Empowering Females for Prosperity

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Information about Empowering Females for Prosperity

Published on October 15, 2014

Author: World_Bank_Publications

Source: slideshare.net


Despite recent advances in important aspects of the lives of girls and women, pervasive challenges remain, frequently as a result of widespread deprivations and constraints. These often violate women’s most basic rights and are magnified and multiplied by poverty and lack of education. Voice and Agency: Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity distills vast data and hundreds of studies to shed new light on such constraints facing women and girls worldwide, from epidemic levels of gender-based violence to biased laws and norms that prevent them from owning property, working, and making decisions about their own lives. Building on the landmark 2012 World Development Report, it focuses on several areas key to women’s empowerment: freedom from violence, control over sexual and reproductive health and rights, ownership and control of land and housing, and voice and collective action. It explores the power of social norms in dictating how men and women can and cannot behave—deterring women from owning property or working even where laws permit, for example, because those who do become outcasts.

The report argues that policymakers and stakeholders need to tackle this agenda, drawing on evidence about what works and systematically tracking progress: This must start with reforming discriminatory laws and follow through with concerted policies and public actions, including multi-sectoral approaches that engage men and boys and challenge adverse social norms. Expanding opportunities and amplifying the voices of women and girls isn’t a zero-sum equation because gender equality conveys broad development dividends for men and boys, families, and communities. Conversely, constraining women’s agency by limiting what jobs they can do or condoning gender-based violence can severely hinder efforts to end poverty and boost inclusive growth. Finally, the report argues that more and better data are needed to measure progress and hold governments and development agencies to account.

Download free PDF: http://wrld.bg/CNQwn

1. Voice andAgency Empowering women and girls for shared prosperity

2. Why voice and agency? Able to speak up and be heard, and to shape and share in discussions, discourse and decisions Able to make decisions about one's own life and act upon them to achieve desired outcomes, free of violence, retribution, or fear Voice Agenc y “An empowered woman is one who can help herself and others, who has a job, knows about herself and her environment and her community. If you join societies, organizations, communities, and other social things, even spiritually, you will be empowered.” — A participant from a focus group in Ghana (Tsikata and Darkwah, 2011)

3. Table of Contents 1. Framing the Challenge: Norms, Constraints & Deprivations 2. Enhancing Women’s Agency: A Cross-Cutting Agenda 3. Freedom from Violence 4. Control over Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 5. Control over Land and Housing 6. Amplifying Voices 7. Closing Gaps in Data and Evidence

4. More than 700 million women subject to violence at the hands of a husband, boyfriend or partner in their lifetime Source: Preliminary analysis of WHO (World Health Organization), global prevalence database (2013) using World Bank regions.

5. Beyond the human tragedy, violence incurs major economic costs Often at least what the country spends on primary education Source: Duvvury et al., 2013

6. Women often face many deprivations and harmful norms Percentage of women Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012.

7. Extensive deprivations in Niger Percentage of women Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012.

8. Education is critical in overcoming deprivations Suffer three deprivations Secondary education and higher Suffer at least one deprivation Primary education or less Share with deprivations Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001- 2012. Primary education or less Secondary education and higher

9. Education is important for sexual autonomy… Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS using latest available data from 2001-2012.

10. …And reduces the likelihood of early marriage Girls who finish high school are six times less likely to marry early Child marriage prevalence in 111

11. Control over land and housing can expand women’s agency But, fewer women than men report owning housing… …or land

12. Women’s voices can be transformative Collective action Political participation and decision making Information and communicatio n technologies

13. But attitudes are restrictive The belief that women make equally good leaders is correlated with female representation in parliaments Sources: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates for 87 countries based on World Values Survey data, latest years available (1996-2012); Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2013.

14. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Uneven progress in addressing legal Changes in average number of legal constraints by Middle East and North Africa disparities South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia and the Pacific Latin America and the Caribbean region OECD Eastern Europe and Central Asia Average no. of constraints 1960/Initial 2010 Note: Number of potential constraints equals 11 Hallward-Driemeier, Hasan and Iqbal, 2013 Women’s Legal Rights Over 50 Years

15. The need for legal reform remains Number of Source: Wcomoenu, Bnusitnresise ansd the Law 2014 At least one legal difference between men & women No laws on domestic violence Restrictions on women as head of household Unequal inheritance rights 31 29 28 128

16. Momentum for change: the case of domestic Number of countries with legislation against domestic violence 1 2 3 4 8 13 19 23 27 28 30 35 37 41 47 54 56 61 63 67 69 72 74 76 violence Source: World Bank, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality

17. Promising directions for changing social norms Access to justice Social protecti on Engaging men, boys, families, communiti es Economic opportuniti es Educati on Media

18. Gender-Based Violence: What works? Prevention • Include men AND women • Engage entire community • Combine multiple approaches • Last at least 6 months • Address social norms around the acceptability of violence Source: D. Arango, M. Morton, F. Gennari, S. Kiplesund and Mary E. forthcoming. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Violence Against Women and Girls: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Background paper to the report on Women’s Voice and Agency. Washington, DC: World Bank. Forthcoming, the Lancet. Response • Target survivors rather than perpetrators • Encourage women’s autonomy and empowerment • Include psychosocial elements (e.g. counseling) and victim advocacy

19. Programs enhancing agency TOSTAN Working with communities to eliminate FGC and child marriage SASA! Mobilizing communities to reduce domestic violence PROGRAM P Promoting men’s roles as gender-equitable caregivers

20. “Data not only measures progress. It inspires it.” -Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Selected New Gaps Efforts Internationally agreed core indicators (52) Evidence on Data and Gender Equality (EDGE) Data 2X Internationally agreed indicators on violence against women GBV: Scarce, infrequent and often underestimated Sexual & reproductive health: Scarce Access to land: Data not collected at individual level Voice: Limited

21. Media reception to the report 600+ tweets featuring #WomenCan have captured 10+ Million impressions to date. On May 14, #WomenCan was the #7 trending Twitter topic in the United States*** and the #2 trending Twitter topic in Washington, D.C. Original “postcards” posted on the World Bank’s Facebook channel. World Bank Live Event 9,143 page views to date, 4,597 live blog views, 70 online questions submitted Top 10 Countries: US, UK, Canada, India, Australia, Mexico, South Africa, Germany, Japan, France ***A World Bank first

22. Over 400 news stories in more than 20 countries covered -- US, Canada, Pakistan, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, China, Malaysia, South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, Turkey, Morocco, Syria, Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, and Algeria. Educating Girls: Big Payoff For $45 A Year May 15, 201411:37 AM ET - NPR Tell Me More Girls without an education are six times more likely to marry young than those who've finished high school, according to a new report from the World Bank Group. Guest host Celeste Headlee learns more. World Bank: 700 million women subject to conjugal violence Child brides face increased chances of illiteracy, domestic violence, report says

23. #WomenCan Voice andAgency

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