Emergency Preparedness and Workplace Safety

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Information about Emergency Preparedness and Workplace Safety

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: gauravhtandon1

Source: slideshare.net


Emergency Preparedness and Workplace Safety


Emergency Preparedness and Workplace Safety Unit-V

Syllabus • Emergency preparedness and workplace safety: • Accident investigation and analysis, HACCP concepts : hazardous materials handling, storage, use and disposal , rules and regulations, MSDS, disaster management

Emergency Preparedness • Emergency planning is an important part of a comprehensive workplace safety program. • Taking proactive steps can reduce the social and economic costs of emergencies, criminal acts, crises, and disasters.

Emergency Preparedness

Accident Investigation • The term "accident" can be defined as an unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity, and that may (or may not) include injury or property damage. • An incident usually refers to an unexpected event that did not cause injury or damage this time but had the potential.

Accident Investigation

Accident Investigation • When accidents are investigated, the emphasis should be concentrated on finding the root cause of the accident rather than the investigation procedure itself so you can prevent it from happening again.

Accident Investigation • The accident investigation process involves the following steps: • Report the accident occurrence to a designated person within the organization • Provide first aid and medical care to injured person(s) and prevent further injuries or damage • Investigate the accident • Identify the causes • Report the findings • Develop a plan for corrective action • Implement the plan • Evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective action • Make changes for continuous improvement

Accident Investigation

Accident Causation Models • The simple model attempts to illustrate that the causes of any accident can be grouped into five categories - task, material, environment, personnel, and management. When this model is used, possible causes in each category should be investigated.

Accident Causation Models

Accident Causation Models

Accident Causation Models Task • Members of the accident investigation team will look for answers to questions such as: • Was a safe work procedure used? • Had conditions changed to make the normal procedure unsafe? • Were the appropriate tools and materials available? • Were they used? • Were safety devices working properly?

Accident Causation Models Material • To seek out possible causes resulting from the equipment and materials used, investigators might ask: • Was there an equipment failure? • What caused it to fail? • Was the machinery poorly designed? • Were hazardous substances involved? • Were they clearly identified? • Was a less hazardous alternative substance possible and available? • Was the raw material substandard in some way? • Should personal protective equipment (PPE) have been used? • Was the PPE used? • Were users of PPE properly trained?

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Accident Causation Models Environment • The physical environment, and especially sudden changes to that environment, are factors that need to be identified. The situation at the time of the accident is what is important, not what the "usual" conditions were. For example, accident investigators may want to know: • What were the weather conditions? • Was poor housekeeping a problem? • Was it too hot or too cold? • Was noise a problem? • Was there adequate light? • Were toxic or hazardous gases, dusts, or fumes present?


Accident Causation Models Personnel • The physical and mental condition of those individuals directly involved in the event must be explored. The purpose for investigating the accident is not to establish blame against someone but the inquiry will not be complete unless personal characteristics are considered. Some factors will remain essentially constant while others may vary from day to day: • Were workers experienced in the work being done? • Had they been adequately trained? • Can they physically do the work? • What was the status of their health? • Were they tired? • Were they under stress (work or personal)?

Accident Causation Models

Accident Causation Models Management • Management holds the legal responsibility for the safety of the workplace and therefore the role of supervisors and higher management and the role or presence of management systems must always be considered in an accident investigation. Failures of management systems are often found to be direct or indirect factors in accidents. Ask questions such as: • Were safety rules communicated to and understood by all employees? • Were written procedures and orientation available? • Were they being enforced? • Was there adequate supervision? • Were workers trained to do the work? • Had hazards been previously identified? • Had procedures been developed to overcome them? • Were unsafe conditions corrected? • Was regular maintenance of equipment carried out? • Were regular safety inspections carried out?

Accident Causation Models • This model of accident investigations provides a guide for uncovering all possible causes and reduces the likelihood of looking at facts in isolation.

