EMS CPAP Training

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Information about EMS CPAP Training
Health & Medicine

Published on November 25, 2008

Author: croaker260

Source: slideshare.net

Description

CPAP training developed for my department and in review for possible adoption by the state.

State of Idaho CPAP training Module DRAFT

Revision Information Developed October 2008 Revised November 2008 For Further Information Please contact: Instructor contact information

Developed October 2008

Revised November 2008

For Further Information Please contact:

Instructor contact information

Introduction Instructor Introduction Experience Conflicts of interest Device to be used for this training This presentation was developed at the direction of the State of Idaho, Department of Health and Welfare, Bureau of EMS

Instructor Introduction

Experience

Conflicts of interest

Device to be used for this training

This presentation was developed at the direction of the State of Idaho, Department of Health and Welfare, Bureau of EMS

Special Thanks The Men and Women of Ada County Paramedics for their input, advice, and good sportsmanship in developing this presentation www.adaparamedics.com State of Maine EMS State of Wisconsin EMS

The Men and Women of Ada County Paramedics for their input, advice, and good sportsmanship in developing this presentation

www.adaparamedics.com

State of Maine EMS

State of Wisconsin EMS

CPAP - Background Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and related technologies have been in use for since the 1940’ in respiratory failure. It has been largely indicated to assist patients with primary and secondary sleep apnea, and globally this continues to be its largest market. In recent history (1980’s) it has found wide acceptance in hospital settings (usually CCU, ICU, and ERs) for patients suffering varying degrees of respiratory failure of a wide variety of origins. Acute Pulmonary Edema (APE) most common

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and related technologies have been in use for since the 1940’ in respiratory failure.

It has been largely indicated to assist patients with primary and secondary sleep apnea, and globally this continues to be its largest market.

In recent history (1980’s) it has found wide acceptance in hospital settings (usually CCU, ICU, and ERs) for patients suffering varying degrees of respiratory failure of a wide variety of origins.

Acute Pulmonary Edema (APE) most common

CPAP - Background CPAP is a non-invasive procedure that is easily applied in the pre-hospital setting. CPAP is an established therapeutic modality, well studied to reduce both mortality and morbidity. CPAP has been shown to be an preferable alternative to intubation in some patients.

CPAP is a non-invasive procedure that is easily applied in the pre-hospital setting.

CPAP is an established therapeutic modality, well studied to reduce both mortality and morbidity.

CPAP has been shown to be an preferable alternative to intubation in some patients.

History of CPAP 1912 - Maintenance of lung expansion during thoracic surgery (S. Brunnel) 1937 - High altitude flying to prevent hypoxemia. (Barach et al) 1967 - CPPB + IPPV to treat ARDS (Ashbaugh et al) 1971 - Term CPAP introduced, used to treat HMD in neonates (Gregory et al) 1972 - CPAP used to treat ARF (Civetta et al) 1973 - CPAP used to treat COPD (Barach et al) 1981 - Downs generator (Fried et al) 1982 - Modern definition of CPAP (Kielty et al)

1912 - Maintenance of lung expansion during thoracic surgery (S. Brunnel)

1937 - High altitude flying to prevent hypoxemia. (Barach et al)

1967 - CPPB + IPPV to treat ARDS (Ashbaugh et al)

1971 - Term CPAP introduced, used to treat HMD in neonates (Gregory et al)

1972 - CPAP used to treat ARF (Civetta et al)

1973 - CPAP used to treat COPD (Barach et al)

1981 - Downs generator (Fried et al)

1982 - Modern definition of CPAP (Kielty et al)

Boussignac CPAP? 1973- Boeing 707 crashed near Paris France 125 fatalities, 3 survivors with severe respiratory trauma CPAP was not well known at the time. Mortality for these injuries was 100% Dr. Georges Boussignac, decided not to intubate these patients but to treat them instead with Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and an early form of CPAP. The original CPAP was a bag over the head with constant air flow at greater than atmospheric pressure.

1973- Boeing 707 crashed near Paris France

125 fatalities, 3 survivors with severe respiratory trauma

CPAP was not well known at the time.

Mortality for these injuries was 100%

Dr. Georges Boussignac, decided not to intubate these patients but to treat them instead with Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and an early form of CPAP.

The original CPAP was a bag over the head with constant air flow at greater than atmospheric pressure.

