eng 01May The Life Cycle of Farmed Salmon

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Information about eng 01May The Life Cycle of Farmed Salmon

Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Laurie

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Contents 1. Facts about salmon production 2. Life cycle of salmon 3. Fish feed 4. Fish farmer – a responsible job 5. Harvesting 6. Popular globetrotter Slide2:  1. Our most important farm animal Everyone knows about life on a farm. Very few know about life on a fish farm. Salmon is our most important farm animal, measured in tonnes, numbers and NOK Norway produces twice as much salmon as it does beef, poultry, mutton and pork put together Photo: Norwegian Seafood Export Council/Joakim Karlsson Slide3:  2. The life cycle of salmon All farmed salmon originate from brood stock and are reared on special farms Today’s brood stock originates from 40 Norwegian salmon strains, which were collected in the early 1970s Since then, salmon have been bred so that they are as best as possible suited to farm rearing Photo. Norwegian Seafood Export Council Slide4:  Fertilisation The brood stock are stripped in the autumn and winter. This involves removal of eggs and milt from sexually mature salmon Fertilisation is done by mixing eggs, milt and water. The mixture is then placed in an Incubating system Newly fertilised eggs are left to lie undisturbed in the dark During incubation the water temperature is kept stable and the water is replaced regularly Slide5:  Eggs After around 30 days the eyes of the embryo salmon can be seen as two black spots in the egg At this stage, the eggs may be sorted and transported to other facilities The temperature determines the length of the Incubation period In water at 8°C it takes around 60 days from fertilisation until the egg hatches Slide6:  Sac fry The fry is not yet fully developed when it hatches It gets nourishment from a yolk sac The fry must be left undisturbed with good support for the yolk sac. If it tips over, it may die When the yolk sac has depleted, the fry are moved from the incubators into larger tanks Slide7:  Weaning Weaning is a critical phase for the salmon, as it must learn to eat. Wild salmon have a high mortality rate. In salmon farming this is less than five per cent. When weaning is started, the fry begin to move The fish are usually exposed to light 24-hours a day. This gives faster growth. Slide8:  Young salmon (parr) When the yolk sac is depleted, the fish develop dark markings along their flanks – so-called parr markings The fish are now called parr and are kept in a freshwater farm The salmon parr continue to grow in tanks up to smoltification During smoltification, the fish undergo significant physiological changes in order to be able to live in saltwater. Slide9:  Smolt in the sea After approx. one year in the freshwater locality, the fish are ready for release into the sea pens The salmon are usually 80 to 100 g on release and are now called smolt. The fish are transported in well boats to the sea localities The smolt are released in the spring and autumn Slide10:  The sea farm In the sea, the salmon live in net enclosures called pens The fish farmer keeps a close eye on the salmon’s development and environment The fish are kept in the sea until they reach around 4 kg The production period is from one to two years, depending on the time of release, size and temperature Slide11:  3. Feeding Automatic feeding is the most common salmon feeding method A feeding system comprises a feed silo, hoses from the silo and small computer that controls feeding The farmers also feeds manually when required and also to keep an eye on life in the pens The fish are fed different types of feed, depending on size, season and growth Slide12:  Composition of the feed All fish feed is healthy and safe – both for the salmon and for those eating the fish The feed mainly comprises natural ingredients such as fish oil, fishmeal, vegetable oils and vitamins Astaxanthin in the feed ensures that the fish produce enough vitamin A and gives the meat its characteristic pink/red colour Antioxidants are added to the feed to prevent it from becoming rancid Slide13:  4. Fish farmer – a responsible job Much of the work on the fish farm is automated, but good fish farmers are still worth their weight in gold Like other farm animals, salmon depend on good husbandry Feeding is the fish farmer’s most important task The farmer is responsible for the daily care of the fish and for their health and hygiene. Some of the routines are compulsory by law. Slide14:  Good regulated husbandry The Norwegian Food Safety Authority regularly inspects the health and welfare of the fish All farms are obliged to have a fish welfare service, which carries out inspections six times a year. In addition, a veterinarian or fish welfare biologist visits the farm twice a year Salmon farming is regulated according to a number of acts and regulations, which protect the welfare of the fish Slide15:  5. Harvesting All harvesting is reported to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority The fish are transported in a well boat to the harvesting plant, where they are made unconscious by a method in accordance with government requirements, before being bled and gutted The salmon are cleaned, graded according to size and quality and packed in cases Salmon are graded into superior, ordinary and production quality. Export of production fish is prohibited. Photo: Norwegian Seafood Export Council Slide16:  6. Popular globetrotter Norwegian salmon is exported fresh, frozen or processed to more than 100 countries It is served as sushi in Japan, lucky fish in China and as festive food in Russia Russia, EU and Japan are the most important markets All salmon is tagged with the harvesting date, harvesting plan, species and the name of the farm. This ensures good traceability. Slide17:  Strict control Food authorities world-wide recommend that people eat more seafood and especially oily fish such as salmon No other fish in the world is subject to such extensive control as Norwegian salmon Producers and the authorities have a comprehensive system to ensure that salmon is safe food. Slide18:  ”Eat twice as much fish!” We should eat fish four times a week This is the conclusion in a new report from the Norwegian Science Committee for Food Safety, VKM VKM has compared the health advantages against the health risks of eating fish According to VKM, Norwegian seafood is good for your health and most people should double their intake of fish. Norwegian Minister of Fisheries Helga Pedersen eating salmon nuggets at the film premiere ofl ”En glad laks” Slide19:  Did you know that.. In 2005, Norway produced 588 000 tonnes of salmon Translated into dinners, this is 1.4 billion skinned and boneless 250 g portions! In 2005, Norwegian salmon was exported to 108 countries Norway exported salmon worth BNOK 13.5. This is 43 per cent of the total Norwegian seafood exports. Slide20:  Did you know that.. Norwegian consumers are eating an increasing amount of salmon and preferably as fillets In 2005, Norwegians ate 3 kg salmon (round weight) per capita, 11 per cent up on the previous year Single and urbane consumers eat the most salmon, whereas people in rural areas and large families eat the least. Salmon is the favourite fish of young Norwegians. Slide21:  Would you like to find out more? Visit www.laksefakta.no Articles about salmon and aquaculture Presentations and fact sheets Free material Appetising salmon recipes Use of photographs in this presentation for other purposes is prohibited.

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