Accident Analysis Accident Analysis • An accident may be described as a result of a chain of events in which something has gone wrong, resulting in an undesired conclusion.

Accident Analysis • When dealing with accidents in the workplace, one can estimate the magnitude of the problem retrospectively by comparing the number of accidents (incidence rate) with the severity of the accidents (lost work days). However, if one wants to estimate the magnitude of the problem prospectively, it is done by evaluating the presence of risk factors in the workplace—that is, factors that might lead to accidents.

Accident Analysis • A sufficiently complete and accurate view of the state of affairs with respect to workplace accidents can be gained by means of a comprehensive reporting and recordkeeping system.

Accident Analysis • Analyses of well-prepared accident reports can give a picture of the basic relationships essential to understanding the causes of the accidents. In order to estimate the magnitude of the problem in detail, a determination of risk factors is essential.

Accident Analysis • Knowledge of the relevant risk factors can be obtained by analysing the detailed information provided with each accident record as to where workers and operators were located when the accident occurred, what they were doing or handling, by what means, what damages or injuries occurred and other particulars surrounding the accident.

Accident Analysis

Risk • Risk measurement must be made on the basis of information regarding the number and seriousness of injuries that have occurred in the past, yielding a retrospective measurement. The risk of injury to individuals may be described by two types of data:

Risk • Measurement of risk provides a calculated frequency of injuries and a measurement of the seriousness of the injury. This could be described as the number of lost work day cases (or fatalities) per number of workers

Risk • Type of risk or element of danger assessment provides not only an indication of the exposure sources and other harmful factors which may cause an accident, but also an indication of the circumstances leading to injury or damage. Work performed at a height, for example, will involve a risk of falling, with serious injury as a possible result. Similarly, work with cutting tools involves a risk of cuts from contact with sharp components, and work with noisy machines for a long period of time may result in hearing damage.


Risk • However, it is one thing to know what has happened, and another to assess what will happen in the future. It should be noted that the very knowledge of the exposure sources and other potentially harmful factors which may cause damage or injury in connection with tasks of various sorts, as well as knowledge of the factors that can either heighten or reduce those risk factors that influence risk measurement, can provide a basis for recognition of the risk.


Factors Determining Risk • The factors which are of greatest relevance in determining risk are: • factors which determine the presence or absence (or potential) of risks of any sort. • factors which either increase or minimize the probability of these risks resulting in accidents or injuries • factors affecting the seriousness of accidents associated with these risks. • To clarify the first point, it is necessary to identify the causes of the accident—namely, exposure sources and other harmful factors; the two latter points constitute the factors which influence the measurement of risk.

Exposure sources and occupational disorders • The concept of injuries due to exposure sources is often linked to the concept of disease (or disorder) because a disease can be viewed as caused by exposure to one or several agents over a short (acute exposure) or long (chronic exposure) period of time. Chronic exposure agents are usually not directly harmful, but take effect rather after a relatively constant and extended period of exposure, whereas acute exposures are almost instantaneously harmful.

Exposure Sources and Occupational Disorders

Exposure sources and occupational disorders • Examples of exposure sources which may result in an injury in the form of a disease-like condition are: • chemical exposures (solvents, cleaning agents, degreasing agents, etc.) • physical exposures (noise, radiation, heat, cold, inadequate lighting, lack of oxygen, etc.) • physiological exposures (heavy loads, bad work postures or repetitive work) • biological exposures (viruses, bacteria, flour, animal blood or leather, etc.) • psychological exposures (work in isolation, threat of violence, changing working hours, unusual job demands, etc.).

Harmful factors and occupational accidents • The concept of harmful factors (not including exposure sources) is linked to occupational accidents, because this is where damages occur and workers are exposed to the type of actions that cause instant injury. This type of action is easily identified because the damage or injury is recognized immediately when it occurs.