Types of CPAP

Boussignac

Oxypeep

Whisperflow Flow Generators

Emergent Products PortO2vent

CAREvent® ALS + CPAP

Physiology of CPAP

Vital Terminology Tidal Volume (Vt) Minute Volume (Vm) Peak Inspiratory Flow Functional Reserve Capacity (FRC) Inspired Oxygen (FiO2) Work of Breathing (WOB)

Tidal Volume (Vt)

Minute Volume (Vm)

Peak Inspiratory Flow

Functional Reserve Capacity (FRC)

Inspired Oxygen (FiO2)

Work of Breathing (WOB)

 

Airway and Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology Pathway review Oxygenation and Ventilation Functional Residual Capacity Work of breathing

Pathway review

Oxygenation and Ventilation

Functional Residual Capacity

Work of breathing

Airway and Respiratory Anatomy Pathways-

Pathways-

Airway and Respiratory Anatomy Pathways-

Pathways-

Question: So why does oxygen pass into the blood? A: The Pressure Gradient!!!! Airway and Respiratory Physiology

Airway and Respiratory Physiology The Pressure gradient! Aveolar Air has higher content of OXYGEN than venous (deoxygenated) blood Therefore oxygen transfers from the air into the blood. This is called the Pressure Gradient The higher the inspired oxygen (FiO2) the better the pressure gradient!

The Pressure gradient!

Aveolar Air has higher content of OXYGEN than venous (deoxygenated) blood

Therefore oxygen transfers from the air into the blood.

This is called the Pressure Gradient

The higher the inspired oxygen (FiO2) the better the pressure gradient!

Airway and Respiratory Physiology Oxygen Saturation Curve Picture released into public domain by wikipedia

Oxygen Saturation Curve

Airway and Respiratory Physiology FRC Functional reserve Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal passive expiration. approximately 2400 ml in a 70 kg, average-sized male FRC decreases with lying supine, obesity, pregnancy and anaesthesia. Important aim of CPAP is to increase functional residual capacity (FRC) By increasing he FRC, the surface area of the Aveoli is distended ( increased ). Greater surface area improves gas exchange (oxygenation and ventilation) This improves Spo2/SaO2

Functional reserve Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal passive expiration.

approximately 2400 ml in a 70 kg, average-sized male

FRC decreases with lying supine, obesity, pregnancy and anaesthesia.

Important aim of CPAP is to increase functional residual capacity (FRC)

By increasing he FRC, the surface area of the Aveoli is distended ( increased ).

Greater surface area improves gas exchange (oxygenation and ventilation)

This improves Spo2/SaO2

Airway and Respiratory Physiology WOB Work of breathing (WOB) is respiratory effort to effect oxygenation and ventilation. Important aim of CPAP is to reduce work of breathing (WOB)

Work of breathing (WOB) is respiratory effort to effect oxygenation and ventilation.

Important aim of CPAP is to reduce work of breathing (WOB)

Airway and Respiratory Physiology WOB Signs of increased WOB: Dyspnea on Exertion (DOE) Speech Dyspnea Tripoding Orthopnea Accessory Muscle Use/Restractions Lung Sounds “ Doorway Test” Silent Chest!!!!

Signs of increased WOB:

Dyspnea on Exertion (DOE)

Speech Dyspnea

Tripoding

Orthopnea

Accessory Muscle Use/Restractions

Lung Sounds

“ Doorway Test”

Silent Chest!!!!

Airway and Respiratory Physiology WOB Increased WOB : Respiratory Fatigue Respiratory Distress Respiratory Failure CPAP reduces WOB

Increased WOB :

Respiratory Fatigue

Respiratory Distress

Respiratory Failure

CPAP reduces WOB

Airway and Respiratory Pathology

Airway and Respiratory Pathology CHF Precipitating Causes Non Compliance with Meds and Diet Acute MI Arrhythmia (e.g. AF) Increased Sodium Diet (Holiday Failure) Pregnancy (PIH, Pre-eclampsia, Eclampsia)

Precipitating Causes

Non Compliance with Meds and Diet

Acute MI

Arrhythmia (e.g. AF)

Increased Sodium Diet (Holiday Failure)

Pregnancy (PIH, Pre-eclampsia, Eclampsia)

Airway and Respiratory Pathology CHF Severe resp distress Foamy blood tinged sputum Accessory muscle use Apprehension, agitation Speech Dyspnea Diaphoresis Bilateral crackles or Rhales Orthopnea (can’t lie down) Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) Cyanosis Pedal Edema JVD Chest pain (possible co-existent AMI) abnormal vitals (increased B/P; rapid pulse; rapid & labored respirations

