Elementary Assignments Compilation - Philippines

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Information about Elementary Assignments Compilation - Philippines

Published on June 26, 2014

Author: r_borres

Source: slideshare.net


This is a compilation of Book Reviews (4 Reviews) and Assignments (79 Assignments) in elementary level of the Philippine Education System.

This file only has 1st pages of reviews and assignments. If you want to get the FULL COMPILATION, I'm charging a minimal fee of Php 300.00 or $7 only for the effort and time spent researching and formatting these. Thanks!

Please e-mail me: r_borres@yahoo.com

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com        COMPILATION OF   ASSIGNMENT   IN   ELEMENTARY LEVEL    (4 Mini Review and 79  Assignments)       

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com            BOOK REVIEWS  Ang Daga at Leon  Ang Pagong at ang Gansa   Ang Kabayo at Buriko   Ang Ungoy at Pagong    

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BOOK REPORT SA FILIPINO    Pamagat ng kwento: Ang Leon at ang Daga  Sumulat ng kwento:  Aesop (From the Aesop’s Fables)           

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BOOK REPORT SA FILIPINO    Pamagat ng kwento: Ang Madaldal ng Pagong  Sumulat ng kwento:  Aragon, Angelita L. Mga Alamat at iba pang mga Kuwento (Legends and other Stories). Quezon City: Tru‐Copy Printing Press, 1986, pp. 48‐49        Tauhan:  1. Pagong  2. Dalawang Ganza – Abuhin at Puti  3. Mga bata   

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BOOK REPORT SA FILIPINO      Pamagat ng kwento: Ang Buriko at ang kabayo  Sumulat ng kwento: Boot’s Agbayani Pastor           

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BOOK REPORT SA FILIPINO    Pamagat ng kwento: Ang Pagong at Unggoy  Sumulat ng kwento: Eutiquiano Garcia                 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com            COMPILATION OF  ASSIGNMENTS      ELEMENTARY LEVEL     

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  LIST OF ASSIGMENTS:    1. AIDS  2. Alamat ng Alitaptap  3. Amphibians  4. Amphibians2  5. Ang Agila at Maya  6. Animal Names with their youngs names  7. Animal Youngs  8. Antonyms  9. Anyong Lupa  10. Anyong Tubig  11. Awiting Pilipino  12. Bantas  13. Bantas  14. bayani revised  15. Bienvenido Santos  16. Blood is made up of four main parts  17. Blood plasma  18. blood  19. Bone and Muscle Diseases  20. Book Reports ‐ Minor  21. Branches of Science  22. CHEMICAL TOILET  23. CLOUDS  24. COLOR WHEEL CHART  25. Electrical Terms  26. ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS  27. Epiko  28. Erosion is displacement of solids  29. Filipino idioms  30. Food Chains 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  31. Food Pyramid  32. Food Web  33. Forest  34. GO FOODS  35. Hanamichi Sakuragi is true  36. HARAKIRI  37. Heart  38. Human brain  39. Leaves ‐ Jeff  40. Makabagong Pabula  41. Mga Bugtong  42. Mga Epiko  43. Mga Pabula  44. Mga Pabula  45. Mga Pambansang Pagdiriwang  46. Mga Unang Tao sa Pilipinas  47. Mock Volcano that Erupts ‐ Project  48. Musical Instruments  49. Oxygen  50. Peripheral nerve  51. Planet Earth  52. Planet Venus  53. Planets  54. Platelets  55. Poliomyelitis  56. Red Blood Cells  57. References  58. Riddles  59. Salawikain2  60. Sample of Friction  61. SCI DAMA Rules  62. Sensory nerve  63. Sexuality as Right 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  64. Short Fables  65. Solar System  66. Spinal Cord  67. Symbiosis  68. The 10 Datus  69. The Circulatory System  70. THE CROW ANG THE PITCHER  71. The Earth Athmosphere  72. these lovely things‐poem  73. Tradisyon at kulturaa  74. Types of wind  75. Urban and Rural Photos  76. uri ng pamayanan2  77. Ways to Control Rapid Population in Urban Areas  78. What is Biofuel  79. What is Science  80. White blood cells  81. Wooden Generator – Project     