Harmful factors and occupational accidents • Examples of harmful factors which may result in persons being injured by an accident are often linked to different energy forms, sources or activity, such as the following: • energy that involves cutting, dividing or planing, usually in connection with such types of sharp objects as knives, saws and edged tools • energy that involves pressing and compressing, usually in connection with different shaping means such as presses and clamping tools • heat and cold, electricity, sound, light, radiation and vibration • toxic and corrosive substances • energy exposing the body to excessive stress in such actions, for example, as the moving of heavy loads or twisting of the body • mental and psychological stresses such as the threat of violence.

Harmful factors and Occupational Accidents

Controlling Exposures • From the point of view of measurable risk, it should be recognized that control of the probability of exposures and the seriousness of injuries to workers often depends on the following three factors:

Controlling Exposures Elimination/substitution safety measures. • Workplace hazards in the form of exposure sources or other harmful factors may be eliminated or mitigated by substitution (e.g., a less harmful chemical may replace a toxic chemical in a process). Technical safety measures. • These measures, often called engineering controls, consist of separating persons from harmful factors by encapsulating the harmful elements, or installing barriers between workers and the factors which may cause injury. Examples of these measures include, but are not limited to, automation, remote control, use of ancillary equipment and machine protection (guarding).

Controlling Exposures

Controlling Exposures Organizational safety measures. • Organizational safety measures, also known as administrative controls, include separating persons from harmful factors either by means of special working methods or by separation in time or space. • Examples of these controls include, but are not limited to, reduced exposure time, preventive maintenance programmes, encapsulating the individual workers with personal protective equipment, and expedient organization of work

Organizational Safety Measures.

Controlling Human Conduct • It is often not possible to isolate all hazards using the above control measures. It is commonly supposed that accident prevention analysis ends here because it is believed that the workers will then be able to take care of themselves by acting “according to the rules”.

Controlling Human Conduct

Controlling Human Conduct • Knowledge. Workers must first be aware of the types of risk, potential hazards and elements of danger that may be found in the workplace. This usually requires education, training and job experience.

Controlling Human Conduct

Controlling Human Conduct The opportunity to act. • Positive support of the safety programme must be forthcoming from management, supervisors and the surroundings, including concern about risk taking, designing and following working methods with safety in view, safe use of the proper tools, clearly defining tasks, establishing and following safe procedures, and providing clear instructions on how equipment and materials are to be safely handled.

Controlling Human Conduct

Controlling Human Conduct The will to act safely. • Technical and organizational factors are important with respect to workers’ readiness to behave in ways that will ensure workplace safety, but social and cultural factors are at least equally important. Risks will arise if, for example, safe conduct is difficult or timeconsuming, or if it is not desired by management or colleagues, or is not appreciated by them. Management must be clearly interested in safety, taking steps to prioritize it and displaying a positive attitude towards the need for safe conduct.

Analysis of Individual Accidents • Analysis of individual accidents has two primary purposes: • First, it can be used to determine the cause of an accident and the specific work factors that contributed to it. • Second, one can gain knowledge which may be used for analyses of many similar accidents at both the enterprise level and at more comprehensive (e.g., organization-wide or national) levels.

Analysis of Individual Accidents • the identity of the workplace and the work itself (that is, information relating to the sector or the trade in which the workplace is positioned), and the work processes and the technology that characterize the work • the nature and the seriousness of the accident • factors causing the accident, such as exposure sources, the way in which the accident occurred and the specific working situation causing the accident • general conditions at the workplace and the working situation (comprising the factors mentioned in the foregoing paragraph).

Analysis of Individual Accidents

Types of Analyses Types of Analyses • There are five primary types of analyses of accidents, each having a distinct purpose: • Analyses and identification of where and which types of accidents occur. • The goal is to determine the incidence of the injuries, as associated, for example, with sectors, trade groups, enterprises, work processes and types of technology.