Severe resp distress

Foamy blood tinged sputum

Accessory muscle use

Apprehension, agitation

Speech Dyspnea

Diaphoresis

Bilateral crackles or Rhales

Orthopnea (can’t lie down)

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

Cyanosis

Pedal Edema

JVD

Chest pain (possible

co-existent AMI)

abnormal vitals (increased B/P; rapid pulse; rapid & labored respirations

Cardiac Asthma? Fluid leaks into the Interstitial Space Airways narrow Mimics broncoconstriction seen in asthma May actually exacerbate asthma if a co-existing PMHx Produces “Wheezing”

Fluid leaks into the Interstitial Space

Airways narrow

Mimics broncoconstriction seen in asthma

May actually exacerbate asthma if a co-existing PMHx

Produces “Wheezing”

Infiltration of Interstitial Space Normal Micro-anatomy Micro-anatomy with fluid movement.

Normal

Micro-anatomy

Micro-anatomy with fluid movement.

Airway and Respiratory Pathology CHF The following treatments should be done concurrently with CPAP, patient condition permitting*. High Flow Oxygen!!! Nitroglycerin * 0.4 mg sl every 5 minutes; 0.5-2 inches transdermal 5-200 mcg/min IV Drip Lasix * 20- 80 mg IV/IM (or double daily dose if already on Lasix) Opiates* Reduce Anxiety Mild Vasodilator 2.5-5 mg q5 minutes IVP (* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

The following treatments should be done concurrently with CPAP, patient condition permitting*.

High Flow Oxygen!!!

Nitroglycerin *

0.4 mg sl every 5 minutes;

0.5-2 inches transdermal

5-200 mcg/min IV Drip

Lasix *

20- 80 mg IV/IM (or double daily dose if already on Lasix)

Opiates*

Reduce Anxiety

Mild Vasodilator

2.5-5 mg q5 minutes IVP

(* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

Airway and Respiratory Pathology Asthma and COPD Obstructive vs Reactive airways Bronchoconstrictive issues Poor Gas Exchange Accessory Muscle Use/Muscle Tiring CPAP is best reserved for those patients who are refractory to normal interventions, and have a severe presentation. At least TWO doses of bronchedialtors should be administered before the provider initiates CPAP.

Obstructive vs Reactive airways

Bronchoconstrictive issues

Poor Gas Exchange

Accessory Muscle Use/Muscle Tiring

CPAP is best reserved for those patients who are refractory to normal interventions, and have a severe presentation.

At least TWO doses of bronchedialtors should be administered before the provider initiates CPAP.

Airway and Respiratory Pathology Asthma and COPD The following treatments should be done concurrently with CPAP, patient condition permitting*. High Flow Oxygen!!! Bronchodilators* Albuterol 2.5 mg (0.83% in 3 cc)/ Atrovent 0.5 mg (0.02% in 2.5 cc) nebulized. Repeat as needed with Albuterol Only. Do not dilute. Magnesium Sulfate* (Asthma extremis only) IV: 2 g given SLOWLY, diluted. Do not give faster than 1 g/minute. Epinephrine 1:1,1000 0.3-0.5 mg IM/SQ for severe refractory bronchospasm Use Epinephrine with caution on patients over 65 or with cardiac history. Solu-medrol IV/IM: 125 mg (* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

The following treatments should be done concurrently with CPAP, patient condition permitting*.

High Flow Oxygen!!!

Bronchodilators*

Albuterol 2.5 mg (0.83% in 3 cc)/ Atrovent 0.5 mg (0.02% in 2.5 cc) nebulized.

Repeat as needed with Albuterol Only.

Do not dilute.

Magnesium Sulfate* (Asthma extremis only)

IV: 2 g given SLOWLY, diluted.

Do not give faster than 1 g/minute.

Epinephrine 1:1,1000

0.3-0.5 mg IM/SQ for severe refractory bronchospasm

Use Epinephrine with caution on patients over 65 or with cardiac history.

