Engineering Sustainability into the Design Process

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Information about Engineering Sustainability into the Design Process

Published on November 13, 2008

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Presentation to the Engineering College of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 2003 on incorporating sustainability principles into the product development process

Engineering Sustainability into Design David F. Taggart Cal Poly Materials Engineering 85’ November 1, 2003

outline state of industry what is “sustainability” sustainable design design perspectives systemic sustainability sustainable design tool y(our) future

state of industry

what is “sustainability”

sustainable design

design perspectives

systemic sustainability

sustainable design tool

y(our) future

state of industry Human productivity has reached new heights… of WASTE! Americans waste or cause to be wasted nearly 1 million pounds of materials per person per year including: 920 million square yards of carpet landfill 3.3 trillion pounds of carbon in CO2 gas 19 billion pounds of polystyrene peanuts 28 billion pounds of discarded food 360 billion pounds of organic and inorganic chemicals used in manufacturing 710 billion pounds of hazardous waste via chemical production 3.7 trillion pounds of construction debris In sum, over 50 trillion pounds of American resources are transformed into nonproductive solids and gases annually These numbers do not include wastewater nor waste in other countries producing products for import to the United States Developing nations are sure to follow our example

Human productivity has reached new heights… of WASTE!

Americans waste or cause to be wasted nearly 1 million pounds of materials per person per year including:

920 million square yards of carpet landfill

3.3 trillion pounds of carbon in CO2 gas

19 billion pounds of polystyrene peanuts

28 billion pounds of discarded food

360 billion pounds of organic and inorganic chemicals used in manufacturing

710 billion pounds of hazardous waste via chemical production

3.7 trillion pounds of construction debris

In sum, over 50 trillion pounds of American resources are transformed into nonproductive solids and gases annually

These numbers do not include wastewater nor waste in other countries producing products for import to the United States

Developing nations are sure to follow our example

state of society the top 10% of Americans enjoy 29% of the wealth, while the bottom 10% receive less than 2% 1 billion people worldwide (30% of total labor force) either cannot work or do not make a living wage In 1996, Fordham’s index of social health was 44% of its 1973 level $150 billion per year is spent on traffic accidents $250 billion in inefficient medical care overhead Hidden costs related to driving exceed $1 trillion annually $50 billion per year is spent guarding oil sea lanes $100 billion on health costs related to poor air quality $450 billion is spent on crime related costs In 2001, air pollution took more lives than murder, AIDS, and traffic accidents combined

the top 10% of Americans enjoy 29% of the wealth, while the bottom 10% receive less than 2%

1 billion people worldwide (30% of total labor force) either cannot work or do not make a living wage

In 1996, Fordham’s index of social health was 44% of its 1973 level

$150 billion per year is spent on traffic accidents

$250 billion in inefficient medical care overhead

Hidden costs related to driving exceed $1 trillion annually

$50 billion per year is spent guarding oil sea lanes

$100 billion on health costs related to poor air quality

$450 billion is spent on crime related costs

In 2001, air pollution took more lives than murder, AIDS, and traffic accidents combined

the cost of progress Industries have achieved incredible efficiency in terms of production cost However, the focus of industry’s top managers on productivity and the efficiency of labor and financial resources have missed something… We have created possibly the most inefficient system of production in human history… when the other costs are included! Environmental and societal costs must be factored into product design and production to arrive at sustainable solutions

Industries have achieved incredible efficiency in terms of production cost

However, the focus of industry’s top managers on productivity and the efficiency of labor and financial resources have missed something…

We have created possibly the most inefficient system of production in human history… when the other costs are included!

