations, Systems, Programs, Functions, IT Investments

An Enterprise view and description of the Target architecture for the Department

DHS EA (cont.) Transition Strategy, Goals, and Objectives with associated performance measures at the Department level to which all component agencies map their own strategies, goals, objectives, and performance measures Governance structure to support and provide stakeholder input and oversight into the implementation of the transition strategy DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:

Transition Strategy, Goals, and Objectives with associated performance measures at the Department level to which all component agencies map their own strategies, goals, objectives, and performance measures

Governance structure to support and provide stakeholder input and oversight into the implementation of the transition strategy

DHS EA (cont.) Awareness of investment directions, standard adherence, and technology testing throughout the Department Support for IT investment decisions Definitions for portfolios or segments within DHS What business services are needed by the Department Places where changes in the use of technology can produce cost savings DHS EA 2007 provides stakeholders and decision makers:

Awareness of investment directions, standard adherence, and technology testing throughout the Department

Support for IT investment decisions

Definitions for portfolios or segments within DHS

What business services are needed by the Department

Places where changes in the use of technology can produce cost savings

CGEA Mission To improve USCG planning and governance Vision To make information transparent and enable better decision making

Mission

To improve USCG planning and governance

Vision

To make information transparent and enable better decision making

CGEA (continued) The blueprint for modernizing and transforming legacy systems to meet future mission capabilities and requirements Captures, organizes, and communicates information about USCG performance measures, business processes, information requirements, applications, systems, technologies, and security

The blueprint for modernizing and transforming legacy systems to meet future mission capabilities and requirements

Captures, organizes, and communicates information about USCG performance measures, business processes, information requirements, applications, systems, technologies, and security

CGEA: Six Perspectives Performance – The measurement of USCG strategic and business outcomes Business – The functions and activities that the USCG performs Information – The information needed to perform the USCG mission and business activities

Performance – The measurement of USCG strategic and business outcomes

Business – The functions and activities that the USCG performs

Information – The information needed to perform the USCG mission and business activities

Six Perspectives (cont.) Services – The applications and capabilities that support USCG information requirements Technology – The underlying technology infrastructure supporting service delivery Security – The assurance of confidentiality, integrity, availability, and privacy

Services – The applications and capabilities that support USCG information requirements

Technology – The underlying technology infrastructure supporting service delivery

Security – The assurance of confidentiality, integrity, availability, and privacy

Role of CG-0931 CG-6 delegates authority to CG-0931 for three of the six CGEA perspectives: Business CDR John Wood Performance Mr. Frank Wood Information CDR Joe Staier

CG-6 delegates authority to CG-0931 for three of the six CGEA perspectives:

Business

CDR John Wood

Performance

Mr. Frank Wood

Information

CDR Joe Staier

Role of CG-0931 (cont.) Business: 149 Business activities, 61 sub functions, 20 USCG Functions, 16 DHS Functions, 4 FEA Business Areas Performance: 39 Performance measures, 3 strategic goals Information: 394,503 database fields, 21,791 database tables, 242 information objects, 55 databases, 13 DHS subject areas, 4 DHS information domains

Business:

149 Business activities, 61 sub functions, 20 USCG Functions, 16 DHS Functions, 4 FEA Business Areas

Performance:

39 Performance measures, 3 strategic goals

Information:

394,503 database fields, 21,791 database tables, 242 information objects, 55 databases, 13 DHS subject areas, 4 DHS information domains

CGEA Six Perspectives Summarized CGBI is in charge of Performance, Business, and Information

How does CGEA relate to FEA? CGEA Perspective CGEA Product FEA Alignment Performance Performance Inventory FEA PRM Performance Reference Model Business Business Inventory FEA BRM Business Reference Model Information Enterprise Data Model FEA DRM Data Reference Model Service Services Profile FEA SRM Service Component Reference Model Technology IT Products and Standards Profile FEA TRM Technical Reference Model Security Security Profile FEA Security Profile

How does CGEA relate to DHS EA? CGEA Perspective CGEA Product DHS EA Alignment Performance Performance Profile DHS Performance Goals Business Value Chain Alignment DHS Value Chain Information Information Profile DHS Information Architecture Service C4 & IT Transition Portfolio Profile DHS IT Portfolios Technology IT Products and Standards Profile All CG Products in the DHS Technical Reference Manual Security Security Profile DHS Security Architecture

And those tables meant…? CGEA has products in each of its six perspectives that match up with aspects of both FEA and DHS EA. Recall: Enterprise Architecture is a system that is applied similarly in different organizations.

CGEA has products in each of its six perspectives that match up with aspects of both FEA and DHS EA.

Recall: Enterprise Architecture is a system that is applied similarly in different organizations.

Benefits of CGEA Analysis of problem areas, and discovery of gaps, redundancies, inefficiencies, and opportunities A robust (business and technology) knowledge base that fulfills information needs Development, documentation, and communication of C4&IT plans Improvement of business processes through business process re-engineering and the introduction of new technologies

Analysis of problem areas, and discovery of gaps, redundancies, inefficiencies, and opportunities

A robust (business and technology) knowledge base that fulfills information needs

Development, documentation, and communication of C4&IT plans

Improvement of business processes through business process re-engineering and the introduction of new technologies

Introduction to Baldrige Discussed Basic EA structure PRM, BRM FEA, DHS EA, CGEA New topic: Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence

Discussed

Basic EA structure

PRM, BRM

FEA, DHS EA, CGEA

New topic: Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence

What is Baldrige? An integrated approach to organizational performance management that results in delivery of ever-improving value, contributing to organizational sustainability improving overall organizational effectiveness and capabilities organizational and personal learning