Solu-medrol

IV/IM: 125 mg

(* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

Airway and Respiratory Pathology Pneumonia Infectious process Often confused with, or masked by, CHF Detailed assessment required PMhx, Med list review Sputum type/color Onset of s/s Fever Lack of CHF/Afib Hx Normal CHF Tx may be ineffective or detrimental Nitroglycerine (ineffective) Diuretics (detrimental)

Infectious process

Often confused with, or masked by, CHF

Detailed assessment required

PMhx, Med list review

Sputum type/color

Onset of s/s

Fever

Lack of CHF/Afib Hx

Normal CHF Tx may be ineffective or detrimental

Nitroglycerine (ineffective)

Diuretics (detrimental)

Airway and Respiratory Pathology Pneumonia CPAP may be of minimal benefit in Pneumonia*. High Flow Oxygen!!! Bronchodilators* Albuterol 2.5 mg (0.83% in 3 cc)/ Atrovent 0.5 mg (0.02% in 2.5 cc) nebulized. Repeat as needed with Albuterol Only. Do not dilute. (* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

CPAP may be of minimal benefit in Pneumonia*.

High Flow Oxygen!!!

Bronchodilators*

Albuterol 2.5 mg (0.83% in 3 cc)/ Atrovent 0.5 mg (0.02% in 2.5 cc) nebulized.

Repeat as needed with Albuterol Only.

Do not dilute.

(* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

Airway and Respiratory Pathology Drowning CPAP may be beneficial to the drowning/near drowning patient Strongly consider intubation for severe s/s refractory to CPAP and other treatments

CPAP may be beneficial to the drowning/near drowning patient

Strongly consider intubation for severe s/s refractory to CPAP and other treatments

Other uses of CPAP ARDS Acute Respiratory Failure Anesthesia (Pre-Op and Post-Op) Atelectasis Alternative to Mechanical Ventilation Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation Left Ventricular Failure Renal Failure Sleep Apnea

ARDS

Acute Respiratory Failure

Anesthesia (Pre-Op and Post-Op)

Atelectasis

Alternative to Mechanical Ventilation

Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

Left Ventricular Failure

Renal Failure

Sleep Apnea

Physiology of CPAP

Physiology of CPAP Airway pressure maintained at set level throughout inspiration and expiration Maintains patency of small airways and alveoli “ Stents” small airways open “ Distends” aveoli Improves delivery of bronchodilators By up to 80% Moves extracellular fluid into vasculature Improves gas exchange Reduces work of breathing

Airway pressure maintained at set level throughout inspiration and expiration

Maintains patency of small airways and alveoli

“ Stents” small airways open

“ Distends” aveoli

Improves delivery of bronchodilators

By up to 80%

Moves extracellular fluid into vasculature

Improves gas exchange

Reduces work of breathing

Physiology of CPAP : CPAP Mechanism Increases pressure within airway. Airways at risk for collapse from excess fluid are stented open. Gas exchange is maintained Increased work of breathing is minimized

Increases pressure within airway.

Airways at risk for collapse from excess fluid are stented open.

Gas exchange is maintained

Increased work of breathing is minimized

Physiology of CPAP : Redistribution of pulmonary edema with CPAP

Physiology of CPAP: Hypotension CPAP increases intrathoracic pressure This decreases cardiac output causing hypotension Therefore hypotensive patients may have are relatively contraindicated with CPAP...

CPAP increases intrathoracic pressure

This decreases cardiac output causing hypotension

Therefore hypotensive patients may have are relatively contraindicated with CPAP...

Physiology of CPAP : Administration of Medications by CPAP CPAP and Nebulizers can be used together to provide better “penetration” of nebulizer medications through the respiratory tract.

CPAP and Nebulizers can be used together to provide better “penetration” of nebulizer medications through the respiratory tract.

Use of CPAP by EMS

Goals of CPAP use in the field Primary Goals Increase amount of inspired oxygen (FiO2) Increase the SpO2 and PaO2 of the patient Decrease the work load of breathing (WOB) To reduce overall mortality Secondary Goals: Reduce the need for emergent intubations of the patient Decrease hospital length of stay (LOS)

Primary Goals

Increase amount of inspired oxygen (FiO2)

Increase the SpO2 and PaO2 of the patient

Decrease the work load of breathing (WOB)

To reduce overall mortality

Secondary Goals:

Reduce the need for emergent intubations of the patient

Decrease hospital length of stay (LOS)

CPAP vs. Intubation CPAP Non-invasive Easily discontinued Easily adjusted Use by EMT-B (in some states) Minimal complications Does not (typically) require sedation Comfortable Intubation Invasive Intubated stays intubated Requires highly trained personnel Significant complications Can require sedation or RSI Potential for infection