Environmental and societal costs must be factored into product design and production to arrive at sustainable solutions

what is sustainability?

what is sustainability Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs World Commission on Environment and Development

Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

what is sustainability The pursuit of long-term viability and progress of a business while taking responsibility for listing, calculating, and improving the environmental, social, and economic consequences of that enterprise

The pursuit of long-term viability and progress of a business while taking responsibility for listing, calculating, and improving the environmental, social, and economic consequences of that enterprise

efficiency… Efficient building design: Minimize air leakage w/ fixed windows Extensive use of fluorescent lighting Tinted windows to reduce solar input and thus cooling requirements Design saves money, energy, and reduces pollutants from the power plant Effective building design: Daytime light pours via large untinted windows Windows open to tailor temperature to personal desires Nighttime cool air flushes the building of heat, stale air, and toxins Grass covered roof reduces solar input, extends its life, catches runoff, and invites biodiversity Healthy affordable food is served in café open to a sun-drenched atrium Herman Miller example demonstrated: effective building was at least as “efficient” elements did cost more, system cost was less Dramatic improvements in productivity, product quality, air quality, employee retention and morale

Efficient building design:

Minimize air leakage w/ fixed windows

Extensive use of fluorescent lighting

Tinted windows to reduce solar input and thus cooling requirements

Design saves money, energy, and reduces pollutants from the power plant

Effective building design:

Daytime light pours via large untinted windows

Windows open to tailor temperature to personal desires

Nighttime cool air flushes the building of heat, stale air, and toxins

Grass covered roof reduces solar input, extends its life, catches runoff, and invites biodiversity

Healthy affordable food is served in café open to a sun-drenched atrium

Herman Miller example demonstrated:

effective building was at least as “efficient”

elements did cost more, system cost was less

Dramatic improvements in productivity, product quality, air quality, employee retention and morale

…or reuse/recycling Only 2% of today's solid waste is recycled Recycled materials and their embodied energy and value are typically put into less valuable, less performing materials Products are typically not designed from the start with recycling in mind Harmful compounds in these materials can simply be transferred to other products Can often require as much energy and waste as for the original product

Only 2% of today's solid waste is recycled

Recycled materials and their embodied energy and value are typically put into less valuable, less performing materials

Products are typically not designed from the start with recycling in mind

Harmful compounds in these materials can simply be transferred to other products

Can often require as much energy and waste as for the original product

…is not enough Improved efficiency, more reuse and recycling are all steps in the right direction, but simply put off the inevitable… Extracted mass, often ten times the amount required to make a product, returns to nature as fill, in forms harmful to people and the environment Products during service often give off mass in the form of toxic or damaging compounds and gases Energy required to transform the mass into products still ends up lost in the landfill Continued reliance on oil as primary energy source has resulted in reduced societal health and national security The impact of enormous waste on the environment and society contribute to a reduction in quality of life

Improved efficiency, more reuse and recycling are all steps in the right direction, but simply put off the inevitable…

Extracted mass, often ten times the amount required to make a product, returns to nature as fill, in forms harmful to people and the environment

Products during service often give off mass in the form of toxic or damaging compounds and gases

Energy required to transform the mass into products still ends up lost in the landfill

Continued reliance on oil as primary energy source has resulted in reduced societal health and national security

The impact of enormous waste on the environment and society contribute to a reduction in quality of life

sustainable design

product life cycle Resources (capital) Human Financial Infrastructure Natural This product contains hundreds of different materials including: toxic gases and metals acids chlorinated and brominated substances In service Personal Environmental Societal Design Customer wants Available technology Profit targets Production Logistics Manufacture Finish Scrap Distribution Transport Inventory Sales End of life Reuse Recycle Landfill Beginning of life… via sustainable design

Resources (capital)

Human

Financial

Infrastructure

Natural

This product contains hundreds of different materials including:

toxic gases and metals

acids

chlorinated and brominated substances

In service

Personal

Environmental

Societal

Design

Customer wants

Available technology

Profit targets

Production

Logistics

Manufacture

Finish

Scrap

Distribution

Transport

Inventory

Sales

End of life

Reuse

Recycle

Landfill

Beginning of life… via sustainable design

sustainable design starts with a clear understanding/shaping of product requirements What is effectively offered vs. what is wanted “ chlorine free” Does the product need to last decades? Worst case scenario-based design Is it a product or should it be a service Service enables recapture of value rather than landfill, as well as alternate solutions What are the appropriate metrics of success Profitability? # pounds of product per # pounds of waste? Identifying the “right” design and making it more efficient, reusable, recyclable etc.

a clear understanding/shaping of product requirements

What is effectively offered vs. what is wanted

“ chlorine free”

Does the product need to last decades?