Types of Analyses • Analyses with respect to monitoring developments in the incidence of accidents. • The purpose is to be warned of changes, both positive and negative. Measuring the effect of preventive initiatives may be the result of such analyses, and increases in new types of accidents within a specified area will constitute warning of new risk elements. • Analyses to prioritize initiatives that call for high degrees of risk measurement, which in turn involve calculating the frequency and seriousness of accidents. • The goal is to establish a basis for prioritization to determine where it is more important to carry out preventive measures than elsewhere.

Incidence of Accidents

Types of Analyses • Analyses to determine how the accidents occurred and, especially, to establish both direct and underlying causes. This information is then applied to the selection, elaboration and implementation of concrete corrective action and preventive initiatives. • Analyses for elucidation of special areas which have otherwise attracted attention (a sort of rediscovery or control analyses). Examples include analyses of incidences of a special injury risk or the discovery of a hither to unrecognized risk identified in the course of examining an already known risk.

Phases of the Analysis • Irrespective of the level from which an analysis starts, it will usually have the following phases: • identification of where the accidents occur at the general level selected • specification of where the accidents occur at a more specific level within the general level • determination of goals in view of the incidence (or frequency) and seriousness of the accidents • description of exposure sources or other harmful factors—that is, the direct causes of damage and injury • examination of the underlying causal relation and causal development.

Accident Analysis • Identification of accidents nationwide may provide knowledge of the sectors, trade groups, technologies and working processes within which damages and injuries occur. The goal is solely to identify where the accidents occurred. Measurement of accidents by frequency and seriousness partly establishes where something is wrong in particular and partly indicates where the risk has changed.

Accident Analysis

HACCP Concept • Hazard analysis and critical control points • Hazard analysis and critical control points or HACCP is a systematic preventive approach to food safety and biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe, and designs measurements to reduce these risks to a safe level. In this manner, HACCP is referred as the prevention of hazards rather than finished product inspection.

HACCP Concept

HACCP Concept • HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as pharmaceuticals. This method, which in effect seeks to plan out unsafe practices based on science, differs from traditional "produce and sort" quality control methods that do nothing to prevent hazards from occurring and must identify them at the end of the process.

HACCP Concept

Principles Conduct a Hazard Analysis • Plans determine the Safety hazards and identify the preventive measures the plan can apply to control these hazards. Identify critical control points • A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a manufacturing process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.


Principles Establish critical limits for each critical control point • A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level. Establish critical control point monitoring requirements • Monitoring activities are necessary to ensure that the process is under control at each critical control point.


Principles Establish Corrective Actions • These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an established critical limit. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP plan to identify the corrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.


Principles Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended • Validation ensures that the plants do what they were designed to do; that is, they are successful in ensuring the production of a safe product. Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. Verification procedures may include such activities as review of HACCP plans, CCP records, critical limits and microbial sampling and analysis.

Principles Establish record keeping procedures • The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records documenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations. • Implementation involves monitoring, verifying and validating of the daily work that is compliant with regulatory requirements in all stages all the time. The differences among those three types of work are given by Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food


Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules • “hazardous waste” means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances.

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules • Obligations on the part of Entrepreneurs under the provisions of Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Tran boundary Movement) Rules, 2008 • It is mandatory under the provisions of the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 framed under section 6, 8 and 25 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for any person handling hazardous wastes, to obtain authorization of the State Pollution Control Board for collection, reception, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of such wastes. • It shall be the duty of the occupier and the operator of a facility to take adequate steps while handling hazardous waste to• (i) contain contaminants and prevent accidents and limit their consequences on human and the environment; and • (ii) Provide persons working on the site with information, training and equipment necessary to ensure their safety.