CPAP

Non-invasive

Easily discontinued

Easily adjusted

Use by EMT-B (in some states)

Minimal complications

Does not (typically) require sedation

Comfortable

Intubation

Invasive

Intubated stays intubated

Requires highly trained personnel

Significant complications

Can require sedation or RSI

Potential for infection

Key Point: This module discusses CPAP in patients >8 years of age CPAP has been safely used in children, infants, and neonates in the in-hospital and critical care settings Local protocols may allow use in children and infants Appropriate sized equipment mandatory Risk increases Consult medical control and local protocols

This module discusses CPAP in patients >8 years of age

CPAP has been safely used in children, infants, and neonates in the in-hospital and critical care settings

Local protocols may allow use in children and infants

Appropriate sized equipment mandatory

Risk increases

Consult medical control and local protocols

Indications For consideration (for patients <8) in moderate to severe respiratory distress secondary to: CHF/APE Acute Respiratory Failure asthma/reactive airway disease, near drowning, COPD, acute pulmonary edema (cardiogenic and non cardiogenic), pneumonia who present with any of the following: Pulse oximetry < 88% not improving with standard therapy ETCO2 > 50mmHg Accessory muscle use / retractions Respiratory rate > 25 Wheezes, rales, rhonchi Signs of respiratory fatigue or failure

For consideration (for patients <8) in moderate to severe respiratory distress secondary to:

CHF/APE

Acute Respiratory Failure

asthma/reactive airway disease,

near drowning,

COPD,

acute pulmonary edema (cardiogenic and non cardiogenic),

pneumonia who present with any of the following:

Pulse oximetry < 88% not improving with standard therapy

ETCO2 > 50mmHg

Accessory muscle use / retractions

Respiratory rate > 25

Wheezes, rales, rhonchi

Signs of respiratory fatigue or failure

A note on misdiagnosis There is a significant misdiagnosis rate of CHF in the field, most commonly confused with pneumonia CPAP still demonstrated significant improvement in other (non-CHF/APE) respiratory emergencies Risks are greater in non CHF/APE CPAP Max Pressures are lower non CHF/APE Caution is required non CHF/APE

There is a significant misdiagnosis rate of CHF in the field, most commonly confused with pneumonia

CPAP still demonstrated significant improvement in other (non-CHF/APE) respiratory emergencies

Risks are greater in non CHF/APE

CPAP Max Pressures are lower non CHF/APE

Caution is required non CHF/APE

2003 Helsinki EMS Looked at “patients in Acute Severe Pulmonary Edema (ASPE)” Study Group: 121 Confirmed CHF: 38 (32%) Miss- DX: 83 (68%) Non CHF Patients that got better with CPAP : 34 (28%) Non CPAP mortality (17.8%) CPAP Mortality (8%) Other Notes: Confirmed by MNP Treated with Low-Mid FiO2, Nitrates. No Lasix 4 intubated in field (3%) (Kallio, T. et al. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2003. 7(2) )

2003 Helsinki EMS Looked at “patients in Acute Severe Pulmonary Edema (ASPE)”

Study Group: 121

Confirmed CHF: 38 (32%)

Miss- DX: 83 (68%)

Non CHF Patients that got

better with CPAP : 34 (28%)

Non CPAP mortality (17.8%)

CPAP Mortality (8%)

Other Notes:

Confirmed by MNP

Treated with Low-Mid FiO2, Nitrates. No Lasix

4 intubated in field (3%)

(Kallio, T. et al. Prehospital Emergency Care. 2003. 7(2) )

Contraindications/Exclusion Criteria Physiologic Unconscious, Unresponsive, or inability to protect airway. Inability to sit up Respiratory arrest or agonal respirations (Consider Intubation) Persistent nausea/vomiting Hypotension- Systolic Blood Pressure less than 90 mmHg Inability to obtain a good mask seal Pathologic Suspected Pneumothorax Shock associated with cardiac insufficiency Penetrating chest trauma Facial anomalies /trauma/burns Closed Head Injury Has active upper GI bleeding or history of recent gastric surgery Vomiting

Physiologic

Unconscious, Unresponsive, or inability to protect airway.