Worst case scenario-based design

Is it a product or should it be a service

Service enables recapture of value rather than landfill, as well as alternate solutions

What are the appropriate metrics of success

Profitability?

# pounds of product per # pounds of waste?

Identifying the “right” design and making it more efficient, reusable, recyclable etc.

sustainable design Effective design must include: An awareness of the interdependence between the product and the environment including both short and long term consequences Intention regarding whether the product will be reused, recycled, or used as “food” for other processes Striving for the elimination of waste altogether Consideration of natural energy flows Studying natural processes for design inspiration Appreciation of local implications Increasing the value of products per unit of all the resources employed in its production

Effective design must include:

An awareness of the interdependence between the product and the environment including both short and long term consequences

Intention regarding whether the product will be reused, recycled, or used as “food” for other processes

Striving for the elimination of waste altogether

Consideration of natural energy flows

Studying natural processes for design inspiration

Appreciation of local implications

Increasing the value of products per unit of all the resources employed in its production

nature as design inspiration Kevlar: Input: petroleum derived molecules, sulfuric acid, high pressure, several hundred degrees Fahrenheit Output: bullet proof fiber, toxic byproducts Spider silk: Input: ambient temperature and pressure, insects Output: even tougher and stronger fiber opportunity for bioengineered product design

Kevlar:

Input: petroleum derived molecules, sulfuric acid, high pressure, several hundred degrees Fahrenheit

Output: bullet proof fiber, toxic byproducts

Spider silk:

Input: ambient temperature and pressure, insects

Output: even tougher and stronger fiber

opportunity for bioengineered product design

bio and techno metabolism There is no waste in nature, it’s a complete cycle Biosphere: the cycles of nature Plastic packaging (~50% of local waste) could degrade to release its compounds as fertilizers Technosphere: cycles of industry Plastic components could be disassembled to serve as high quality feedstocks for new products Heavy metals could be retrieved for high value materials Sustainable products must feed either or both processes Care must be taken to avoid cross-contamination

There is no waste in nature, it’s a complete cycle

Biosphere: the cycles of nature

Plastic packaging (~50% of local waste) could degrade to release its compounds as fertilizers

Technosphere: cycles of industry

Plastic components could be disassembled to serve as high quality feedstocks for new products

Heavy metals could be retrieved for high value materials

Sustainable products must feed either or both processes

Care must be taken to avoid cross-contamination

material considerations Source, extraction, local impact Embodied energy Toxicity Off-gassing Finish Maintenance Degradation Recyclability Its use and value to the overall system

Source, extraction, local impact

Embodied energy

Toxicity

Off-gassing

Finish

Maintenance

Degradation

Recyclability

Its use and value to the overall system

design perspectives

designing for renewable energy Powerlight effectively packaged solar power for commercial buildings Major obstacle to the use of solar power is cost and maintenance Powerlight packages solar cells on interconnecting foam tiles that eliminate the need for “attachment” increases downforce with increasing wind speed provide R20 insulation to roof reducing energy costs extend lifetime of roof reducing maintenance costs provides off-grid power when needed most

Powerlight effectively packaged solar power for commercial buildings

Major obstacle to the use of solar power is cost and maintenance

Powerlight packages solar cells on interconnecting foam tiles that eliminate the need for “attachment”

increases downforce with increasing wind speed

provide R20 insulation to roof reducing energy costs

extend lifetime of roof reducing maintenance costs

provides off-grid power when needed most

design for bio nutrients New upholstery fabric for Steelcase 8,000 chemicals were considered for production of the fabric which needed to be durable, attractive, compostible Elimination of materials containing mutagens, carcinogens, heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, persistent toxic substances resulted in only thirty eight chemicals being used in the entire line of fabrics End product line was less expensive to produce, resulted in factory effluent as clean as the water coming in, and fed the biosphere upon its end of life

