Published on October 15, 2014
1. Voice andAgency Empowering women and girls for shared prosperity
2. Why voice and agency? Able to speak up and be heard, and to shape and share in discussions, discourse and decisions Able to make decisions about one's own life and act upon them to achieve desired outcomes, free of violence, retribution, or fear Voice Agenc y “An empowered woman is one who can help herself and others, who has a job, knows about herself and her environment and her community. If you join societies, organizations, communities, and other social things, even spiritually, you will be empowered.” — A participant from a focus group in Ghana (Tsikata and Darkwah, 2011)
3. Table of Contents 1. Framing the Challenge: Norms, Constraints & Deprivations 2. Enhancing Women’s Agency: A Cross-Cutting Agenda 3. Freedom from Violence 4. Control over Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 5. Control over Land and Housing 6. Amplifying Voices 7. Closing Gaps in Data and Evidence
4. More than 700 million women subject to violence at the hands of a husband, boyfriend or partner in their lifetime Source: Preliminary analysis of WHO (World Health Organization), global prevalence database (2013) using World Bank regions.
5. Beyond the human tragedy, violence incurs major economic costs Often at least what the country spends on primary education Source: Duvvury et al., 2013
6. Women often face many deprivations and harmful norms Percentage of women Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012.
7. Extensive deprivations in Niger Percentage of women Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012.
8. Education is critical in overcoming deprivations Suffer three deprivations Secondary education and higher Suffer at least one deprivation Primary education or less Share with deprivations Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001- 2012. Primary education or less Secondary education and higher
9. Education is important for sexual autonomy… Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS using latest available data from 2001-2012.
10. …And reduces the likelihood of early marriage Girls who finish high school are six times less likely to marry early Child marriage prevalence in 111
11. Control over land and housing can expand women’s agency But, fewer women than men report owning housing… …or land
12. Women’s voices can be transformative Collective action Political participation and decision making Information and communicatio n technologies
13. But attitudes are restrictive The belief that women make equally good leaders is correlated with female representation in parliaments Sources: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates for 87 countries based on World Values Survey data, latest years available (1996-2012); Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2013.
14. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Uneven progress in addressing legal Changes in average number of legal constraints by Middle East and North Africa disparities South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia and the Pacific Latin America and the Caribbean region OECD Eastern Europe and Central Asia Average no. of constraints 1960/Initial 2010 Note: Number of potential constraints equals 11 Hallward-Driemeier, Hasan and Iqbal, 2013 Women’s Legal Rights Over 50 Years
15. The need for legal reform remains Number of Source: Wcomoenu, Bnusitnresise ansd the Law 2014 At least one legal difference between men & women No laws on domestic violence Restrictions on women as head of household Unequal inheritance rights 31 29 28 128
16. Momentum for change: the case of domestic Number of countries with legislation against domestic violence 1 2 3 4 8 13 19 23 27 28 30 35 37 41 47 54 56 61 63 67 69 72 74 76 violence Source: World Bank, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality
17. Promising directions for changing social norms Access to justice Social protecti on Engaging men, boys, families, communiti es Economic opportuniti es Educati on Media
18. Gender-Based Violence: What works? Prevention • Include men AND women • Engage entire community • Combine multiple approaches • Last at least 6 months • Address social norms around the acceptability of violence Source: D. Arango, M. Morton, F. Gennari, S. Kiplesund and Mary E. forthcoming. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Violence Against Women and Girls: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Background paper to the report on Women’s Voice and Agency. Washington, DC: World Bank. Forthcoming, the Lancet. Response • Target survivors rather than perpetrators • Encourage women’s autonomy and empowerment • Include psychosocial elements (e.g. counseling) and victim advocacy
19. Programs enhancing agency TOSTAN Working with communities to eliminate FGC and child marriage SASA! Mobilizing communities to reduce domestic violence PROGRAM P Promoting men’s roles as gender-equitable caregivers
20. “Data not only measures progress. It inspires it.” -Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Selected New Gaps Efforts Internationally agreed core indicators (52) Evidence on Data and Gender Equality (EDGE) Data 2X Internationally agreed indicators on violence against women GBV: Scarce, infrequent and often underestimated Sexual & reproductive health: Scarce Access to land: Data not collected at individual level Voice: Limited
21. Media reception to the report 600+ tweets featuring #WomenCan have captured 10+ Million impressions to date. On May 14, #WomenCan was the #7 trending Twitter topic in the United States*** and the #2 trending Twitter topic in Washington, D.C. Original “postcards” posted on the World Bank’s Facebook channel. World Bank Live Event 9,143 page views to date, 4,597 live blog views, 70 online questions submitted Top 10 Countries: US, UK, Canada, India, Australia, Mexico, South Africa, Germany, Japan, France ***A World Bank first
22. Over 400 news stories in more than 20 countries covered -- US, Canada, Pakistan, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, China, Malaysia, South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, Turkey, Morocco, Syria, Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, and Algeria. Educating Girls: Big Payoff For $45 A Year May 15, 201411:37 AM ET - NPR Tell Me More Girls without an education are six times more likely to marry young than those who've finished high school, according to a new report from the World Bank Group. Guest host Celeste Headlee learns more. World Bank: 700 million women subject to conjugal violence Child brides face increased chances of illiteracy, domestic violence, report says
23. #WomenCan Voice andAgency
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