Inability to sit up

Respiratory arrest or agonal respirations (Consider Intubation)

Persistent nausea/vomiting

Hypotension- Systolic Blood Pressure less than 90 mmHg

Inability to obtain a good mask seal

Pathologic

Suspected Pneumothorax

Shock associated with cardiac insufficiency

Penetrating chest trauma

Facial anomalies /trauma/burns

Closed Head Injury

Has active upper GI bleeding or history of recent gastric surgery

Vomiting

Cautions History of Pulmonary Fibrosis Claustrophobia or unable to tolerate mask (after initial 1-2 minutes) Coaching essential Consider mild sedation Has failed at past attempts at noninvasive ventilation Complains of nausea or vomiting Has excessive secretions Has a facial deformity that prevents the use of CPAP

History of Pulmonary Fibrosis

Claustrophobia or unable to tolerate mask (after initial 1-2 minutes)

Coaching essential

Consider mild sedation

Has failed at past attempts at noninvasive ventilation

Complains of nausea or vomiting

Has excessive secretions

Has a facial deformity that prevents the use of CPAP

Administration CPAP is measured in cm/H2O Start with device in the lowest setting, and titrate upward. Initial dose at 0-2 cm/H2O Titrated up to*: 10 cm/H2O MAX for CHF or, 5 cm/H2O MAX for COPD, near drowning, and respiratory failure form other causes. (* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

CPAP is measured in cm/H2O

Start with device in the lowest setting, and titrate upward.

Initial dose at 0-2 cm/H2O

Titrated up to*:

10 cm/H2O MAX for CHF or,

5 cm/H2O MAX for COPD, near drowning, and respiratory failure form other causes.

(* = defer to local protocol or medical control)

Selling CPAP? Placing CPAP is an anxiety inducing event in the hypoxic respiratory distressed patient! Verbally calming, coaching, and preparing (AKA: Selling) your patient on CPAP is essential Similar to calming a hyperventilation patient

Placing CPAP is an anxiety inducing event in the hypoxic respiratory distressed patient!

Verbally calming, coaching, and preparing (AKA: Selling) your patient on CPAP is essential

Similar to calming a hyperventilation patient

Complications CPAP may drop BP due to increased intrathoracic pressure. A patient must have a systolic BP of at least 90mmHg to be a candidate for CPAP Increased Intrathoracic pressure means decreased ventricular filling and increased afterload, thus decreasing cardiac output and blood pressure. Providers should be comfortable giving a CPAP patient NTG If they are too hypotensive for NTG, then they are too hypotensive for CPAP. Risk of pneumothorax Increased intrathoracic pressure = increased risk Higher in Asthmatics and COPD Gastric Distention, and vomiting Strongly consider placement of a gastric tube (if in scope of practice) Risk of corneal drying High volumes of air blowing at eyes, especially on long transports.

CPAP may drop BP due to increased intrathoracic pressure.

A patient must have a systolic BP of at least 90mmHg to be a candidate for CPAP

Increased Intrathoracic pressure means decreased ventricular filling and increased afterload, thus decreasing cardiac output and blood pressure.

Providers should be comfortable giving a CPAP patient NTG If they are too hypotensive for NTG, then they are too hypotensive for CPAP.

Risk of pneumothorax

Increased intrathoracic pressure = increased risk

Higher in Asthmatics and COPD

Gastric Distention, and vomiting

Strongly consider placement of a gastric tube (if in scope of practice)

Risk of corneal drying

High volumes of air blowing at eyes, especially on long transports.

Discontinuing of CPAP CPAP therapy needs to be continuous and should not be removed unless the patient: cannot tolerate the mask, success of tolerance to the treatment increased with proper coaching by EMS crew requires suctioning or airway intervention, experiences continued or worsening respiratory failure, Develops severe hypotension or a pneumothorax is suspected. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation and/or intubation should be considered if patient is removed from CPAP therapy.

CPAP therapy needs to be continuous and should not be removed unless the patient:

cannot tolerate the mask, success of tolerance to the treatment increased with proper coaching by EMS crew

requires suctioning or airway intervention,

experiences continued or worsening respiratory failure,

Develops severe hypotension

or a pneumothorax is suspected.

Intermittent positive pressure ventilation and/or intubation should be considered if patient is removed from CPAP therapy.

KEY POINT: CPAP will not cure all patients! Some patients just really want a tube! “ Don’t give up to early but know when to give up”

Documentation “ Dosage” CPAP level  (10cmH2O) FiO2  (100%) Subjective response to therapy Objective response to therapy Lung Sounds, Work of Breathing SPO2 Nasal ETCO2 SpO2 q5 minutes Vital Sign q5 minutes Any adverse reactions Justification for sedation, intubation, or discontinuation of CPAP. Be specific.