New upholstery fabric for Steelcase

8,000 chemicals were considered for production of the fabric which needed to be durable, attractive, compostible

Elimination of materials containing mutagens, carcinogens, heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, persistent toxic substances resulted in only thirty eight chemicals being used in the entire line of fabrics

End product line was less expensive to produce, resulted in factory effluent as clean as the water coming in, and fed the biosphere upon its end of life

design for techno nutrients Xerox’s digital docucenter copier family Designed with a “zero to landfill” goal 95% of components are recyclable as technical nutrients 100% of system is remanufacturable Emits less noise, ozone, heat, and dirt than any comparable machine Can use 100% recycled paper without jamming Production is built to order and direct delivered removing additional waste from product life cycle

Xerox’s digital docucenter copier family

Designed with a “zero to landfill” goal

95% of components are recyclable as technical nutrients

100% of system is remanufacturable

Emits less noise, ozone, heat, and dirt than any comparable machine

Can use 100% recycled paper without jamming

Production is built to order and direct delivered removing additional waste from product life cycle

design for service Interface has produced over 5 billion pounds of carpet now residing in landfills where they will occupy space for ~ 20,000 years Rather than sell carpet that needs to be replaced every 10 years, they decided to lease a floor covering service They occasionally replace the 20% of “tiles” that represent 80% of the wear Solenium carpets can be taken apart and recycled back into identical, fresh, high value product Production is simpler, produces 99% less waste, and the floor covering is superior to conventional carpet in every respect

Interface has produced over 5 billion pounds of carpet now residing in landfills where they will occupy space for ~ 20,000 years

Rather than sell carpet that needs to be replaced every 10 years, they decided to lease a floor covering service

They occasionally replace the 20% of “tiles” that represent 80% of the wear

Solenium carpets can be taken apart and recycled back into identical, fresh, high value product

Production is simpler, produces 99% less waste, and the floor covering is superior to conventional carpet in every respect

design for… Repair Minimum consumables and maintenance Upgrading Remanufacturing Upcycling Extremely long life Balanced life expectancy Bio or techno nutrients (use your imagination)

Repair

Minimum consumables and maintenance

Upgrading

Remanufacturing

Upcycling

Extremely long life

Balanced life expectancy

Bio or techno nutrients

(use your imagination)

systemic sustainability

Hypercar SUV Crossover Does the same job as current Ford Explorer but with half the mass, increased safety, 4x efficiency, zero emissions Vehicle design lasts longer, uses less “consumables” and is upgradeable Eliminates paint operations All composite structure and plastic body uses consistent materials to enable effective reuse and recyclability as high grade technical nutrients Interior components designed as bio nutrients All vehicle components designed for digital dismantling

Does the same job as current Ford Explorer but with half the mass, increased safety, 4x efficiency, zero emissions

Vehicle design lasts longer, uses less “consumables” and is upgradeable

Eliminates paint operations

All composite structure and plastic body uses consistent materials to enable effective reuse and recyclability as high grade technical nutrients

Interior components designed as bio nutrients

All vehicle components designed for digital dismantling

flip the problem Conventional design: from fuel to wheels ~7 units of fuel are used to deliver 1 unit of energy to the wheels yielding compounding losses Since ~85% of the fuel energy is lost in the engine, en route to the wheels, and in accessories, focus on incremental reductions in those losses Hypercar design : from wheels back to fuel Radically cut the car’s mass and energy drag first Each unit of energy saved at the wheels saves ~7 units of fuel up front yielding compounding savings This makes several times improvements in efficiency do-able

Conventional design: from fuel to wheels

~7 units of fuel are used to deliver 1 unit of energy to the wheels yielding compounding losses

Since ~85% of the fuel energy is lost in the engine, en route to the wheels, and in accessories, focus on incremental reductions in those losses