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com            1st  Pages   of the Assignments   

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  AIDS Provided by A.D.A.M., Inc. Definition AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. The Centers for Disease Control has defined AIDS as beginning when a person with HIV infection has a CD4 cell (also called "t-cell", a type of immune cell) count below 200. It is also defined by numerous opportunistic infections and cancers that occur in the presence of HIV infection. Alternative Names Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Causes, incidence, and risk factors AIDS is the fifth leading cause of death among persons between ages 25 and 44 in the United States. About 47 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening illnesses and cancers. Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that ordinarily do not cause serious disease in people with fully functional immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS. HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, or "pre-cum"), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been proven to transmit infection to others. Transmission of the virus occurs: 1. through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex 2. through blood -- via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S) or needle sharing 3. from mother to child -- a pregnant woman can passively transmit the virus to her fetus, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby Other transmission methods are rare and include accidental needle injury, artificial insemination with donated semen, and through a donated organ. HIV infection is not spread by casual contact (such as hugging and touching), by touching dishes, doorknobs, or toilet seats previously touched by a person infected with the virus, during participation in sports, or by mosquitoes. It is not transmitted to a person who DONTATES blood or organs in the U.S. because hospitals do not re- use syringes and sterilize all devices involved in such procedures. However, HIV can be transmitted to the person RECEIVING blood or organs from an infected donor. This is why blood banks and organ donor programs screen donors, blood, and tissues thoroughly. Those at highest risk include homosexual or bisexual men engaging in unprotected sex, intravenous drug users who share needles, the sexual partners of those who participate in high-risk activities, infants born to mothers with HIV, and people who received blood transfusions or clotting products between 1977 and 1985 (prior to standard screening for the virus in the blood). AIDS begins with HIV infection. People infected with HIV may have no symptoms for ten years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptom-free period. Meanwhile, their immune system gradually weakens until they develop AIDS. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to asymptomatic HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection. Later, it progresses to AIDS (very advanced HIV infection with T-cell count below 200). Most individuals infected with HIV will progress to AIDS, if not treated. However, there is a tiny group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly or never at all. These patients are called non-progressors and many seem to have a genetic difference which prevents the virus from attaching to certain immune receptors. Symptoms

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG ALAMAT NG ALITAPTAP Engkantada (Fairy) Alitaptap (Firefly)