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules • Packaging, labelling and transport of hazardous wastes • The occupier or operator of a facility shall ensure that the hazardous wastes are packaged, based on the composition in a manner suitable for handling, storage and transport and the labelling and packaging shall be easily visible and be able to withstand physical conditions and climatic factors. • Packaging, labelling and transport of hazardous wastes shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Rules made by the Central Government under the Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 and other guidelines issued from time to time. • All hazardous waste containers shall be provided with a general label as given in form 8 of the Rules. • The occupier shall prepare six copies of the manifest in form 9 of the Rules comprising of colour code indicated below (all six copies to be signed by the transporter).

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling & Movement) Rules

Packaging, Labelling and Transport of Hazardous Wastes

Packaging, Labelling and Transport of Hazardous Wastes • In case of transport of hazardous wastes to a facility for treatment, storage and disposal existing in a State other than the State where hazardous wastes are generated, the occupier shall obtain “No Objection Certificate” from the State Pollution Control Board or Committee of the concerned State or Union Territory administration where the facility is existing.”

Responsibilities for Disposal Site  The occupier or operator of a facility or any association of occupiers shall be jointly and severally responsible for identifying sites for establishing the facility for treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes.  The State Government, operator of a facility or any association of occupiers shall jointly and severally be responsible for, and identify sites for common facility for treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes in the State.

Responsibilities for Disposal Site

Responsibilities for Disposal Site  The operator of a facility, occupier or any association of occupiers shall undertake an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the selected site(s) and shall submit the EIA report to the State Pollution Control Board or Committee.  The State Pollution Control Board or Committee shall on being satisfied with the EIA report, give a public notice for conducting a public hearing as per the procedure contained in the Environment Impact Assessment Notification.

Responsibilities for Disposal Site

Design and Setting up of Disposal Facility • The occupier, any association or operator of a facility, as the case may be shall design and set up disposal facility as per the guidelines issued by the Central Govt. or the State Govt. as the case may be. • The occupier, any association or operator, shall before setting up a disposal facility get the design and the layout of the facility approved by the State Pollution Control Board.

Design and Setting up of Disposal Facility

Operation and Closure of Landfill Site • The occupier or the operator as the case may be, shall be responsible for safe and environmentally sound operation of the facility as per design approved under Rule-8A by the State Pollution Control Board. • The occupier or the operator shall ensure that the closure of the landfill is as per the design approved under Rule 8 A by the State Pollution Control Board.

Operation and Closure of Landfill Site

Import and export of hazardous wastes for recycling and reuse. • No person shall import or export hazardous wastes or substances containing or contaminated with such hazardous wastes as specified in Schedule 8. • Any occupier importing or exporting hazardous wastes shall provide detailed information in Form 7 A to the Customs authorities. • Any occupier importing or exporting hazardous wastes shall comply with the articles of the Basel Convention to which the Central Government is a signatory.

Import and export of hazardous wastes for recycling and reuse. • Import of hazardous wastes from any country to India shall not be permitted for dumping and disposal of such wastes. However, import of such wastes may be allowed for processing or reuse as raw material, after examining each case on merit by the State Pollution Control Board or by an officer authorized in this behalf. The exporting country or the exporter as the case may be, of hazardous wastes is to communicate in Form-6 to the Central Government (Ministry of Environment & Forests) of the proposed trans boundary movement of the hazardous wastes. • Any person importing hazardous waste shall maintain the records of hazardous wastes as specified and the records so maintained shall be open for inspection by the State Board.

Import and export of hazardous wastes for recycling and reuse.

Data Maintenance & Accident Reporting • After the grant of authorization under the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handing) Rules, 1989, the industry is required to maintain the record of hazardous waste generated and to submit annual return regarding disposal of hazardous waste to the Board by 31st January of every year. Where an accident occurs at the facility or on a hazardous waste site or during the transportation of hazardous waste, the occupier or operator of a facility is to report immediately to the State Pollution Control Board about the accident.

Data Maintenance & Accident Reporting

Material Safety Data Sheet • A material safety data sheet (MSDS), safety data sheet (SDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of occupational safety and health. It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spillhandling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.