Hypercar design : from wheels back to fuel

Radically cut the car’s mass and energy drag first

Each unit of energy saved at the wheels saves ~7 units of fuel up front yielding compounding savings

This makes several times improvements in efficiency do-able

Conventional design: save fuel as specific goal Trade off and compromise other design goals (size, performance, safety) Rely on government intervention (efficiency standards, gasoline taxes, subsidies, mandates) to induce people to buy the resulting less attractive cars Hypercar design: make the car superior , yet comparably priced, so people want it The more purchased, the more fuel saved Ultralight and low system drag enables synergistic design opportunities, snowballing weight savings This enables use of hybrid drive in an overall lighter, simpler, and more functional vehicle don’t save fuel to save fuel

Conventional design: save fuel as specific goal

Trade off and compromise other design goals (size, performance, safety)

Rely on government intervention (efficiency standards, gasoline taxes, subsidies, mandates) to induce people to buy the resulting less attractive cars

Hypercar design: make the car superior , yet comparably priced, so people want it

The more purchased, the more fuel saved

Ultralight and low system drag enables synergistic design opportunities, snowballing weight savings

This enables use of hybrid drive in an overall lighter, simpler, and more functional vehicle

Conventional design: stamped/welded steel Cheap material/lb, but costly to manufacture Two years to design & make ~1,000 steel dies High capital intensity, breakeven volume, and financial risk per model Long product cycle time increases risk/reward Hypercar design: stamped and bonded advanced composite structure Costly material/lb, but use less of to reduce system mass ~20 easy to produce dies Self-fixturing assembly ~90% less capital, assembly, parts, time Less expensive (smaller) propulsion system Very low breakeven volume and risk/reward affordable cars via costly materials

Conventional design: stamped/welded steel

Cheap material/lb, but costly to manufacture

Two years to design & make ~1,000 steel dies

High capital intensity, breakeven volume, and financial risk per model

Long product cycle time increases risk/reward

Hypercar design: stamped and bonded advanced composite structure

Costly material/lb, but use less of to reduce system mass

~20 easy to produce dies

Self-fixturing assembly

~90% less capital, assembly, parts, time

Less expensive (smaller) propulsion system

Very low breakeven volume and risk/reward

sustainable design tool Environment Economy Society Is eco strategy also good for economy Profitability Living wage Mutual respect Future generations Labor cost Safe working environment Does waste = food efficiency

y(our) future

y(our) future Earth is a closed system: energy and mass Reduce, reuse, and recycle is not enough Sustainability insures necessary resources for future generations The thing that needs to change is our perspective Do you think “someone else will solve this” What kind of world do we want our children to live in? How many graduates from Cal Poly in 2004? Engineering: 1,140 Architecture: 443 Agriculture: 906 Business: 631 A total of 3120 Voices… … that’s 3 new perspectives for each Fortune 1000 company This is the next industrial revolution!

Earth is a closed system: energy and mass

Reduce, reuse, and recycle is not enough

Sustainability insures necessary resources for future generations

The thing that needs to change is our perspective

Do you think “someone else will solve this”

What kind of world do we want our children to live in?

How many graduates from Cal Poly in 2004?

Engineering: 1,140

Architecture: 443

Agriculture: 906

Business: 631

A total of 3120 Voices…

… that’s 3 new perspectives for each Fortune 1000 company

This is the next industrial revolution!

what it takes Leadership Commitment Creativity Teamwork Boldness… taking a stand “ Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it… …Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it” Goethe

Leadership

Commitment

Creativity

Teamwork

Boldness… taking a stand

“ Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it… …Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it”

Goethe

relevant reading “ Cradle to Cradle”, McDonough & Braungart “ Natural Capitalism”, Paul Hawken et al “ What we Learned in the Rainforest”, Berrett et al “ Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it… …Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it” Goethe

“ Cradle to Cradle”, McDonough & Braungart

“ Natural Capitalism”, Paul Hawken et al

“ What we Learned in the Rainforest”, Berrett et al

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