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  bians  l Overview  bians are animals that have the following characterizations: They develop out side the body (eggs),  glandular  skin  without  external  scales,and  resperation  (breath)  occures  through  gills  during  pment  or  in  some  cases  into  adulthood.  Some  examples  of  amphibians  include  frogs,  toads,  nders, newts and caecilians.  on  ecords indicate that amphibians evolved form fish whose lobed fins became legs. Gills adapted to  ey may breath both above and below the surface of the water. Amphibians first appeared some 340  million years ago, in the period known as the Mississipian. To date, Amphibians can be found  here except in Antarctica and Greenland.   atch  their glandular skin and the fact that they spend their critical development periods in the wetlands,  bians are good indicators as to the health of our environment.  orld of Amphibians  re about 4,780 species of amphibians known to naturalists, and there may be 300 to 500 more that  et to be discovered. In the United States and Canada there are only 250 species. The world’s  bians, most of which live in tropical areas, fall into three major groups (called orders) with special  eristics.  s an Amphibian?  ds, reptiles, mammals, and fishes, amphibians are vertebrates –‐ that is, creatures with a backbone  internal skeleton. Amphibians live part of their life in water and part on land. Even those species  y eggs on land start life in a fluid‐filled egg, breathing through gills.  f all kinds (including toads) make up the biggest order of amphibians, with about 4,000 species  the globe. North America north of Mexico has 100 frog species. There are many kinds of frogs,  ng treefrogs, true toads, spadefoot toads, and many others.  nders  nders are not nearly as common as frogs, totaling only some 410 known species. North America,  out 150 species, is the best place in the world to see salamanders  ans  rd order of amphibians, the caecilians, does not occur in the United States or Canada. Caecilians are  ing wormlike creatures that live in tropical areas. There are 165 species worldwide.  are brightly colored salamanders. These small amphibians are found in moist, wooded areas in  America, Europe, and Asia.   my: On average, newts are about 3 to 4 inches (7.5 to 10 cm) long. They have four legs; there are  gers on each of the front legs and five toes on each of the hind legs. The adult's color varies from 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  Amphibians General Overview Amphibians are animals that have the following characterizations: They develop out side the body (eggs), have glandular skin without external scales,and resperation (breath) occures through gills during development or in some cases into adulthood. Some examples of amphibians include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts and caecilians. Evolution Fossil records indicate that amphibians evolved form fish whose lobed fins became legs. Gills adapted to that they may breath both above and below the surface of the water. Amphibians first appeared some 340 to 270 million years ago, in the period known as the Mississipian. To date, Amphibians can be found everywhere except in Antarctica and Greenland. Frog Watch Due to their glandular skin and the fact that they spend their critical development periods in the wetlands, amphibians are good indicators as to the health of our environment. The World of Amphibians There are about 4,780 species of amphibians known to naturalists, and there may be 300 to 500 more that have yet to be discovered. In the United States and Canada there are only 250 species. The world’s amphibians, most of which live in tropical areas, fall into three major groups (called orders) with special characteristics. Frogs Frogs of all kinds (including toads) make up the biggest order of amphibians, with about 4,000 species around the globe. North America north of Mexico has 100 frog species. There are many kinds of frogs, including treefrogs, true toads, spadefoot toads, and many others. All About Frogs Frogs have large eyes on the tops of their heads. Many frogs have poison glands in their skin. Most frogs and toads have distinct songs or calls that are used by males during the mating season. They produce these calls by inflating a pouch in the neck, called the vocal sac. Frogs have short front legs and long, powerful hind legs. They have four toes Little Grass Frog

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG AGILA AT ANG MAYA AGILA (EAGLE) MAYA (SPARROW)

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  NAMES OF ANIMALS AND THEIR YOUNGS    Animal Male Female Baby Group of Animals Alligator bull cow hatchling congregation, pod (of young) Alpaca male female cria herd Antelope buck doe calf herd Ape male female baby shrewdness Armadillo male female pup - Badger boar sow kit, cub cete Bat male female pup colony Bear boar sow cub sleuth, sloth

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANIMAL YOUNGS    DUCKS FROGS-TADPO CHICKEN BIRDS

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANTONYMS WORDS THAT HAVE OPPOSITE MEANING Pretty Ugly Hap py Sad Cold Hot Big Little