An integrated approach to organizational performance management that results in

delivery of ever-improving value, contributing to organizational sustainability

improving overall organizational effectiveness and capabilities

organizational and personal learning

BALDRIGE Baldrige: Performance Excellence Framework (Seven Categories) Leadership – how an organization’s senior leaders guide and sustain the organization Strategic Planning – how an organization determines its strategic objectives and action plans (also, how progress is measured) Customer and Market Focus – how an organization determines the requirements, needs, expectations, and preferences of customers and markets Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management – how an organization selects, gathers, analyzes, manages, and improves its data, information, and knowledge assets, and how it manages its information technology

Leadership – how an organization’s senior leaders guide and sustain the organization

Strategic Planning – how an organization determines its strategic objectives and action plans (also, how progress is measured)

Customer and Market Focus – how an organization determines the requirements, needs, expectations, and preferences of customers and markets

Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management – how an organization selects, gathers, analyzes, manages, and improves its data, information, and knowledge assets, and how it manages its information technology

BALDRIGE (cont.) 5. Workforce Focus – how an organization engages, manages, and develops its workforce to utilize its full potential in alignment with the organization’s overall mission, strategy, and action plans 6. Process Management – how an organization determines its core competencies and work systems and how it designs, manages, and improves its key processes for implementing work systems to deliver customer value and achieve organizational success and sustainability 7. Results – examines performance and improvement in all areas Baldrige: Performance Excellence Framework (cont.)

Baldrige: Systems View 1 Leadership 2 Strategic Planning 3 Customer and Market Focus 5 Workforce Focus 6 Process Management Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 4 Results 7 Organizational Profile: Environment, Relationships, and Challenges Leadership Triad Results Triad

Relating Baldrige and PRM Results Triad 4 Strategic Outcomes Human Capital Other Fixed Assets Customer Results Processes and Activities Results 7 5 Workforce Focus 6 Process Management Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management Technology Mission and Business Results Leadership Leadership Triad Leadership 1 2 Strategic Planning Customer and Market Focus 3

In Conclusion… Businesses use EA to improve their overall organization and effectiveness help manage their technological assets help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals BRM and PRM FEA, DHS EA, CGEA Baldrige

Businesses use EA to

improve their overall organization and effectiveness

help manage their technological assets

help them use their technological assets to meet organizational objectives and goals

BRM and PRM

FEA, DHS EA, CGEA

Baldrige

Without EA Inability to map technology to CG mission Fragmented and redundant systems/data Unnecessary movement of data Missing integrative views Excessive number of technologies deployed Poor data quality Less effective/efficient security Lose $$! (DOL Case Study)

Inability to map technology to CG mission

Fragmented and redundant systems/data

Unnecessary movement of data

Missing integrative views

Excessive number of technologies deployed

Poor data quality

Less effective/efficient security

Lose $$! (DOL Case Study)

Benefits of EA Alignment with the “business” (i.e., ELA/UPLM) Better understanding of the current “state of affairs” Reduce redundancy & fragmentation Eliminate unnecessary movement of data Develop integrative views Reduce number of technologies deployed Improve data quality Improve security Justify budget

Alignment with the “business” (i.e., ELA/UPLM)

Better understanding of the current “state of affairs”

Reduce redundancy & fragmentation

Eliminate unnecessary movement of data

Develop integrative views

Reduce number of technologies deployed

Improve data quality

Improve security

Justify budget

Getting CGEA CG-6B Strategic Plan Goal 1 The EA facilitates change and strategic direction for the Coast Guard. Goal 2 The EA facilitates integration, interoperability, data management, and business logic for the Coast Guard. Goal 3 The EA ensures convergence of components, technical platforms, performance, and systems security. Goal 4 The EA facilitates attainment of Coast Guard strategic goals and business targets.

CG-6B Strategic Plan

Goal 1

The EA facilitates change and strategic direction for the Coast Guard.

Goal 2

The EA facilitates integration, interoperability, data management, and business logic for the Coast Guard.

Goal 3

The EA ensures convergence of components, technical platforms, performance, and systems security.

Goal 4

The EA facilitates attainment of Coast Guard strategic goals and business targets.

Tomorrow’s EA: Urban Planned

Urban Planning & Measurement Metrics: Defined Performance Dimensions and Key Performance Indicators Enterprise Strategy Defined: Aspirations, Plans, Stakeholders Enterprise Business Units Business Functions Business Process Management Performance Metrics Process Performance Metrics Strategic Metrics

Metrics: Defined Performance Dimensions and Key Performance Indicators

Enterprise Strategy Defined: Aspirations, Plans, Stakeholders

References CGEA Website http://cgea.uscg.mil/Pages/Default.aspx COMDTINST 5230.68 Instruction regarding EA Policy DHS information www.dhsonline.dhs.gov BRM/PRM information FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document Version 2.3 PMA information http://www.hhs.gov/pma/#s2 http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/index.html http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/egov7-03.html Baldrige information Baldrige National Quality Program’s Criteria for Performance Excellence (2008)

CGEA Website

http://cgea.uscg.mil/Pages/Default.aspx

COMDTINST 5230.68

Instruction regarding EA Policy

DHS information

www.dhsonline.dhs.gov

BRM/PRM information

FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document Version 2.3

PMA information

http://www.hhs.gov/pma/#s2

http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/index.html

http://www.whitehouse.gov/results/agenda/egov7-03.html

Baldrige information

Baldrige National Quality Program’s Criteria for Performance Excellence (2008)

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