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Energy requirements of racing sled dogs

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Information about Energy requirements of racing sled dogs
Science-Technology

Published on May 5, 2008

Author: dominiquegrandjean

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide 1: Energy requirements of racing sled dogs : from quantity to quality Dominique GRANDJEAN DVM, PhD, HDR Colonel, Chief veterinarian, Paris Fire Brigade Professor, Alfort National Veterinary School Head of Canine Breeding and Sport Medicine Unit Slide 2: A good nutrition program must ... … provide an optimal quality of energy in adequate amounts … minimize the volume and weight of the intestinal bolus … help keep the animal properly hydrated … take into account the dog’s body shape … help maximize results of others ergogenic activities … minimize the volume and weight of the intestinal bolus … fill physiological gaps created by stress … be a true preventive factor for stamina related gastrointestinal problems Slide 3: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? The daily requested amount in order to maintain an adequate bodyweight Slide 4: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? Sprint Races [4 to 25 km/heat ; 3 days] Mid distance Races [30 to 60km/heat ; 3 days] Stage Races [50 to 100 km/day ,; 10 to 15 days] Long distance Races [100 to 200 km/day ; 2 to 4] Ultramarathon Races [150 to 200 km/day ; 8 to 12 days] Slide 5: Multiplying factor or the energy requirement vs maintenance Variable expense according to the distance and climate a 23 kg racing dog on a long distance race (AK) consumes up to 11 000 kcal/d (x 8 / MER); to compare to a cyclist on the « Tour de France »: 8000 kcal /d Grandjean 1991 Evolution of the energetic requirement in endurance efforts Slide 6: Energy intake and expenditure of sled dogs during the Alpirod race 1995 Measurement of daily energy expenditure using doubly-labelled water method Mean body fat of dogs prior to the race = 4 p100 ! Fat loss during the race = 400g/dog 50 km/day ≈ 150 kcalME/kg/day 2800 kcalME/dog/day No difference / place in the team 3300 kcal/day Dog Musher Slide 7: Sustained energy expenditure in Alaskan sled dogs during heavy exercise in the cold Measurement of daily energy expenditure using doubly-labelled water method Temperatures between -10°C and -35°C Training bouts in race conditions of 490 km 170 km/day ≈ 440 kcalME/kg/day 11000 kcalME/dog/day No difference / place in the team  15 p100 of the energy = cost of thermoregulation Slide 8: MacNamara, 1972 Multiplying factor of the energy expense in a dog at rest Influence of the external temperature on the energy requirement Slide 9: Evolution of the energy requirements in racing sled dogs. Case of a dog weighing 20 kg [44lb] MAINTENANCE 1000 – 1200 TRAINING [5 to 8 km/day] 1300 – 1400 TRAINING [10 to 20 km/day] 1700 – 1800 TRAINING [30 km/day] 2000 – 2400 SPRINT RACE 1400 – 1800 LONG DISTANCE RACE 3000 – 4000 IDITAROD 7000 – 8000 PERIOD ENERGY REQUIREMENTS [kcalME/day] Slide 10: How much energy for a racing sled dog ? MORE ! DURATION OF STAMINA INTENSITY OF STAMINA CLIMATE TEMPERATURE INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS GOOD MUSHERS KNOW THEIR DOGS Slide 11: Food energy : why do we talk about "quality" ? What type of fuel for what type of race ? Slide 12: Aero and/or Anaerobic Stamina • Anaerobic Alactic • Anaerobic Lactic • Aerobic Nutrition Training Grandjean 1991 % of the work Sled Dog exercise physiology Slide 13:  Very High VO2max Nutrition Training Comparative VO2max Performance Very poor Poor Medium Good Very good Horse 70 90 110 130 160 Man 45 55 65 75 85 Dog 80 100 130 180 220 VO2max [mlO2/min/kg] Sled Dog exercise physiology Slide 14: Fat + O2  ENERGY GLYCOGEN  LACTATES + ENERGY ANAEROBIC LACTIC POWER AEROBIC POWER ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD INTENSITY [SPEED] TIME Slide 15: Orientation of the metabolism in different types of endurance efforts in sled dogs TYPE OF EFFORT Sprint [4 to 6 km] Sprint [10 to 20 km] Mid distance Stage race Long distance Ultra-marathon ANAEROBIC - LACTIC +++ ++ + [+ to ++]* 0 0 AEROBIC +++ +++ ++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ * push, or resistance [uphill] Slide 16: Inuit Greenland Nansen Baashus-Jenssen Wyatt Orr Durrer Hammon Taylor Kronfeld Brzezinska Grandjean Reynolds Hinchkliff, Grandjean Pemmican + Fat More than 30% Fat/DM HFD prevents rhabdomyolysis Dog oxidizes FFA during stamina HFD improves racing time Adaptation to HFD Necessity of antioxidant supplementation 1900 1950 1980 Historical approach Dry food Slide 17: Plasma free fatty acids concentration (mmol/l) Reynolds, 1996 Even before training, a high fat diet encourages the fatty acid consumption by muscles. Influence of the fat content on the amount of plasma free fatty acids Slide 18: % mitochondrial volume /muscular fibre Reynolds 1996 A high fat diet improves the ability to « burn » fat. Influence of the fat content on the volume of mitochondria Slide 19: ml