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Information about enterobac05

Published on February 21, 2008

Author: Prudenza

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Faculty: Dr. Alvin Fox ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, VIBRIO, CAMPYLOBACTER AND HELICOBACTER Key Words:  Key Words Opportunistic diseases Shigella Diarrhea Bacillary dysentery Diarrhea Shiga toxin Urinary tract infections Salmonella enteritidis Lactose positive/negative Salmonellosis Enteropathogenic E. coli Salmonella cholerae-suis Enterotoxigenic E. coli Salmonella typhi Heat stable toxin Typhoid Heat labile toxin Vi Enteroinvasive E. coli Yersinia entercolitica Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Vibrio cholerae Vero toxin (Shiga-like) Choleragen (cholera toxin) Hemolysin Campylobacter jejuni pili Helicobacter pylori Slide3:  septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis urinary tract infections Citrobacter Enterobacter Escherichia Hafnia Morganella Providencia Serratia Opportunistic diseases -Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacteriaceae:  Enterobacteriaceae gastrointestinal diseases Escherichia coli Salmonella Shigella Yersinia entercolitica Slide5:  Histocompatibility antigen (HLA) B27 Enterobacteriaceae Salmonella Shigella Yersinia Not Enterobacteriaceae Campylobacter Chlamydia Reiter's syndrome Slide6:  community acquired otherwise healthy people Klebsiella pneumoniae respiratory diseases prominent capsule urinary tract infection fecal contamination E. coli Proteus urease (degrades urea) alkaline urine Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacteriaceae:  Enterobacteriaceae gram negative facultative anaerobic rods – oxidase negative (no cytochrome oxidase) Slide8:  E. coli lactose positive not usually identified lactose positive sp. common, healthy intestine Shigella, Salmonella,Yersinia lactose negative identified Feces Slide9:  other sites identified biochemically Enterobacteriaceae Serotypes:  Serotypes reference laboratory antigens O (lipopolysaccharide) H (flagellar) K (capsular) Diarrhea and Dysentery:  Diarrhea and Dysentery Escherichia coli:  Escherichia coli Slide13:  E. coli and Shigella genetically very similar many similarities in diseases Escherichia coli Slide14:  Enteropathogenic E. coli destruction of surface microvilli fever diarrhea vomiting nausea non-bloody stools Slide15:  Enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea like cholera milder travellers diarrhea Enterotoxigenic E. coli :  Enterotoxigenic E. coli Heat labile toxin like choleragen Adenyl cyclase activated cyclic AMP secretion water/ions Heat stable toxin Guanylate cyclase activated cyclic GMP uptake water/ions Slide17:  Dysentery - resembles shigellosis Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC ) Slide18:  Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Usually O157:H7 Flagella Meat:  Meat Hemorrhagic bloody, copious diarrhea few leukocytes afebrile hemolytic-uremic syndrome hemolytic anemia thrombocytopenia (low platelets) kidney failure Slide20:  Vero toxin “shiga-like” Hemolysins Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Treatment -gastrointestinal disease:  Treatment -gastrointestinal disease fluid replacement antibiotics not used usually unless systemic e.g. hemolytic-uremia syndrome E. coli fimbriae:  E. coli fimbriae mannose Type 1 galactose glycolipids glycoproteins P Shigella:  Shigella S. flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae bacillary dysentery shigellosis bloody feces intestinal pain pus Shigellosis:  Shigellosis within 2-3 days epithelial cell damage Shigella sonnei:  Shigella sonnei Shiga toxin:  Shiga toxin enterotoxic cytotoxic inhibits protein synthesis lysing 28S rRNA Shigellosis:  Shigellosis man only "reservoir" mostly young children fecal to oral contact children to adults transmitted by adult food handlers unwashed hands Treating shigellosis:  Treating shigellosis manage dehydration patients respond to antibiotics disease duration diminished Salmonella :  Salmonella Flagella Salmonella:  Salmonella 2000 antigenic "types” genetically single species S. enterica disease category S. enteritidis many serotypes S. cholerae-suis S. typhi Salmonellosis:  Salmonellosis S. enteritidis the common salmonella infection poultry, eggs no human reservoir Gastroenteritis nausea vomiting non-bloody stool self-limiting (2 - 5 days) Salmonellosis:  Salmonellosis uncomplicated cases (the vast majority) antibiotic therapy not useful S. cholerae-suis:  S. cholerae-suis much less common septicemia antibiotic therapy essential Typhoid:  Typhoid enteric fever severest salmonella disease Salmonella typhi rare in US epidemics third world Europe historical Salmonella typhi:  Salmonella typhi human reservoir carrier state common contaminated food water supply poor sanitary conditions Typhoid:  Typhoid acute phase, gastroenteritis gall bladder shedding, weeks septicemia - occurs 10-14 days lasts 7 days gastrointenteritis S. typhi:  S. typhi Vi (capsular) antigen protective Typhoid -Therapy:  Typhoid -Therapy Antibiotics essential Vaccines ineffective Yersiniosis:  Yersiniosis Yersinia entercolitica gastroenteritis Scandinavia common US colder regions Yersiniosis:  Yersiniosis transmission fecal contamination, domestic animals water milk meat Yersinia:  Yersinia Diarrhea fever abdominal pain antibiotic therapy recommended occassional bacteremia Yersinia -isolation:  Yersinia -isolation cold enrichment Slide43:  similar less severe disease Y. pseudotuberculosis Vibrio cholerae:  Vibrio cholerae Vibrios :  Vibrios Gram negative rods comma shaped facultative anaerobes oxidase positive simple nutritional requirements readily cultivated Occurrence -cholera :  Occurrence -cholera third world US uncommon traveler ingestion of sea-food Slide47:  food feces water fresh salt Transmission - V. cholerae Cholera - attachment:  Cholera - attachment Cholera toxin- Choleragen:  Cholera toxin- Choleragen B binds to gangliosides provides channel for A A catalyses ADP-ribosylation regulator complex activates adenylate cyclase Slide50:  massive secretion of ions/water into gut lumen dehydration and death therapy fluid replacement antibiotic therapy vaccination partially effective not generally used international travelers Cholera -therapy Slide51:  raw sea-food grows best in high salt not common in US diarrhea Vibrio parahemolyticus Slide52:  CAMPYLOBACTER & HELICOBACTER Gram negative rods curved or spiral genetically related Campylobacter :  Campylobacter Slide54:  C. jejuni infects the intestinal tract of animals cattle and sheep major cause of abortions Transmission:  Transmission milk meat products Campylobacter:  Campylobacter Isolation - Campylobacter:  Isolation - Campylobacter microaerophilic grows best 42oC Slide58:  diarrhea malaise fever abdominal pain usually self-limiting antibiotics occassionally bacteremia small minority Campylobacter - symptoms Helicobacter pylori:  stomach mucosa ulcers Helicobacter pylori Urease:  Urease Important in neutralizing stomach acid Slide61:  Culture - urease NH4+ CO2 mucosal endoscopy NH4 radioactive CO2 breath after feeding radioactive urea Diagnosis -Helicobacter Therapy -Helicobacter:  Therapy -Helicobacter Antibiotics cures ulcers Summary statement:  Summary statement sanitary measures protect the water supply food/water borne epidemics rare US common third world zoonotic infections contaminated animal products less well controlled common US and elsewhere Therapy:  Therapy severe diarrhea fluid replacement essential antibiotic therapy sometimes used in local infection but always in systemic disease

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