Material Safety Data Sheet

Material Safety Data Sheet • SDSs are a widely done system for cataloguing information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. These data sheets can be found anywhere where chemicals are being used.

Material Safety Data Sheet

Material Safety Data Sheet • There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health and/or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard black diagonal cross on an orange background, used to denote a harmful substance. • An SDS for a substance is not primarily intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting.

Material Safety Data Sheet • In some jurisdictions, the MSDS is required to state the chemical's risks, safety, and effect on the environment. • It is important to use an MSDS specific to both country and supplier, as the same product (e.g. paints sold under identical brand names by the same company) can have different formulations in different countries.

Material Safety Data Sheet

Disaster Management • The United Nations defines a Disaster as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. • Disasters involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

Disaster Management

Disaster Management • The Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies define disaster management as the organisation and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.

Disaster Management

Types of Disasters • There is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. There are four main types of disaster.

Types of Disasters • Natural Disasters: including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis. • Environmental Emergencies: including technological or industrial accidents, usually involving the production, use or transportation of hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported, and forest fires caused by humans.

Natural Disasters

Environmental Emergencies

Types of Disasters • Complex Emergencies: involving a breakdown of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations, including conflict situations and war. • Pandemic Emergencies: involving a sudden onset of contagious disease that affects health, disrupts services and businesses, brings economic and social costs.

Complex Emergencies

Pandemic Emergencies

Types of Disasters • Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as health care, electricity, water, sewage/garbage removal, transportation and communications. • The interruption can seriously affect the health, social and economic networks of local communities and countries. • Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on people long after the immediate effect has been mitigated.

Types of Disasters • Local, regional, national and international organisations are all involved in mounting a humanitarian response to disasters. Each will have a prepared disaster management plan. These plans cover prevention, preparedness, relief and recovery.

Types of Disasters

Disaster Prevention • These are activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards.

Disaster Prevention

Disaster Preparedness • These activities are designed to minimise loss of life and damage – for example by removing people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation. Preparedness is the main way of reducing the impact of disasters. Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy practice management.

Disaster Preparedness

Disaster Relief • This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing temporary shelter and emergency health care.

Disaster Relief

Disaster Recovery • Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the communities that support them are still vulnerable. Recovery activities include rebuilding infrastructure, health care and rehabilitation. These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future.

Disaster Recovery

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) • In recognition of the importance of Disaster Management as a national priority, set up a HighPowered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 and a National Committee after the Gujarat earthquake, for making recommendations on the preparation of Disaster Management plans and suggesting effective mitigation mechanisms. The Tenth Five-Year Plan document also had, for the first time, a detailed chapter on Disaster Management. The Twelfth Finance Commission was also mandated to review the financial arrangements for Disaster Management.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

Functions and Responsibilities • NDMA, as the apex body, is mandated to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. Towards this, it has the following responsibilities:• Lay down policies on disaster management ; • Approve the National Plan; • Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan; • Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan;

Functions and Responsibilities • Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the Purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects; • Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plans for disaster management; • Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation;

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

Functions and Responsibilities • Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government; • Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situations or disasters as it may consider necessary; • Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) • On 23 December 2005, the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act, which envisaged the creation of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by respective Chief Ministers, to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India.

Disaster Management in India National Institute of Disaster Management • ( NIDM, is a premier institute for training and capacity development programs for managing natural disasters in India, on a national as well as regional basis.

Disaster Management in India Origin and Responsibilities • The National Disaster Management Act of 2005 granted the Institute statutory organisation status. The Act holds the Institute responsible for "planning and promoting training and research in the area of disaster management, documentation and development of national level information base relating to disaster management policies, prevention mechanisms and mitigation measures".

National Institute of Disaster Management

References Environmental Management Bala Krishnamoorthy- PHI publication Wikipedia- The online free Encyclopedia http://envfor.nic.in/legis/hsm/hsm1.html https://www.osha.gov/ http://www.ndmindia.nic.in/ http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/


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