English102LectureOne

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Published on September 13, 2008

Author: twhitt

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English 102 : English 102 Lecture One: Intro to the Course & The Basics of Argument What English 102 will teach you: What English 102 will teach you you will study arguments in published texts and then develop your own analysis of issues you decide to research in two 8-10 page research papers you will learn and practice research strategies, and along the way you will improve your writing skills you will learn how to incorporate research and evidence into your papers, use argumentative strategies in writing and discussion, and develop your own writing style and tone The Structure of Argument: The Structure of Argument Arguments are built like houses: roof (thesis) at least three walls - reasons foundation (evidence) No matter the type of argument it is, an argument will have some form of these three elements. There are at least two different purposes for argument and several different modes. Am I Convincing or Persuading?: Am I Convincing or Persuading? Convincing – Argument to change someone’s mind More logic-based Deals with values or principles Changes perceptions, not actions Persuasion (convincing-plus) – Argument to change someone’s mind in order to change their actions Often more emotion-based, but often logical Changes what people do as well as what they think Four Modes of Argument: Four Modes of Argument Inductive Deductive Toulmin method Dialectic (Pro/Con) Inductive: Inductive Inductive reasoning: Specific Evidence General Conclusions Fact-based Relies on outside evidence Inductive: Inductive Example: Your research has turned up a large amount of immigrants studying in the US in medicine or computer programming, and you also find numbers that show a larger amount of immigrants in those fields. You may also find data showing that there are fewer US graduates in those fields. Your general conclusion from this specific data might be that immigrants are taking jobs away from equally qualified American students. Deductive: Deductive Deductive reasoning: General Principles Specific Conclusions Principles-based Uses assumptions (premises) that the audience is likely to share and builds assent IF: The US Constitution guarantees the separation of church and state;   And IF: Public schools are funded by and considered part of the US government;   THEN: Prayer should not be allowed in public schools. Deductive: Deductive Syllogism – the pattern for deductive reasoning First premise: a fact or a shared principle Second premise: a more specific fact or a more complex shared principle Conclusion: the arguable point we should be able to accept if we accept the first and second premises Deductive: Deductive Sample thesis: Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. Deductive: Deductive Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: We believe equal crimes should receive equal punishment.   Second Premise: Some murderers receive parole after a few years, whereas others are immediately sent to death row.   Conclusion: Capital punishment violates the principle of equal punishment. Deductive: Deductive Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: We believe all citizens are equal before the law.   Second Premise: Minorities and the poor are far more likely to receive the death penalty than white defendants or rich ones for the same crimes.   Conclusion: Capital punishment violates the principles of equality. Deductive: Deductive Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: Fairness demands that the judicial system can correct its mistakes.   Second Premise: Once someone is put to death, they cannot be brought back if they turn out to be innocent.   Conclusion: Capital punishment prevents judicial mistakes from being fairly corrected. The Toulmin Method: The Toulmin Method arguments should include the claim (analogous to the thesis); the grounds on which that claim is made (which can take in both reasons and evidence); and the warrant, which is the guarantee that the reasons given do support the claim given (this is analogous to any explanation you give in a paper that shows specifically how the evidence you've found supports the reasons you've given). In other words, inductive and deductive reasoning can be combined Instead of doing an argument that’s all inductive or all deductive, an argument can use one reason/evidence pair that’s inductive, one that’s deductive, and one that’s either of the two Dialectic (Pro/Con): Dialectic (Pro/Con) looks at the opposing views on a subject weighs their merits tries to find a more balanced view between the two positions, something less polarized than the two views are (compromise); or tries to find a thesis based on informed reasoning Diagnostic Essay: Diagnostic Essay view Lecture Two (Tony’s 12 Steps to Writing An Essay) read the article in the External Links section of Blackboard read the Diagnostic prompt in the Handouts folder of Course Documents write an argument responding to the prompt and submit it to Digital Drop Box (click SEND, not ADD) under Student Tools

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