Energy Pathways Training Theory and Recovery proce

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Information about Energy Pathways Training Theory and Recovery proce

Published on February 25, 2008

Author: Biaggia


Lesson Aim:  Lesson Aim To have a good understanding of the science of energy production and its application to sporting performance and physical training UNIT 6 Energy Pathways, Training Theory and Recovery Processes:  UNIT 6 Energy Pathways, Training Theory and Recovery Processes The links between the 3 topics and possible exam questions Which Sports are to be analysed?:  Which Sports are to be analysed? Bobsleigh requirements:  Bobsleigh requirements Excellent sprinters Very strong Co-ordinated Bobsleigh is an ANAEROBIC activity that requires a high burst of energy generating a lot of POWER How do we generate this Power?:  How do we generate this Power? ATP-PC Pathway Fast acting for immediate energy Good for short bursts of energy E.g. Bobsleigh start ATP-PC Energy Pathway:  ATP-PC Energy Pathway ATP ADP + P + Energy This will provide energy for 3 secs. CP C + P + Energy ADP + P + Energy ATP This will provide energy for 8-9 secs (see elite sprint times) 10m split times for World Class Sprinters:  10m split times for World Class Sprinters 1997 World Championships, Athens GRE wind = +0.2 m/s Velocity data is instantaneous velocity (m/s) at the end of the specific interval. Maurice Greene (+0.13s) 1.71 1.04 0.92 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88s 1.71 2.75 3.67 4.55 5.42 6.27 7.12 7.98 8.85 9.73s Donovan Bailey (+0.14s) 1.78 1.03 0.91 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.90 1.78 2.81 3.72 4.59 5.44 6.29 7.14 8.00 8.87 9.77 Tim Montgomery (+0.13s) 1.73 1.03 0.93 0.88 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.90 1.73 2.76 3.69 4.57 5.43 6.29 7.15 8.02 8.90 9.80 POWER:  POWER Speed X Strength = Power Power = Work done ÷ Time taken Measured in WATTS Magaria Step Test practical Why Bobsleigh utilises the ATP- PC Energy Pathway:  Why Bobsleigh utilises the ATP- PC Energy Pathway The Push start lasts for 5 secs. A 4 – Man sled weighs 300 Kg The 50m start is covered in 4.80 – 5.00 seconds This is a speed of 10 m/s Which Components of fitness?:  Which Components of fitness? Speed Strength Power Flexibility Sprint Training Sessions:  Sprint Training Sessions High Intensity @ 100% effort. Short in duration Long recoveries between repetitions and sets (3-5 mins) Track/spikes Favourable wind conditions SPRINTING:  SPRINTING To be FAST we need to train FAST Long recoveries allow resynthesis of ATP-PC stores The last rep should be almost as fast as the first rep Examples of Sprint sessions:  Examples of Sprint sessions 3 (6x30m) 2 (120,90,60,30m) 2(6x60m) All @ 100% effort and long recoveries Recovery from Sprinting and Weightlifting:  Recovery from Sprinting and Weightlifting After intense exercise the athlete needs to resynthesise ATP and CP stores (phosphagens) This takes 3-5 minutes if stores are to return to 100% High intensity work requires long periods of recovery if quality of performance is to remain high Weight Training :  Weight Training Maximum strength is Developed by; Lifting heavy weights (95% 1RM) 3-5 Reps 3-5 Sets 3-5 minutes recovery Why does lifting heavy make us strong?:  Why does lifting heavy make us strong? More Motor Units are used (Motor neurone + the fibres that it stimulates) All of the muscle fibres are stimulated Weight Training Sessions:  Weight Training Sessions Power Cleans 5x5 @ 95-100% 1RM Squats 5x5 @ 95-100% 1RM Bench Press Hamstring Curls Shoulder Press Other Power Training Activities:  Other Power Training Activities Plyometrics Eccentric/Concentric (Stretch-shortening cycle) Towing – Weighted sleds, parachutes Running up hills These activities are sport specific and allow power to be developed Exam question – June 2003:  Exam question – June 2003 Sprinters and endurance athletes train to delay a particular energy pathway from becoming the dominant energy provider. i) Identify the energy pathway and state why both types of athlete seek to delay it. (3 marks) Answer:  Answer The pathway that they seek to delay is the Lactic Acid/Anaerobic Glycolysis Energy Pathway. Why ? The sprinter can work harder/faster/longer in the ATP-PC pathway. The endurance athlete can work longer/harder and more efficiently in the Aerobic energy pathway The adverse effects of the Lactic acid pathway cause the muscles to stop contracting (remember the Sliding Filament Theory and LA stops Ca2+ binding to the Active sites on the Actin Filaments which stops the Myosin Rods from forming a cross-bridge) Question:  Question Explain how the 2 different athletes might achieve this. Sprinter Increase stores of ATP and PC by increasing muscle size/space to the phosphagens (HYPERTROPHY) Regular training will deplete these store and ‘supercompensation’ may occur 2. Endurance athlete Increase VO2 Max by increasing the body’s ability to USE air/improve CV efficiency Train just above the AnaerobicThreshold 800m requirements:  800m requirements Speed High levels of CV endurance Ability to tolerate high levels of LACTATE Muscular endurance Energy Continuum:  Energy Continuum There are 3 ways of providing energy for muscular contractions ATP-PC Lactic Acid Aerobic Duration and intensity of exercise determine how we resynthesise ATP How do we generate energy for 800m?:  How do we generate energy for 800m? An elite male 800m runner takes 1min 45 secs to run 800m The ATP-PC pathway cannot be used The LACTIC ACID pathway has to be utilised The Lactic Acid Pathway (Anaerobic Glycolysis):  The Lactic Acid Pathway (Anaerobic