English Technical Writing

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Information about English Technical Writing

Published on March 19, 2008

Author: Regina1

Source: authorstream.com

Slide2:  Ways to Improving Writing Skill Study writing principles and techniques. Watch for their appearance in the writing of others. Try them out in your own writing—over and over and over again. Imitate sentences and passages of good writing. Slide3:  Breast cancer strikes more than 212,000 American women each year and kills more than 40,000, making it the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer. MRI tends to produce false positives at about twice the rate of mammography, forcing more women to undergo repeated tests and sometimes biopsies and subjecting them to anxiety, distress and discomfort. But the panel concluded that the benefits outweigh the downside for those at high risk. The champion smiled, recalling the roar of the crowd. His mother waited, tapping her foot on the hardwood floor. Dicey looked out over the tall marsh grasses, blowing in the wind. The children stared down at the honeybees, careening from flower to flower. Slide4:  Congress gave final approval to a broad overhaul of federal student loan programs Friday, sharply cutting subsidies to lenders and increasing grants to needy students. The United States Air Force has decided to push development of a new type of fuel to power its bombers and fighters, mixing conventional jet fuel with fuels from nonpetroleum sources that could eventually limit military dependence on imported oil. The World Health Organization on Wednesday urged nations with rampant AIDS epidemics to begin offering free or subsidized circumcisions in hopes of preventing millions of new infections and deaths. The American Cancer Society’s guidelines stress that the MRI exams should be done in addition to annual mammograms and regular physical exams in the hope of driving down the death toll from the common, widely feared malignancy. Slide5:  Novartis said it will stop phase II development of NKS104, a treatment for elevated total cholesterol, after data showed the drug wasn't competitive enough to invest further resources. Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course:  Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course Traits of good technical writing Five steps to successful writing Structure and content for scientific papers/research reports, and proposals Elements of composition: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and punctuation Diction Phrases Clauses Sentences: structures and patterns Punctuation Variation of sentences: expansion, transformation, reduction, sentence combining, inversion, and ellipsis Keys to clear, concise, and grammatically correct sentences Transition words and phrases: conjunctive adverbs and conjunctions Paragraphs: topic sentence, elaboration, unity, and coherence Essays: thesis statement, unity, and coherence Common expressions in technical writing Critical analyses of published journal articles Demonstration of editing with drafts of students’ papers Unit 1:  Unit 1 Traits of Good Technical Writing Good Technical Writing Is ::  Good Technical Writing Is : Technically accurate Clear Concise Correct in spelling, punctuation, and grammar Compliant with the conventions of institutions or professional societies Well organized Useful Targeted Complete Consistent Ethical Unit 2:  Unit 2 Five Steps to Successful Writing Five Steps to Successful Writing:  Five Steps to Successful Writing Planning Establish your purpose or objective. Identify your readers. Define your scope. Select the appropriate medium. Research Find information and take notes. Gather all your own data. Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued):  Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Organization Group related information with headings and subheadings. Arrange information in a logical order (e.g., general to specific, specific to general, chronological, spatial, sequential, cause and effect, and comparison). Write an outline. Composing Articulate your thesis and support it with evidence. Achieve unity and coherence in structure. Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued):  Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) Revision Check for completeness and accuracy. Check for unity and coherence. Activate the writing. Clarify the writing. Check for sentence variety (i.e., structure and length). Check for appropriate word choice. Eliminate problems with grammar. Check for spelling and punctuation. Check for the adherence to format guidelines. Unit 3:  Unit 3 Structure and Content for Scientific Papers/Research Reports, and Proposals Elements of Technical Paper or Reports:  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports Title – What is the paper about? Need to reflect an overview of the paper’s content and emphasis. Be brief, honest, and communicative. Avoid phrase such as “on the”, “a study of”, “research on”, “regarding”, and “use of”. Avoid nonquantitative, meaningless word such as “rapid” and “new”. Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech.:  CAPITALIZED PARTS OF SPEECH Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs NOT CAPITALIZED PARTS OF SPEECH Articles Prepositions Coordinating conjunctions To in infinitives Subordinating conjunctions Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Abstract – What is the basic content? – Summarize its objectives, the work performed, and the major conclusions reached in an informative, concise, one-paragraph statement. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Introduction – What is the problem and why should anyone care? An Opening Attention-Grabber Point out the problem or issue. Offer your reasons for studying it. Background Information Give a concise and appropriate review of the preexisting literature of the problem. Describe how your work differs or is related to work previously published. A Preview of the Whole State your purpose or thesis and give a blueprint of the contents to be presented. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Materials and Methods – How was the evidence obtained? Identify the materials used and give information on the degree of and criteria for purity. Describe apparatus only if it is not standard or not commercially available. Describe the procedures used unless they are established and standard. Note any safety precautions. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Results – What was found or seen? Summarize the data collected and their statistical treatment. Include only relevant data, but give sufficient detail to justify your conclusions. Use equations, figures, and tables only where necessary for clarity and brevity. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Discussion and Conclusion – What do these findings mean? Relate your results to current knowledge in the field and to your original purpose in undertaking the project. State the logical implications of your results. Suggest further study or implications if warranted. Be objective while pointing out the features and limitations of your work. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Be tactful about disagreements when discussing other people’s results and hypotheses that are relevant to yours. If possible, offer approaches to resolve the conflicts. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Acknowledgements – Who help, support or sponsor this work? Thank those persons, other than coauthors, who added substantially to the work, provided advice or technical assistance, or aided materially by providing equipment or supplies. State grant numbers and sponsors, as well as auspices under which the work was done, including permission to publish. Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued):  Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) References – Who did what? Check original references for accuracy and appropriate content. Follow the journal’s guideline or company’s policy on the style of references. Proposal:  Proposal Summary of Proposal Briefly state the purpose of the proposal. Need Define the problem or need. State why addressing it is important. Proposed Solution Present a detailed solution. Explain its benefits. Restate the problem or need and the benefits of the solution. Unit 4:  Unit 4 Elements of Composition: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences, Paragraphs, and Punctuation Slide26:  Parts of speech It describes the class of words to which a particular word belongs, according to its function in a sentence. The eight parts of speech in the English language are: Nouns (common and proper; concrete and abstract; singular and collective;count and noncount) Pronouns (personal, demonstrative, relative, interrogative, indefinite, and reflexive) 1. Words Slide27:  Adjectives & Articles (a, an and the) Verbs, Auxiliaries (be, have, do and modals) and Verbals (gerund, infinitive, and participle) Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions (coordinating, correlative, subordinating, and conjunctive adverb) Interjections Slide28:  PART OF SPEECH FUNCTION noun, pronoun name/referring verb asserting/acting adjective, adverb describing/modifying preposition, conjunction linking/joining interjection exclaiming Slide29:  The function of a word in a sentence always determines its part of speech in that sentence. Examples: The government sent the city aid. Governments aid citizens. It is company policy. He went home. Slide30:  2. Phrases A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. Classification Gerund Phrases, Participial Phrases, Infinitive Phrases, Prepositional Phrases, Appositive phrases, and Absolute phrases Slide31:  3. Punctuation Period, Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Question Mark, Quotation Marks, Apostrophe, Parentheses, Brackets, Slash, Hyphen, Ellipsis points, and Exclamation Mark 4. Clauses A clause is word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. There are two basic kinds of clauses: Independent (main) Clauses and Dependent (subordinate) Clauses. Slide32:  5. Sentences A sentence is word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought. Subject + Predicate STRUCTURE: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex PURPOSE: Declarative, Interrogative, Exclamatory, and Imperative Slide33:  6. Paragraphs Topic Sentence (Main Point), Adequate Elaboration Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence Slide34:  7. Composition Thesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence Pursuasive Essay:  Pursuasive Essay Clearly state the issue and your position on it in the introduction Use language appropriate to the audience you’re trying to convince. Support your position with facts, statistics, and reasons. Answer possible objections to your position. Provide clear reasoning Conclude with a summary of your position or a call to action, Supplements to Unit 4:  Supplements to Unit 4 Slide37:  NOUNS A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Common Nouns Proper nouns Event Academy Awards, French Revolution Holiday Fourth of July, Mardi Gras City Houston, New York City Language Spanish, Chinese Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Tree, car, pencil peace, courage, honor, citizenship Slide38:  Singular Nouns Collective Nouns Person, dog, flower crowd, jury, family, flock, committee Count Nouns Noncount Nouns One chair furniture Many chairs a lot of furniture Suggestions advice Operas, songs Music Slide39:  Remember that some nouns may be used as count or as noncount nouns depending on their meanings. Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns, but they may be used as count nouns to express specific meanings. I have a paper due Monday. Let’s use paper to make the present. Dr. Chan will receive a special honor at the graduation. Slide40:  We need a glass (glasses) for the juice. She needs to find work. War is as old as mankind. Space is the last frontier for man to conquer. 8. It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good preparation for a career in business. Slide41:  PRONOUNS A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. The word or word group that a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the pronoun. Examples: Jay enjoys hiking and camping; in fact they are his favorite pastimes. The students complained to the principal about the dress code. They wished he had consulted with them about it. Slide42:  Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person), or the one(s) spoken about (third person). Slide43:  Examples: If I give you my address, will you write to me? We told them that they could go with us. Slide44:  Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and functions as a complement for emphasis, as an object to rename the subject, or as an object of a preposition. Slide45:  Examples: I myself faxed the report to him. I wrote this script myself. Mary excused herself from the table. He hit himself with the hammer. Robert bought himself a pair of shoes. They baked the pie for themselves. Anna lives by herself. Slide46:  Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out somebody or something already mentioned or identified or something understood by both the speaker and hearer. Examples: Is this the one you want? That may be the only reasonable solution. These or those are the pictures from our vacation. Slide47:  The new program comes as social-networking sites grabble with how to build on their success among young users and convert this into profit. Slide48:  Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. Examples: Everyone knows many examples of energy and its use, but what does the term energy really mean? To whom should I direct your call? Whose is this red sweater? The department manager decided who should be hired. Slide49:  Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause. Examples: I thanked the woman who helped me. The college that I chose is in Ohio. The birds, which usually have flown south by this time of the year, were still congregating in our backyard. Slide50:  Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. In other words, the pronoun may not have a specific antecedent. Slide51:  Examples: All of the members have voted. Does everyone