“ Dosage”

CPAP level  (10cmH2O)

FiO2  (100%)

Subjective response to therapy

Objective response to therapy

Lung Sounds,

Work of Breathing

SPO2

Nasal ETCO2

SpO2 q5 minutes

Vital Sign q5 minutes

Any adverse reactions

Justification for sedation, intubation, or discontinuation of CPAP. Be specific.

Documentation: Modified Borg Scale “ 0”-No breathlessness at all “ 1”-Very slight “ 2”-Slight breathlessness “ 3”-Moderate “ 4”-Somewhat severe “ 5”-Severe “ 7”-Very severe “ 9”-Very, very severe (Almost maximum) “ 10”-Maximum

“ 0”-No breathlessness at all

“ 1”-Very slight

“ 2”-Slight breathlessness

“ 3”-Moderate

“ 4”-Somewhat severe

“ 5”-Severe

“ 7”-Very severe

“ 9”-Very, very severe (Almost maximum)

“ 10”-Maximum

EMS System Implementations and Considerations Types of CPAP Oxygen source and supply Size of tanks Availability of “full” tanks Availability of appropriate regulators Duration of transport Destination Hospital Turnaround time and transfer of care

Types of CPAP

Oxygen source and supply

Size of tanks

Availability of “full” tanks

Availability of appropriate regulators

Duration of transport

Destination Hospital

Turnaround time and transfer of care

CPAP and Intubation Intubation will be inevitable in some patients regardless of the use of CPAP, and the paramedic must be prepared for rapid intervention by RSI/MAI or other means as feasible. Indications to proceed to ET placement are (not all inclusive): Deterioration of mental status Increase of the EtCO2 Decline of SpO2 Progressive fatigue Ineffective tidal volume Respiratory or cardiac arrest.

Intubation will be inevitable in some patients regardless of the use of CPAP, and the paramedic must be prepared for rapid intervention by RSI/MAI or other means as feasible.

Indications to proceed to ET placement are (not all inclusive):

Deterioration of mental status

Increase of the EtCO2

Decline of SpO2

Progressive fatigue

Ineffective tidal volume

Respiratory or cardiac arrest.

POST POST does not specifically address CPAP, but is likely permissible since it is both palliative and noninvasive.

POST does not specifically address CPAP, but is likely permissible since it is both palliative and noninvasive.

Research Review

Research Review JAMA December 28, 2005 “Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Cardiogenic Edema”, Massip et. al. Meta-analysis of studies with good to excellent data 45% reduction in mortality 60% reduction in need to intubate

JAMA December 28, 2005 “Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Cardiogenic Edema”, Massip et. al.

Meta-analysis of studies with good to excellent data

45% reduction in mortality

60% reduction in need to intubate

Research Review CPAP therapy can improve A.P.E. patients in Minutes. Has been compared to D50 in hypoglycemic patients “ CPAP was associated a decrease in need for intubation (-26%) and a trend to a decrease in hospital mortality (-6%) compared with standard therapy alone.” (Pang, D. et al. 1998. Data review 1983-1997. Chest 1998; 114(4):1185-1192) 2000 Cincinnati EMS looked at “CHF patients in imminent need of intubation” 19 patients included, CPAP administered *Pre- and post-therapy pulse ox increased from 83.3% to 95.4% *None of the patients were intubated in the field *Average hospital stay reduced from 11 days to 3.5 days

CPAP therapy can improve A.P.E. patients in Minutes.

Has been compared to D50 in hypoglycemic patients

“ CPAP was associated a decrease in need for intubation (-26%) and a trend to a decrease in hospital mortality (-6%) compared with standard therapy alone.”

(Pang, D. et al. 1998. Data review 1983-1997. Chest 1998; 114(4):1185-1192)

2000 Cincinnati EMS looked at “CHF patients in imminent need of intubation”

19 patients included, CPAP administered

*Pre- and post-therapy pulse ox increased from 83.3% to 95.4%

*None of the patients were intubated in the field

*Average hospital stay reduced from 11 days to 3.5 days

“ CPAP is to APE like D50 is to insulin shock” - Russell K. Miller Jr, MD, FACEP

Research Review CPAP in COPD: 85 patients in a single ICU over a study period. Randomized control group CPAP significantly reduced need of ETT in COPD patients by 48% Complications were decreased by 32% Mortality Decreased by 20% “ CONCLUSIONS. In selected patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noninvasive ventilation can reduce the need for endotracheal intubation, the length of the hospital stay, and the in-hospital mortality rate. “ Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, Lofaso F, Conti G, Rauss A, Simonneau G, Benito S, Gasparetto A, Lemaire F, et al Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . N Engl J Med 1996;334(11):743. .