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANYONG LUPA 1. Kapatagan (Plain) — isang lugar kung saan walang pagtaas o pagbaba ng lupa, patag at pantay ang lupa rito. Maaaring itong taniman ng mga palay,mais,at gulay. 2. Bundok (Mountain/Hill) — isang pagtaas ng lupa sa daigdig, may matatarik na bahagi at hamak na mas mataas kaysa burol.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANYONG TUBIG 1. Karagatan (Ocean) - Ang pinakamalaking anyong tubig. 2. Dagat (Sea) - Malaking anyong tubig, ngunit mas maliit sa Karagatan.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BAHAY KUBO        Filipino Language  English    Bahay kubo, kahit munti  Ang halaman doon ay sari‐sari.  Singkamas at talong, sigarilyas at mani  Sitaw, bataw, patani.    Kundol, patola, upo't kalabasa  At saka mayroon pang labanos, mustasa,  sibuyas, kamatis, bawang at luya  sa paligid‐ligid ay puro linga.    Nipa hut, although small  The plants there have many kinds  Turnip and eggplant, winged bean and peanut  String bean, hyacinth (lablab) bean, lima bean.    Wax gourd, loofah, bottle gourd and squash  And then there are radish, mustard  Onion, tomato, garlic and ginger  Around the area are sesame plants. 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG BANTAS Ang bantas ay ang mga pananda o sagisag na ginagamit upang maging malinaw ang kahulugan ng mga pangungusap. Tumutulong ito sa pagpapakilala ng kahulugan o kaisipan. Naghuhudyat din ito ng pagbabago ng bigkas at intonasyon. MGA BANTAS: 1. TULDOK (.) Sa katapusan ng pangungusap na paturol at pautos Sa nag-iisang titik sa ngalan ng tao at salitang dinaglat Sa tambilang at titik sa balangkas Halimbawa : 1. Ako ay mag-aaral ng mabuti. 2. Dr. Jose Rizal 3. Ph.D. 4. 1. (Pambilang) 5. IV. (Titik Romano) 2. KUWIT (,) Sa paghihiwalay ng mga salita, parirala o sugnay Sa oo o hindi Sa pagitan ng petsa at taon Sa bating panimula at pangwakas Naghihiwalay ng magkaibang bahagi ng salita Halimbawa: 1. Ang prutas, gulay at isda ay malulusog na pagkain. 2. Oo, kumain na ako. 3. Setyembre 28, 1971 4. Nagmamahal, Erick 5. Jeff, kumakain ka ba ng gulay? 3. PANANONG (?) Sa pangungusap na patanong Sa loob ng panaklong upang mapahiwatig ang pag-aalinlangan sa diwa ng pangungusap. Halimbawa: 1. Ano ang pangalan mo? 2. Maglalaro ba tayo ng badminton? 3. Marunong ka bang lumangoy? 4. Tapus ka na ba sa iyong takdang aralin? 5. Si Manuel Roxas ang ikalawang (?) pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas. 4. PADAMDAM (!) Sa salita o pangungusap na padamdam Halimbawa: 1. Mabuhay ang Pilipinas! 2. Naku! Nadulas ang plato. 3. Aray! Naapakan mo ako. 4. Uy! Ang ganda mo ngayon dahil sa bago mong damit. 5. Lalaban tayo!