favor a weekly meeting? Slide52:  The fallen tree provided homes for several of the creatures of the woods. One should always be polite. The cervical cancer vaccine is a phenomenal breakthrough, one that has the potential of eliminating this disease almost completely. Slide53:  ADJECTIVES & ARTICLES An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or pronoun. Examples: The tired and hungry hikers straggled into camp. The hikers, tired and hungry, straggled into camp. What time will you be back? I much prefer this painting to that one. This confusion is costly. Slide54:  A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound. Examples: A manual has been written on that subject. He seems an unlikely candidate for the job. The interviewer arrived an hour early. Slide55:  The is called the definite article because it refers to a specific person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: The package was delivered yesterday. Please open the door. Slide56:  VERBS A verb is a word that expresses an action, a condition, or a state of being. There are two main types of verbs: action verbs and linking verbs. An action verb expresses action. The action may be physical or mental. Examples: The band marches onto the field. (physical) The audience expects a great performance. (mental) Slide57:  An action verb that has an object-a word or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb is called transitive verb. Examples: They posted a card on her door. The rain lashed the windows. This kid’s behavior in school worried his parents. Slide58:  An action verb does not have an object is called intransitive verb. Examples: The rain fell. My cousin arrived yesterday. He travels around the country with the other musicians. Slide59:  A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Such a word or word group is called a subject complement. Common linking verbs: Forms of Be Verb am, are, is, was, were Verbs That Express Condition feel, look, smell, sound, taste appear, seem, remain, stay, become (and get, turn, grow when they mean “become”) Slide60:  Examples: John is a student. John is intelligent. This food tastes delicious. The children feel happy. The weather became cold. Note: The forms of be are not always used as linking verbs. That is, they are sometimes used as state-of-being verbs. In such cases, words that tell where or when are generally used to complete the meaning of the verb forms. Slide61:  Examples: He is upstairs. You should have been here yesterday. Note: While action verbs may be transitive or intransitive, linking verbs and state-of-being verbs are always intransitive. Slide62:  A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A verb phrase may be used to express a particular tense of a verb (that is, the time referred to) or to indicate that an action is directed as the subject. Examples: Sally is a nice person and you can speak freely with her. The stadium is filled to the capacity. Slide64:  Verbals A verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjec- tive, or an adverb. The three kinds of verbals are the par- ticiple, the gerund, and the infinitive. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjec- tive. Three kinds of participles are the present participle, the past participle and the present perfect participle. Pre- sent participles end in –ing. Most participles end in –d or –ed. Others are irregularly formed. Present perfect forms are formed by adding having or having been to the past participles of verbs and indicate complete actions. Slide65:  Examples: The freezing rain made the road slick. This medicine represents a significant improvement compared with existing therapies. Bowing, the performers acknowledged the applause. Did I hear someone knocking the door? First prize was an engraved trophy. The lab tested samples of water taken from wells in the area. Slide66:  Rested and relaxed, we returned to work. Having completed his chores, Andy decided to join his friends playing football in the park. Having been declared the winner, she called a press conference to thank her supporters. Slide67:  Examples: The lecturer was boring. The audience was bored. A developing country A developed country Trained nurses Experienced cardiologists Exaggerated fears One unshared pair of electrons A teacher-dominated classroom culture Note: A present participle should describe a person or thing causing or stimulating an experience; a past participle should describe a person or thing undergoing an experience. Also a present participle is used to indicate an on-going or active action whereas a past participle a completed or passive one. Slide68:  A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Examples: Smoking is indisputably a danger to one’s health. Please stop whispering. In answering, give specific examples. During 2006, incomes from wages and salaries rose 4.2% after adjusting for inflation, the strongest year since 2000. Slide69:  His favorite hobby these days is playing video games. Delivering long- and short-term results at the same time is what good managers do for a living. Among other things, figuring out where this one came from will help us prevent future problems. World powers hoped that approving the resolution quickly and unanimously would signal that Iran will face stricter sanctions each time it ignores a Security Council deadline to suspend uranium enrichment, a process that can be used to produce nuclear energy or nuclear weapons. Slide70:  Note: Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund. The issue is his whining. Wang's pitching won the game. His wife resented his going out and having business lunches. What did the teacher say about your missing the test yesterday? Slide71:  An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to. In addition to the present form, infi- nitives have a present perfect form. This form adds to have or to have been to the past participle of a verb and indicates a completed action. Examples: To error is human. No one wants to stay. Slide72:  The survivors had little to celebrate. Is everybody ready to go? The rain seems to have stopped. Kelly was happy to have been chosen. Slide73:  Sometimes, infinitives omit the word to. Examples: All you have to do is [to] write your book this year. Who dares [to] challenge a champion? Help me [to] wash the car. Let’s [to] wait here. The clowns made us [to] laugh. We saw him [to] leave. Slide74:  Note: With verbs of perception such as see, hear, feel, smell, notice, observe and watch, we can use a present participle or an infinitive without “to” as its objective complement in a sentence. Examples: I saw him running (or run) down the stairs. He could feel his bed shaking (or shake) during the earthquake last night. Slide75:  ADVERBS An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a clause. Examples: Teresa spoke eloquently. Have you heard this melody before? The brochure design used extremely bright colors. When Dell first started making PCs, it entered an industry with lots of built-in fat, namely reseller commissions and retailer markups. Slide76:  The redesigned brake pad lasted much longer. Surprisingly, the machine