CPAP in COPD:

85 patients in a single ICU over a study period.

Randomized control group

CPAP significantly reduced need of ETT in COPD patients by 48%

Complications were decreased by 32%

Mortality Decreased by 20%

“ CONCLUSIONS. In selected patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noninvasive ventilation can reduce the need for endotracheal intubation, the length of the hospital stay, and the in-hospital mortality rate. “

Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, Lofaso F, Conti G, Rauss A, Simonneau G, Benito S, Gasparetto A, Lemaire F, et al Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . N Engl J Med 1996;334(11):743. .

Research Review BiPap vs. CPAP “ Though BLPAP (BiPAP) has theoretical advantages over CPAP, there are questions regarding its safety in a setting of CHF. The Key to success in using NIV to treat severe CHF is proper patient selection, close patient monitoring, proper application of the technology, and objective therapeutic goals. When used appropriately, NIV can be a useful adjunct in the treatment of a subset of patients with acute CHF at risk for endotracheal intubation.” Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 3 supl. 4 2002, “Role of Noninvasive Ventilation in the Management of Acutely Decompensated Heart Failure”

“ Though BLPAP (BiPAP) has theoretical advantages over CPAP, there are questions regarding its safety in a setting of CHF. The Key to success in using NIV to treat severe CHF is proper patient selection, close patient monitoring, proper application of the technology, and objective therapeutic goals. When used appropriately, NIV can be a useful adjunct in the treatment of a subset of patients with acute CHF at risk for endotracheal intubation.”

Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 3 supl. 4 2002, “Role of Noninvasive Ventilation in the Management of Acutely Decompensated Heart Failure”

Research Review: BiPAP vs CPAP European Respiratory Journal, vol. 15 2000 “Effects of biphasic positive airway pressure in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease” BiPAP resulted in overall higher intrathoracic pressures – reduces myocardial perfusion BiPAP resulted in lower tidal volumes BiPAP resulted in higher WOB

European Respiratory Journal, vol. 15 2000 “Effects of biphasic positive airway pressure in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease”

BiPAP resulted in overall higher intrathoracic pressures – reduces myocardial perfusion

BiPAP resulted in lower tidal volumes

BiPAP resulted in higher WOB

Research review: Pre-hospital CPAP PEC 2000 NAEMSP Abstract, “Pre-hospital use of CPAP for presumed pulmonary edema: a preliminary case series”, Kosowsky, et. al. 19 patients Mean duration of therapy 15.5 minutes Oxygen sat. rose from 83.3% to 95.4% None were intubated in the field 2 intubated in the ED 5 subsequently intubated in hospital “ Pre-hospital CPAP is feasible and may avert the need for intubation”

PEC 2000 NAEMSP Abstract, “Pre-hospital use of CPAP for presumed pulmonary edema: a preliminary case series”, Kosowsky, et. al.

19 patients

Mean duration of therapy 15.5 minutes

Oxygen sat. rose from 83.3% to 95.4%

None were intubated in the field

2 intubated in the ED

5 subsequently intubated in hospital

“ Pre-hospital CPAP is feasible and may avert the need for intubation”

Review CPAP is not a substitute for patients needing IPPV or intubation. CPAP works best when used in conjunction with other therapies. CPAP doses start at ZERO and titrate up Max of 10 cmH2O for APE Mac of 5 cmH2O for other causes CPAP is effective in COPD when CAREFULLY used.

CPAP is not a substitute for patients needing IPPV or intubation.

CPAP works best when used in conjunction with other therapies.

CPAP doses start at ZERO and titrate up

Max of 10 cmH2O for APE

Mac of 5 cmH2O for other causes

CPAP is effective in COPD when CAREFULLY used.

Key Points of CPAP CPAP, while very beneficial in many patients, is not risk free . Pneumothorax Regurgitation and aspiration hypotension

CPAP, while very beneficial in many patients, is not risk free .

Pneumothorax

Regurgitation and aspiration

hypotension

Review local protocol or local Medical Director considerations

Questions?

Device specific orientation and skills practice Followed by skills check off and a written test!

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