O2/kg/sec Reynolds 1996 A high fat diet increases the quantity of available oxygen for the muscles: endurance is improved. Influence of the diet on VO2 Max Slide 20: If the muscles preferably use the fat, glycogen reserves are saved. glycogen reserves can be exhausted within 2 hours Fat reserves are almost unlimited. A high fat diet pushes back the stage of fatigue apparition Slide 21: FOOD TAYLOR 1959 “Pemmican” WYATT 1963 “Pemmican” WYATT 1963 “Nutrican” ORR 1965 “Pemmican” ORR 1965 “Nutrican” KRONFELD 1973 “Seal Meat” WOLTER 1982 “Far North” GRANDJEAN 1995 “Alpicroc” PROT/DM 66 62 30 63 22 33 26 38 FAT / DM 28 29 40 29 40 66 50 40 CLIN. RESULT - - ++ - + + + +++ Slide 22: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs Energy rapidly and easily disponible on site of utilization (muscle cell) Balance of the energetic components generating - a minimum of waste - a maximal efficiency - no risk of metabolic « blockage »  Excellent digestibility  Easy to metabolize  Existence of ergogenic helpers FATS Slide 23: Serum of a sled dog before and after a race Pot race serum of a sled dog « refrigeration test » Slide 24: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » DIGESTIBILITY OF FEEDSTUFS FATS FEESTUFF Chicken fat Pork fat Fish oil Butter Soya oil Peanut oil Corn oil Coco oil Olive oil DIGESTIBILITY 84 – 99 96 97 95 – 97 96 97 97 98 97 Slide 25: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » Coco, coprah oil Digestive and metabolic utilization similar to water No need for acyl-carnitine No risk of ketone-bodies production « Fast fats » SHORT CHAINS FATTY ACIDS Slide 26: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  » PUFA Essentiel Increase cell membrane permeability to O2 Increase cell membrane deformability Anti-inflammatory effect Omega 6 / Omega 3 ≈ 5 OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS Slide 27: Quality of the energy in racing sled dogs « FUNNY FATS  »  Quality of feces OTHER ROLES OF FATTY ACIDS Fatty Acid + O2 H2O 100 g 107g metabolic water Glycerol  intracellular hydratation  H2O consumption Slide 28: 10 à 15 p100 Fat/DM 30 à 40 p100 Fat/DM Sprint Medium Endurance  20 p100 of fats as short chain fatty acids  Omega 6 / Omega 3 # 5 Slide 29: [Kronfeld, 1988] Beware of Proteins / Calories ration [PCR] End of racing season Time (weeks) Hemoglobin (g/dlr) 32 to 40% PROTEINS / MS 26 to 28% PROTEINS / MS Slide 30: 25p100 63 125 188 250** 313 375 438 500 ME/d 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 p 100 Proteins/ME *  Light training ; Sprint race **  Hard training ; Mid distance ***  Long distance PCR = 75 PCR = 62 PCR = 50 30p100 75 150* 225 300 375 450 525 600 20p100 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400*** Prot. Cal. Ratio : from theory to practice... Slide 31: 2 kg dry food 4000 kcalME/kg et 30 p.100 Prot  Osmotic diarrhoa  SDDS ! 500 g dry food + 3 kg meat/fatty fish Volume  fraction PCR = 75 PCR = 50 500 g dry food 4000 kcalME/kg and 30 p.100 Prot Maximal digestive tolerance threshold of nordic dogs for dry food Need for purified protein sources - high quality (milk, egg isolates, hydr) - powder (volume) Prot. Cal. Ratio : from theory to practice... Slide 32: Energy Source Oxidation lipid Oxidation CHO Glycogenolysis Phosphagenes Power developped 1 2 4 12 Average Speed 16 km/h [x1] 23 km/h [x14] 32 km/h [x2] 55 km/h [x3.4] Type of race Iditarod Mid-dist Sprint few seconds] V . Power vs speed in racing sled dog Slide 33: Solution 1 Cplt prot. + Cplt fat. Solution 2 Formulation of a unique complement 35/20 Dry food Conception of a complement for racing sled dog Slide 34: Solution 1 Prot. complement Meat meal [60 p.100] Fish meal [10 p.100] Egg Powder [15 p.100] Caseine + methionine [5 p.100] Yeast [qsp] Minerals [qsp] TE + Vitamins [qsp] Fat complement Poultry fat + . PUFA (n-3) [salmon oil] . PUFA (n-6) [Sunflower oil] . SCFA [coco oil] 2/3 2/3 Conception of a complement for racing sled dog Slide 35: Solution 2 Meat meal [40 p.100] Fish meal [10 p.100] Egg power [10 p.100] Poultry fat [25 p.100] Sunflower oil [5 p.100] Coco oil [5 p.100] Salmon oil [2 p.100] MVC [3 p.100] Specific industriel complements . [40 à 50 p.100 Prot/DM 40 à 50 p.100 Fat/DM] or Conception of a complement for racing sled dog Slide 36: Dry food [35/20] + Wet Complement [13/28] p.100 of daily ration 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 90 100 Kcal / day 32 31 30 28 27 26 24 20 Prot/ME (%) Slide 37: Proportion Dry food*/ Complement** 80/20 70/30 60/40 50/50 40/60 Kcal ME/kg (%DM) # 4 550 # 4 650 # 4 750 # 4 850 # 5 000 Prot. (%DM) 37 38 39 40 41 Fat 34 36 38 40 42 % cal. Prot.*** 31.5 31.6 31.6 31.7 31.8 * Dry food « 4800 » ** Complement « 45/45 » *** Respect of PCR. Practical ration of sled dogs fed with a specialized dry food and a dedicated work complement Slide 38: Is there any nutritional consequence to the use of high fat diets in the racing sled dog ? Quality of Food storage Ergogenic aids Antioxidants Slide 39: Thank you Questions ? www.dominiquegrandjean.com

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