failed. Frankly, I could do without it. Sadly, he died before I managed to reach him again. Fortunately, I had enough money left to pay my fare home. Hopefully, it will be over by Christmas. Slide77:  PREPOSITIONS A preposition shows the relation of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word. Examples: I found this information on the internet. The manager sat behind the desk in her office. As of today, she hasn’t made her final choice. You can log on to this web site to access the following information. Slide78:  Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note down to 4.41 percent, the lowest interest rate on that closely-watched bond since December. Slide79:  CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction is a word that joins or connects words, phrases, or sentences. Slide80:  Examples: The old man is extremely kind and generous. He will leave at eight and arrive at nine. It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind. It was raining hard. And there was a strong wind. Slide81:  There have been a series of studies over the past 20 years which show that people in their 70s, 80s and 90s are functioning at a substantially higher level than they were only 20 years ago, and there is a much lower percentage of disability in older people than there was 20 years ago. And of course, life expectancy has gone up dramatically, as you're well aware, for the last 80 years. Mr. Bush needs to make clear to the Iraqi leader that continued American support will depend on his active cooperation. And that, ultimately, the Iraqis have even more to lose than the Americans from an unending civil war. Slide82:  This disease is incurable but treatable. We missed the opening scene, but we enjoyed the rest of the play. The U.S. expansion has shown it can tolerate $50 oil with hardly a hesitation. But how will it handle $60 oil when the Federal Reserve has more than tripled short-term interest rates over the past year, signs of corporate jitters have resurfaced, and the dollar has rallied, making exports once again more expensive on global markets? Slide83:  A major change in the national diet is under way: Heart-damaging trans fat is rapidly disappearing from grocery aisles and restaurant food, too. But are its replacements really healthier? He was tired, so he went to bed. The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he was afraid of the dog. She did not study, yet she passed the exam. Americans live longer than ever, yet more of us are told we are sick. Slide84:  Examples: Neither my sister nor my parents are here. Both the students and the teacher are planning to come. I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether it is cold or not. Slide85:  A growing body of research suggests that diversity in the workplace not only helps companies stay in tune with their customers, but also adds to the diversity of ideas and attitudes. In writing, we can error not only by using the wrong words but also by misusing the right words. I would rather try something great and fail than try nothing great and succeed. Slide86:  A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinating clause and connects it to an independent clause. Slide87:  Examples: Please turn down the stereo so that I can concentrate on my homework. Before you write your paper, you must submit an outline. Robert enjoyed the movie as much as Sarah did. Because I have two cousins living in San Francisco, I always have a place to stay when I visit the West Coast. Where there is a will, there is a way. Slide88:  A conjunctive adverb has the force of conjunction because it joins two independent clauses. The most common conjunctive adverbs are however, moreover, therefore, further, then, consequently, besides, accordingly, also, and thus. Example: The engine performed well in the laboratory; however, it failed under road conditions. Slide89:  INTERJECTIONS An interjection expresses emotion and has no gram- matical relation to the rest of the sentence. Examples: Hey! I think I know the answer. Wow! Profits more than doubled last quarter! Well, we need to rethink the proposal. Unit 5:  Unit 5 Diction (Proper Words in Proper Places) Slide91:  5a Know the meanings of words ab·sent adjective  Definition:  1. not present: not attending a place or event, especially when expected to He was absent from school yesterday. 2. inattentive: not paying attention His face took on an absent expression. preposition  Definition:  without: in the absence of Absent a cure, or more effective drugs, Alzheimer’s disease is a march to oblivion. Slide92:  Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other mammals. So how does it combine to form people in some cases and dogs or chimps in others? It's one of the big mysteries of biology. Slide93:  5b Choose precise words His remark left the audience in a confused state. His remark bewildered the audience. He went quickly down the street. He scurried down the street. China's top electronics makers on Wednesday unveiled dozens of video players made with a homegrown DVD format in a campaign to promote a Chinese alternative to foreign technology. Note: Unveil transitive verb expose something secret: to reveal something that has been hidden or kept secret Slide94:  Imply means “to suggest or state indirectly”; infer means to “to draw a conclusion.” John implied that he knew all about computers, but the interviewer inferred that John was inexperienced. Global sea-level rise is probably not going to happen as fast as Gore implies in his movie. Slide95:  5c Watch out the connotations of certain words One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of cheap raw material. One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of inexpensive raw material. Talk is cheap unless you can deliver. The words in each of the following groups have the same denotation, but different connotations. smile, beam, smirk thin, slender, scrawny laugh, chuckle, guffaw look, peek, gawk Slide96:  5d Use vivid words The politicians spent hours talking about what was the proper choice of action. The politicians debated for hours what was the proper choice of action. 5e Express idiomatic expressions correctly Only experts can distinguish a master piece from a fake. Many credit Thomas Edison with having invented the light bulb. The author does a good job of tying motivational theory to obtainable results. Slide97:  The debate centers on the still-in-development process of extracting material from days-old human embryos that can morph into any tissue in the body. Unit 6:  Unit 6 Phrases Slide99:  Phrases A phrase is a group of related words, generally having neither subject nor predicate and used as though it were a single word. It cannot make a statement and is therefore not a clause. Slide100:  Knowledge of the phrase and how it is used will suggest to you ways of diversifying and enlivening your sentences. Variety in using sentences will remedy the monotonous "subject first" habit. The use of the participial phrase, for instance, will add life and movement to your style because the participle is an action word, having the strength of its verbal nature in addition to its function as a modifier. Slide101:  We classify phrases as gerund, participial, infinitive, prepositional, appositive, and absolute. The following sentences will show how the same idea may be expressed differently by the use of different kinds of phrases: Sue swam daily. She hoped to improve her backstroke. By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke. Slide102:  3. Swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke. 4. Sue's only hope of improving her backstroke was to swim daily. 