Glycolysis) ATP ADP + P + Energy Glycogen + ADP ATP + Pyruvic Acid The breakdown of glycogen is called Glycolysis and causes Pyruvic Acid and H+ ions to be formed These H+ ions need to be removed because a build up causes muscle cells to become acidic and interferes with muscle function Carrier molecules called NAD and FAD will remove the H+ ions to the ETC only if oxygen is available H+ ions build up and are accepted by the Pyruvic Acid to form LACTIC ACID and affect muscle function 800m training guidelines:  800m training guidelines Need to generate Lactic Acid Then develop tolerance to lactic acid By training when lactic acid is present in the muscles Any intense prolonged exercise will cause a build up of lactic acid 800m training sessions:  800m training sessions 4 x 600m @ target race time pace 3 x 800m @ 10% slower than target time 2 x 1000m Recoveries are long enough to allow HR to drop but not for lactic acid to fully clear Recovery from 800m training:  Recovery from 800m training ATP and CP regenerate after 3-5 mins Clearing Lactic Acid can take up to an hour (cool down can assist) Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption:  Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption Oxygen Deficit – the difference between oxygen consumed during exercise and the amount that would have been consumed had AEROBIC metabolism been reached immediately Factors contributing to EPOC:  Factors contributing to EPOC Lactate removal Resynthesis of ATP and CP Elevated body temp Elevated hormones Post exercise elevation of HR and breathing Restoration of muscle and blood oxygen The 2 components of EPOC:  The 2 components of EPOC 1.Fast – Alactic component 50% of PC is restored in 30 secs 75% in 60 secs 100% within 3 mins 2 components of EPOC:  2 components of EPOC 2. Slow – Lactacid component Clearing Lactic Acid 70% is oxidised 20% is converted to glucose 10% is converted to protein This can take an hour Adaptations to high intensity exercise:  Adaptations to high intensity exercise Strength training can lead to HYPERTROPHY of muscles There is an increase in the rate of GLYCOLYSIS due to increased level of enzymes. More lactic acid can be produced Increases in PHOSPHOCREATINE and GLYCOGEN stores in the muscles 8 weeks of anaerobic training shows an increase in muscle buffering capacity by 12-50%. The trained athlete can cope with high levels of lactic acid because the H+ ions are buffered Marathon Requirements:  Marathon Requirements High levels of CV endurance Very high VO2 Max High level of muscular endurance Determinaton How do we generate energy to run a Marathon?:  How do we generate energy to run a Marathon? Elite male runner take 2hrs 10 mins, elite female 2hrs 20 mins This is a long time to maintain muscular contractions Exercise intensity is relatively low and is AEROBIC Aerobic Energy Pathway:  Aerobic Energy Pathway ATP ADP + P + Energy Glycogen + ADP ATP + Pyruvic Acid Glycolysis causes a build up of H+ ions and because oxygen is available the NAD and FAD carriers are able to transport the H+ ions into the ETC where carbonic acid is formed. Carbonic acid is unstable and breaks down to form carbon dioxide and water (this is breathed out during exercise) Energy Yields from each pathway:  Energy Yields from each pathway ATP-PC gives 2 ATP Lactic Acid (Krebs Cycle) 2 ATP Aerobic gives 34 ATP Therefore if the Aerobic Pathway is utilised an athlete can exercise for longer (at a lower intensity) How to train for the Marathon:  How to train for the Marathon Lots of running! Up to 100 miles per week Different types of sessions Early morning to utilise fat stores (Glycogen sparing) Running Sessions for Marathon:  Running Sessions for Marathon ‘Speed’ sessions 10 x 600m @ 5K pace 10 x 400m @ 5K pace 4 x 2000m @ 10K pace Other Marathon sessions:  Other Marathon sessions Longer runs 10 miles 15 miles 20 miles Often early morning runs with the ‘speed’ sessions in the afternoon Recovery from Marathon training:  Recovery from Marathon training Re-hydrate – 60% of our body is made up of water Replenish Glycogen stores It may take 24 hrs to fully replenish glycogen stores (implications for structuring training intensity) Adaptations to Aerobic Training:  Adaptations to Aerobic Training Capillarisation More motochondria Glycogen and myoglobin stores increase Increased ability to mobilise fat as a fuel and a drop in lactate production Increase in blood volume, stroke volume and Cardiac Output (Q = SV x HR) Better utilisation of oxygen There is an increased ability to work at a higher % of VO2 Max without reaching lactate threshold PERIODISATION:  PERIODISATION Dividing an annual plan into smaller manageable blocks MACRO cycles MESO cycles MICRO cycles A Single Periodised Year:  A Single Periodised Year Periodisation:  Periodisation This concept allows athletes to cycle their training to maximise improvements Blocks of hard work are followed by blocks of easier training This approach ensures that each successive peak is higher and fitness improves leading to a competitive peak such as an Olympic Games or World Championships Energy Continuum:  Energy Continuum Question:  Question Identify an athletic race that falls midway on the continuum. Explain the reason for its position and the energy pathways that would predominate during the different stages of the race. (Unit 6 June 2003) Answer:  Answer 1500m All 3 energy pathways are predominate at different stages It is considered as being equally aerobic/anaerobic First 50m –ATP-PC Next 350m – LA Next 700m – Aerobic Next 300m – LA Last 100m – ATP-PC Lesson Finished:  Lesson Finished

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