Energy Storage: Nations Vital Security And The Life Line For Renewable Energy Technologies

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Published on October 27, 2011

Author: Altawell

Source: slideshare.net

Nations Vital Security & The Life Line For Renewable Energy Technologies Dr. Najib Altawell [email_address] CEPMLP University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK 20 October 2011 Energy Storage

Agenda Introduction Storage Technologies Ideas and New Approaches Conclusion

Introduction

Storage Technologies

Ideas and New Approaches

Conclusion

Electricity Storage Electricity Energy Electricity

Electricity Storage

Electricity Energy Electricity

The Five Dimensions

Energy Storage When?

The Sixth Dimension

The Sixth Dimension

The Sixth Dimension

Source: Bulk Energy Storage (BESO) http://www.saltcavernstorage.com/images/stories/1.pdf Image source: http://zebu.uoregon.edu/2001/ph162/l10h.html

Renewable Energy Add Value Security Back-up More Options Cost Reduction

Renewable Energy

Add Value

Security

Back-up

More Options

Cost Reduction

Not constant Excess can be stored High demand Reduce power system loads Efficiency and reliability Renewable energy Summary

Not constant

Excess can be stored

High demand

Reduce power system loads

Efficiency and reliability

Renewable energy

Bulk Energy Storage (BES) Off-Peak electric large volume storage (Significant capacity in mwh) longer period of storage but with higher cost Examples: Pumped storage hydro (PSH) Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Distributed energy storage Usually small in size and smaller energy storage capacity, short period of storage with lower voltage when it comes to transmission and distribution with lower capital cost than BES Examples: Batteries Flywheels Capacitors

Bulk Energy Storage (BES)

Off-Peak electric large volume storage

(Significant capacity in mwh) longer period of storage but with higher cost

Examples: Pumped storage hydro (PSH)

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)

Distributed energy storage

Usually small in size and smaller energy storage capacity, short period of storage with lower voltage when it comes to transmission and distribution with lower capital cost than BES

Examples: Batteries

Flywheels

Capacitors

Smart Grid Using Real-Time Information Heal itself Encourage consumers to participate in operations of the grid Resist attack Provide higher quality power that will save money wasted from outages Accommodate all generation and storage options Enable electricity markets to flourish Efficient Enable higher penetration of intermittent power generation sources Source: United States Department of Energy

Smart Grid

Using Real-Time Information

Heal itself

Encourage consumers to participate in operations of the grid

Resist attack

Provide higher quality power that will save money wasted from outages

Accommodate all generation and storage options

Enable electricity markets to flourish

Efficient

Enable higher penetration of intermittent power generation sources

Source: United States Department of Energy

Smart Grid Using Real-Time Information Enhanced cyber-security Handling sources of electricity like wind and solar power Integrating electric vehicles onto the grid Source: United States Department of Energy

Smart Grid

Using Real-Time Information

Enhanced cyber-security

Handling sources of electricity like wind and solar power

Integrating electric vehicles onto the grid

Source: United States Department of Energy

Energy storage systems and typical applications NAS = sodium sulfur; SMES = superconducting magnetic energy storage; UPS = uninterruptible power supply Source: Gyuk 2002 Gyuk, I. (2002), “Energy Storage: A Distributed Energy Resource,” U.S. Department of Energy

Batteries Grid Energy Storage  (Large-scale energy storage – grid e.g. 8MW/32MWh ) Large transportable (e.g. 2MW/500kWh units ) Community Energy Storage (e.g. 25 to 50kW & 50 to 100kWh units) Home Energy Storage Unit (e.g. 4kW/10kWh) Expensive High maintenance cost Limited life-spans (Crystals forming during the charge and discharge cycles) 1

Batteries

Examples Flow Battery Sodium–Sulfur Battery (Grid Energy Storage)

Examples

Flow Battery

Sodium–Sulfur Battery

(Grid Energy Storage)

Flow Battery Li-air batteries ( Li-Ion) REDOX (reduction-oxidation) Image source: Metaefficient Image Source: Argonne, USDE

Flow Battery

Sodium–Sulfur Battery (NaS)  Image source: NGK Insulators Ltd.

Types Alkaline dry cells Mercury cells Silver oxide primary cells Lead-acid battery Nickel-iron battery (Alkaline cell) Cadmium battery (Nickel-cadmium cell) Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) Nanowire lithium-ion battery Ultra capacitor Sodium-sulfur (NaS) battery L argest rechargeable battery 1,300 tons Power for 7 minutes to 12,000 homes

Electric Vehicles 2 Image Source: http://evworld.com/article.cfm?storyid=1212

Compressed Air 3 Mechanical Storage Image Source: Sandia National Laboratories

Images Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Leonardo-Flywheel.ogg Flywheel 4 Mechanical Storage

Images Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Leonardo-Flywheel.ogg

Image Source: www.humboldt.edu/~serc Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Cycle 5

Image Source: www.humboldt.edu/~serc

Source: http://zebu.uoregon.edu/2001/ph162/l10h.html

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumped-storage_hydroelectricity Pumped water 6 Mechanical Storage

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumped-storage_hydroelectricity

Hydroelectric dam up-rating 7

Image Source: http://www.itep.kit.edu/english/234.php Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) 8

Image Source: http://www.itep.kit.edu/english/234.php

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_energy_storage Thermal Ice or cool fluid used to reduce electricity demand 9

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_energy_storage

Molten Salt 10 Image source/cited: http://www.greentechmedia.com/green-light/post/real-solar-thermal-at-intersolar-383/

Molten Salt 10 Source: United Technologies

Source: www.storagealliance.org Capacity

New Approaches

Energy stored by bending/deforming The energy released when the material returns to its original shape

Energy stored by bending/deforming

The energy released when the material returns to its original shape

Nanotechnology Approach Nanotubes Springs Carbon Nanotubes compete with batteries for energy storage

Nanotechnology Approach

Energy Stored within the internal space of matter e.g. Papers, clothes

Earth Spin Generator

Combining two (or more) of the established energy storage systems, i.e. creating a hybrid energy storage system A. Possible Approach

Recycling energy output Light Lifts Movement B. Possible Approach

C. Possible Approach Forced arrangement of molecular structures -within the same matter or from two different substances-

D. Possible Approach Using the sea water movement resulted from the gravitational force of the moon

E. Possible Approach Using falling rain water

F. Possible Approach Designing efficient commercially viable photo-synthesis machine

Storing Energy (molecular level) 1. Selecting a suitable substance 2. Creating identical copy of the internal structure via software simulation 3. Experimenting (molecular scale) using the above software 4. Replicating the same experiment on the actual sample (nano-scale) Two Methodologies

Market & Finance

Is it the righ t time to invest in Energy Storage?

Conclusion 1. There is an urgent ‘need’ for energy storage 2. Renewable energy 3. Forecasting for energy demand is unpredictable 4. Grid reliability 5. During low demand (e.g. at night) energy stored 6. Smart grid 7. Reduction in cost for power stations (reduction in annual peaking requirements)

Conclusion

1. There is an urgent ‘need’ for energy storage

2. Renewable energy

3. Forecasting for energy demand is unpredictable

4. Grid reliability

5. During low demand (e.g. at night) energy stored

6. Smart grid

7. Reduction in cost for power stations (reduction in annual peaking requirements)

Thank you for listening.

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