5. With a daily swim, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke. 6. Sue knew of one way to improve her backstroke: swimming daily. 7. Sue swam daily, hoping to improve her backstroke. Slide103:  6a Gerund phrase A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any complement or modifiers it may have. The function of the gerund phrase is always that of a noun: 1. Being late for breakfast is Joe’s worst fault. 2. Substituting vo = C into v = at + C gives us v = at + vo. 3. She finally succeeded in opening the camera. 4. Bill hated driving his golf balls into the lake. 5. His hobby, making furniture, is enjoyable and useful. Slide104:  6b Participial phrase A participial phrase consists of a participle and any complement or modifiers it may have. It functions as an adjective or an adverb: Believed to have originated in Africa, AIDS has become an epidemic, infecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Given a list of potential school improvements and asked which one they would most like their children’s school to make, 24 percent of parents selected smaller class size. Having gotten a large bonus, the smiling, contented sales representative worked harder than ever. Slide105:  The Department of Education recently awarded 18 federal grants totaling more than $38 million to provide financial incentives to educators. In efforts directed toward the synthesis of this new cancer drug, we put eight researchers work on this project. Note that electronegativity generally increases going from left to right across a period and decreases going down a group for the representative elements. The first step is to calculate theΔH for the reaction using the Hess law. Slide106:  The woman improved her health running five miles a day. The oxidation potential for the dimer was lower than that of the 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP) monomer, suggesting that the oxidation potential of the terminal phenolic group becomes lower as the polymerization progresses. Slide107:  6c Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any complement or modifiers it may have. Infinitives function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns: 1. In 1995, Steve Fossett became the first person to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon. 2. To be in Mr. Foster’s class was to learn the meaning of discipline. 3. China's goal is to foster a higher-wage economy built on science and innovation. Slide108:  4. Millie left early to avoid the heavy traffic. To express the very large and very small quantities we often run into in physics, we use scientific notation, which employs powers of 10. 6. We decided to go for a long walk. 7. Her fiancé seems to be very pleasant. Slide109:  6d Prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun or pronoun used as its object, together with any modifiers the noun or pronoun may have. The prepositional phrase functions usually as an adjective or an adverb: Slide110:  The plan of the house is very simple. The river runs through rich farmland. 3. Throughout the house there was an aroma of corned beef and cabbage. The conformations about the Re- Re bond, in addition, are different for all three complexes. We shouldn’t jump to a quick conclusion yet with our test results still ambiguous. Slide111:  6e Appositive phrase An appositive is a word or phrase that explains, identifies, or renames the word it follows. An appositive phrase may be a noun phrase (that is, a noun and its modifiers), a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or a prepositional phrase: Slide112:  Ascorbic acid, a valuable preservative, is ubiquitous in processed and other foods. Jean knew a way out of her difficulty: telling the truth. His greatest ambition, to make a million dollars, was doomed from the start. The rustler's hideout, in the old cave by the river, was discovered by the posse. The core feature of planthood is autotrophy, that is, the happy ability to make one’s own food. Slide113:  The United States remains the leading source of the carbon dioxide, the main emission linked to global warming. In 1995, Microsoft added a free Web browser to its operating system in an attempt to fend off new rivals, an effort ultimately blocked by the courts. Slide114:  An appositive may be essential or nonessential; it is essential if it positively identifies that which it renames, frequently by use of a proper noun. Examples of both essential and nonessential appositives occur in the Sentences below: In late 1990s, a Nobel laureate Professor Y. T. Lee played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s political and educational arenas. In late 1990s, Professor Y. T. Lee, a Nobel laureate, played an active and significant role in Taiwan’s political and educational arenas. Slide115:  Note: A modifying phrase must modify a word or phrase appearing in the sentence and be next to what it modifies. Slide116:  6f Absolute phrase An Absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually a noun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with any objects or modifiers of the participle. It allows you to add specific, concrete detail to a general statement with greater economy than most alternative constructions. Extremely flexible besides, it can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence, or often in the middle. Slide117:  When the participle of an absolute phase is a form of the verb be, the verb is frequently omitted entirely, so that the absolute consists simply of a noun followed by adjectives. 1. Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, we trod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon. 2. If f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1 for all n, n being a real number. 3. The theater being nearby, I decided to walk. 4. Their dinner finished, the two industrialists were ready to talk business. Slide118:  5. The rain having stopped, we went to the beach. 6. He lay flat on the bed, his chin on his folded arms Our opponent has chosen to ignore scientific principles, his theories a wish list of insupportable propositions. 8. Our atmosphere is currently about 20 percent oxygen, all of it the bounty of the planet’s green-skinned autotrophs. 9. His research complete, he began to write his report. 10. I shall do as I please, all things considered. 11. The driver of the wrecked car, one leg trapped beneath the dashboard, body pinned firmly against the steering wheel, waited patiently for the rescue squad. 12. About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their pincers full of meat. Slide119:  13. Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon, running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their breath whistling. 14. The little boy stood crying besides the road, his bicycle broken, his knees bruised, and his confidence badly shaken. 15. The pianist played beautifully, her technique flawless, her interpretation sure and sensitive. Slide120:  Note: The following sentences are elliptical because of the omission of the subject “we” understood in the context. They are not dangling. 1. The conclusions were premature, considering the lack of available data. 2. Judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive photolysis of compound 4 had occurred. 3. Assuming that each gas behaves ideally, the partial pressure of each gas can be calculated from the ideal gas law: P1=n1RT/V, P2=n2RT/V, P3=n3RT/V, … 4. Taking this value as an upper limit, the two shortest distances are sometimes too long for incipient hydrogen bonds. Slide121:  5. Building an new fab for more capacity would seem not only superfluous, but also incredibly risky, given the high cost involved, the fears of an industrywide chip glut, and the increasingly fierce competition in the microprocessor market. 6. Stocks may be at record highs, but the value of the profits from the rally are worth less given the sharp drop in the dollar against foreign currencies. 7. Given that half of the 65-year-olds alive today will likely live beyond age 83, outliving one's assets is an all-too-likely possibility for some retirees. Slide122:  What’s the problem with this sentence? Using a pipette, 25 mL of 0.05 N aqueous HCl solution was slowly added to the stirred mixture. Supplements to Unit 6 :  Supplements to Unit 6 Slide124:  Scheduled to give a keynote speech early the next morning, she didn’t want to sit in the emergency room all night. Long used as a substitute for saturated fats in baked goods, fried foods, salad dressings, margarine and other foods, trans fats also have a longer shelf life than other alternatives. The war being over at last, the task of arranging the peace terms began. New York has never been a cheap place to stay, but today's high prices are remarkable, considering where the city has been. A strike lasting close to a month or more would cause GM to burn up $8.1 billion in the first month and $7.2 billion in the second month, assuming the company can't produce vehicles in Mexico or Canada, according to Lehman Brothers analyst Brian Johnson. Slide125:  Plants essentially eat the sun, transforming solar energy into sugars and starch through the stepwise enzymatic stitchery of photosynthesis. The federal government has financed research and development of energy technology and alternative fuels for decades, often focusing on basic science, and has a mixed record of incubating winners, including some widely used technologies. Stocks like Microsoft and Dell look like buys, given their earnings growth and their past P/Es. Given the risks involved in such personal revelations, including job discrimination and health insurance woes, no one knows how many people will take that route. The big deterioration this month was unexpected, given that other readings on consumer confidence have been showing strength. Unit 7 :  Unit 7 Clauses Slide127:  7a Noun clauses NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD Slide128:  For anyone who has cancer, there is one moment that you can never forget. It's when the doctor tells you, "It's cancer." Now, the exact words may vary, but the impact is the same. Your heart begins to pound; your brain screams out in disbelief. Your hearing stops, too, but usually only after you hear the words that so often come next: "There's no cure." Slide129:  NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF Slide130:  NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THAT Slide131:  Other experts challenge the idea that a warmer world means more and stronger storms. Today, because of the growing consensus that the nation must wean itself from imported oil and sharply curb climate-altering carbon emissions, new energy options are in vogue. Retail sales in the U.S. rose less than forecast in August, adding to concerns a softening labor market and a deeper housing slump will curtail demand. Note: The “that” may be omitted when the “that clause” is the object of a verb or functions as an appositive. Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects:  Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects Delete the preposition when be + adjectives + preposition phrases are used with that-noun clauses. The adjectives (e.g., afraid, certain, delighted, glad, interested, pleased, positive, satisfied, and surprised) here express personal feelings or states of the mind. I am convinced that my sister would attend this party. I am afraid that he won’t make it. We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in the reaction. President Bush said he was confident the nation would stand with him despite "gut-wrenching" televised images of fallen Americans. Educators were still not aware that there are better ways to teach science. Oil traders are nervous that any escalation in violence in the Middle East may disrupt oil supplies from the region, which holds two-thirds of global reserves. We are concerned that a lot of our retirees will end up losing their health benefits. Scientists are actually pretty grateful by and large that Gore has succeeded in bringing the issue of global warming to the public's attention. Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued):  Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued) When the that-clause refers to a statement of fact, the words the fact are inserted between the preposition and the clause. The fire was due to the fact that someone had dropped a lighted cigarette. Note: except that: with the exception of the fact that, or if it were not for the fact that The pyridine molecule is like benzene except that a nitrogen atom replaces one of the carbon atoms in the ring. The twins looked identical, except that one had dyed his hair. I would come, except that I have another engagement. Slide134:  in that: introduces an explanation of a statement She's unusual for a commuter in that she's never late for work. Surfuric acid is unique among the common acids in that it is a strong acid in its first dissociation step and a weak acid in its second step. Slide136:  USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES The teacher demands that we be on time. (b) I insisted that he pay me the money. (c) I recommended that she not go to the concert. (d) It is important that they be told the truth. (e) I suggested that she see a doctor. (f) I suggested that she should see a doctor. Slide137:  COMMON VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN A NOUN CLAUSE Slide138:  7b Adjective clauses RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT Slide139:  A function is a rule that assigns to each element in the domain one and only one element in the range. Slide140:  RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB Slide141:  RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION Slide142:  USING WHOSE I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. (b) The student whose composition I read writes well. (c) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable. Slide143:  USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Slide144:  USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Slide145:  The housewife-traders were so secretive that many market analysts did not realize how widespread the trend had become until this summer, when the police arrested a Tokyo housewife accused of failing to pay $1.1 million in taxes on her foreign exchange earnings. She called My Home Doctor a second time when her daughter had a respiratory infection. Slide146:  Note: THAT can be a conjunction used to introduce a clause expressing cause or result. I felt hurt that you should think such a thing. This result was shocking and totally smashed all the good reasons (that) we initially went into palm oil. The reason (that) we care about cancer is that it is a killer. One reason that students are filing more applications is the increasing use of the Common Application, a form that can be completed and filed via the Internet. The eroding economics of practicing basic medicine was a reason (that) fewer medical students were going into primary care, which pays much less than specialties. It made such a noise that we had to cover our ears. Slide147:  USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS There is someone (whom) I want you to meet. (b) Everything he said was pure nonsense. (c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome. (d) Paula was the only one I knew at the party. (e) Scholarships are available for those who need financial assistance. Slide148:  USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES In my class there are 20 students, most of whom are from Asia. (b) He gave several reasons, only a few of which were valid. (c) The teachers discussed Jim, one of whose problems was poor study habits. (d) Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the maker of the most prescribed diabetes pill, is developing three new drugs to target the world's fastest-growing disease, each of which carries sales potential of $1 billion a year. Slide149:  USING NOUN + OF WHICH We have an antique table, the top of which has jade inlay. Slide150:  Note: Generally an adjective clause must be placed right beside the word it describes. However, when the adjective clause is too long, a compromise will be made as long as the role of the modifier for the adjective clause is clear (see the following example). A new kind of medical practice is flourishing nationwide that offers to go to where the patients are — whether a home, an office or a hotel — to treat ailments as diverse as a sprained ankle or a bad case of bronchitis. Slide151:  USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE (a) Tom was late. (b) That surprised me. (c) Tom was late, which surprised me. (d) The elevator is out of order. (e) This is too bad. (f) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad. Slide152:  Their consensus was that chip sales will be flat to slightly up this year, which doesn't bode well for chipmakers or companies that make chip-manufacturing gear. Treasury prices rallied at the expense of stocks Friday - after news that the economy shed 4,000 jobs last month, which jolted economists who were expecting a gain of at least 110,000 positions. The Democrats want to actually pass some things that people actually care about, which would never happen if this dragged on. Slide153:  Intel also reiterated plans to build graphics capabilities into Nehalem processors, a sign that it is mounting a challenge to AMD chips scheduled to come out in early 2009. Orders to U.S. factories surged in March by the largest amount in a year, an encouraging sign that the recent slowdown in manufacturing may be ending. Dialysis is a dreary experience, one in which people with failed kidneys sit for hours hooked to machines that cleanse their blood, assisted by technicians who often have to work a second job to make ends meet. Slide154:  The embryonic stem cells have the ability to transform into a "dazzling array of specialized cells," the Web site says — the property that scientists and others say offers the potential for the development of treatment for diseases as varied as juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The Intel factory, slated to go online in 2010, will produce 12-inch wafers with circuitry 90 nanometers thick, which is a generation behind the current top of the line, chips with 65-nanometer circuits. Later this year U.S. plants will begin producing 45-nanometer chips, a factor which probably helped Intel win approval for the project from the U.S. government. Slide155:  The Fed's last rate increase occurred in June 2006 and since that time the central bank has left rates unchanged, a stance that is expected to remain intact when Fed officials meet next week. Scientists have identified a gene that makes roundworms live longer when they eat less, a finding they hope could lead to drugs that promote human longevity, but without the pain of strict dieting. Iran appears to be enriching uranium on a far larger scale than before, a finding that may affect effort by diplomats to stem Tehran’s program. Most have agreed that data is best understood by experts, a view that might not prove popular with patients. Slide156:  New York City produces almost 1 percent of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions -- an amount that puts it on par with Ireland or Portugal -- according to a city study. House and Senate negotiators reached an agreement Wednesday to boost aid to college students, a deal that calls for slashing roughly $20 billion in government subsidies to banks that issue student loans. The bill calls for research on alternative techniques to derive stem cells without the use of human embryos, an approach that is certainly worth pursuing but is deemed less promising by most experts. Slide157:  A RELATIVE PRONOUN NEXT TO AN INTERRUPTER CLAUSE AND ONE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Thomas M. Siebel, founder of Siebel Systems, pledged $100 million this year to support basic research that he hopes will reduce dependency on carbon-based fuels. A major draw of Duke is that we have an athletic prowess which separates us from Harvard, Princeton, Yale, which I know are schools the administration tends to compare Duke to. Slide158:  The Environmental Protection Agency, which Knatz says should be doing more to help clean up America's ports, did not respond to our interview requests. New technology is allowing energy producers to capture speedier wind that environmental activists say has the potential to provide 20 percent of the state's electricity within 10 years. People are living longer, and the extra years of life, which I think have been one of the crowning achievements of the last century, have to be financed somehow. Slide159:  In his testimony on Friday, Mr. Nifong faulted himself for his inflammatory public statements last winter, which he said were intended to pressure witnesses to come forward when the police investigation stalled. "In retrospect we got it wrong partly because the truth was so implausible," he writes. The truth Tenet refers to, we now know, is that no unconventional weapons would be found in Iraq. Hydrogen peroxide, the chemical that the German police say two terrorism suspects planned to use to make bombs, is a simple molecule — two oxygen atoms and two hydrogen atoms — with myriad uses. Slide160:  Dr. Lipkin, whose focus is human disease, became involved because the quest for a cause for the beehive collapses employed new genetic sifting techniques that he said might also prove useful in investigating outbreaks of human diseases. Still, Mr. Broad dedicates his biggest gifts to areas that he thinks lack government support, like the $25 million he gave to the University of Southern California last year to found an institute for integrative biology and stem cell research, or the tens of millions he dedicated to complete the new Disney concert hall in Los Angeles. Slide161:  Yet Jaffe feels strongly that her patients need someone to hunt down lower-cost options, negotiate with insurers, and find other ways to help them to get the medical care she thinks they need. Slide162:  John didn't disclose who he thought should lead the ticket. I am pleased that after reviewing all the evidence the Executive Directors of the World Bank Group have accepted my assurance that I acted ethically and in good faith in what I believed were the best interests of the institution, including protecting the rights of a valued staff member. This new catalyst has changed the reaction pathway. That's what I think takes place now. Slide163:  More Examples Involving Noun/Adjective Clauses: What we're facing now is a crisis that is by far the most serious we've ever faced. He takes issue with what he describes as unfair accusations that his company’s profits are built on a product that causes harm to patients. The Food and Drug Administration is changing the rules on who can serve on its advisory committees. Some members who have advised the agency on drugs and medical devices have had financial dealings deemed to represent conflicts of interest. Slide164:  How we cope with crises in our lives is as individual as we are. Many of the hardest-hit regions are where the poor live — in Africa and in many other parts of the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations scientific group, will report in May on what kinds of things can be done to lessen the impacts of climate change. Federal regulators should relax restrictions on which patients are included in clinical trials of a widely used treatment for a common heart malfunction, a panel of experts told the Food and Drug Administration on Thursday. Slide165:  In those dark hours of the night, when we're left alone with our greatest fears, when the power of the disease seems strongest, it's important to remember that others are always with us, even if we don't even know them. These are the kinds of things that we expect to see more of as a result of global warming. A thermometer is an instrument that measures the temperature by expansion and contraction of mercury or alcohol in a capillary tube and bulb. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed itself. Slide166:  The standard enthalpy of formation ( ) of a compound is defined as the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25℃ from its elements with all substances in their standard states at that temperature. The rewards teachers receive for outstanding performance range from a few hundred dollars to $10,000 or more in a few districts. For the union, guarantees for future investment are pivotal to ensuring the sacrifices it makes today will pay off tomorrow. Slide167:  7c Adverb clauses When we were in New York, we saw several plays. (b) We saw several plays when we were in New York. (c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. (d) He went to bed because he was sleepy. (e) INCORRECT: When were in New York. We saw several plays. (f) INCORRECT: He went to bed. Because he was sleepy. Slide168:  USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT Slide169:  SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS Mary is rich, while John is poor. (b) John is poor, while Mary is rich. (c) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor. (d) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor. COMPARE (e) While I was studying, the phone rang. Slide170:  EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES (a) If it rains, the streets get wet. (b) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella. Slide171:  ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF WHETHER OR NOT I’m going to go to swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold.(OR: whether it is cold or not.) EVEN IF (b) I have decided to go to swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming. Slide172:  ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND IN THE EVENT THAT I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me. (b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house. Slide173:  ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS or EXCEPT WHEN I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold. (b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold. (c) He dislikes the game except when he wins. Slide174:  ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF The picnic will be canceled only if it rains. If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic. (b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. Slide175:  More examples for Adverb Clauses: Engineers are working on methods for capturing the carbon dioxide emitted when coal is burned. In the semiconductor industry, prices are always falling as chip companies scramble to cram more semiconductors into less space, allowing them to deliver more computing power per buck. I'm sure most people, whether they're 40 or 60 or 75, would say the same thing: They are not ready to die. Because multiplying any quantity by unity leaves the quantity unchanged, we can introduce conversion factors wherever we find them useful. Slide176:  If we have a contract that enables us to be competitive we will invest; if not we will disinvest in the U.S. and use our money where we think we can get a better return. Where there’s life, there’s hope. Unit 8:  Unit 8 Sentences: Structures and Patterns Subject + Predicate Slide178:  8a Simple Sentence–one independent clause. Five Basic Sentence Patterns S + Vi 1. The phone rang. 2. This method won’t work. 3. Many people swim daily. Slide179:  4. These two sisters don’t get along. 5. One loses by conceit and gains by modesty. 6. Useful solvents result when propylene oxide reacts with alcohols to form glycol ethers. 7. You can go broke by not spending money on insurance where you should. 8. The price of oil fell to its lowest level in two months on Wednesday as evidence builds that the high cost of gasoline and other fuels is sapping demand. Slide180:  9. Many lawmakers say their hope is growing that Congress will pass an immigration bill next year. 10. Evidence could surface of a previously unknown victim — a homeless person, per

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