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG MGA IBA’T-IBANG URI NG BANTAS 1. Tuldok (.) - ginagamit sa katapusan ng pangungusap na paturol at pautos, sa mga salitang dinadaglat at pagkatapos ng mga tambilang at titik. Halimbawa: Ang ating paaralan ay maayos at maganda. 2. Tandang Pananong (?) - ginagamit sa katapusan ng mga pangungusap na patanong at sa bahaging pag-aalinlangan at ito'y inilalagay sa panaklong. Halimbawa: Kumain na ba kayo? 3. Tandang Padamdam (!) - ginagamit sa katapusan ng mga salita o pangungusap na pandamdam o nagpapahayag ng matindi o masidhing damdamin. Halimbawa: Huminto ka! Baka ka masagasaan. 4. Panipi (" ") - ginagamit sa mga tuwirang sinsabi ng nagsasalita at sa mga pamagat o pangalan ng mga paksa. Halimbawa: Ang sabi ni Lolo, “Maging kayong masunurin na mga bata.” 5. Kudlit (') - ginagamit na pananda ng nawawalang letra o mga letra sa dalawa o mahigit pang salitang magkasunod. Halimbawa: May iba’t ibang uri ng hayop na matatagpuan sa gubat. 6. Kuwit (,) - ginagamit pagkatapos ng panawag at sa magkasunod na mga salita o parirala na nasa loob ng pangungusap. Halimbawa: May iba’t ibang uri ng hayop na matatagpuan sa gubat. Kagaya ng unggoy, ibon, tigre, daga at iba pa. 7. Tutuldok (:) - ginagamit matapos maipauna ang pagpapakilala sa mga sumusunod na paliwanag, halimbawa, katuturan, banggit o talaan. Halimbawa: Ang iba’t-ibang kulay: pula, dilaw, bughaw, berde at iba pa. 8. Tulduk-tuldok (...) - ginagamit kung may salita o mga salitang iniwawaglit sa pangungusap. Halimbawa: Ang batang masunurin at mabait ay kinlulugdan ng kanyang mga magulang at… 9. Tuldukuwit (;) - ginagamit sa pagitan ng magkakaugnay na mga mahahalagang sangkap ng isang mahabang pangungusap. Karaniwang ginagamit pagkatapos ng mga sugnay na ang kasunod ay ang mga salitang kaya, samakatuwid, gayon din, gayon man, anupa't, bukod Halimbawa: Ang batang masunurin at mabait ay kinlulugdan ng kanyang mga magulang; bukod pa sa kanyang mga guro; at gayon din ang kanyang kamag-aral.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  JOSE P. RIZAL – “Ang Pambansang Bayani” Hunyo 19, 1861 Calamba, Laguna Natapos ang Bachiller en Artes sa Ateneo de Manila noong Marso 23, 1876. Noong 1877, kinuha niya ang pag-aaral ng medisina sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas. Natapos niya ang pag-aaral ng medisina at pilosopiya noong 1885 sa Unibersidad Centeral Madrid. Natuto siya magsulat gamit ang iba’t-ibang wika kasama na ang Latin at Greko. Sumulat ng librong Noli MeTangere at El Filibusterismo. Ito ang mga librong nagsaad kung gaano kasama ang mg Espanyol. Bago namatay isinulat niya ang “Mi Ultimo Adios” bilang inspirasyon ng mga susunod na henerasyon. Naitulong sa kilusan: Nagtatag ng La Liga Filipina noong Julyo 3, 1892. Sumulat ng librong nagbigay inspirasyon sa mga Pilipinong mamulat sa kasakiman ng mga Espanyol. ANDRES BONIFACIO - “Ang Ama ng Katipunan” Nobyembre 30, 1863 Tondo, Manila Panganay sa anim na anak ni Santiago Bonifacio at Catalina de Castro. Naulila ng maaga, si Bonifacio na ang kumuha ng responsibilidad sa pag-aalaga sa kanyang mga kapatid.nagbenta siya ng papel na pamayapay, na ginawa niya at ng kanyang mga kapatid. Nagtrabaho bilang isang mensahero ito ang naging daan upang siya ay matuto ng Ingles. Kahit tumigil na siya sa pag-aaral, patuloy siyang nag-aaral ng mag-isa, nabasa din niya ang Noli Me Tangere at El Filibusterismo na isinulat ni Rizal. Naitulong sa kilusan: Siya kasama sina Valentin Diaz, Deodato Arellano, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Jose Dizon, at dalawa pa ay nagtatag ng isang samahang tinawag na Katipunan. Siya ay nagsilbing supremo o pinuno ng Katipunan. Pinamunuan niya ang paglaban ng grupo sa mga Espanyol. EMILIO AGUINALDO – Ipinanganak noong 1869 malapit sa Cavite nag-aral sa San Juan de Letran sa Maynila. Nabotong unang presidente pagkatapos ng pagdeklara ng kalayaan ng Pilipinas noong1898, lumaban siya sa mga Amerikano tuloy pa rin siya sa pamumuno laban sa Amerikano hanggang 1901 noong siya ay nahuli. Naitulong sa kilusan: Namuno laban sa mga Espanyol sa Kawit, Cavite at nanalo sa laban. Ito daw ang pinakamalaking panalo sa pag-aalsa. Ito na rin siguro ang nagpanalo sa kanya sa administrasyon. GREGORIO DEL PILAR – “Bayani ng Tirad Pass” Nobyembre 14, 1875 San Juan, Bulacan Namuno kasama ang kanyang mga tauhan upang makatakas si Aguinaldo mula sa mga Amerikano. Nabaril siya ng isang tauhan ng Amerika noong Disyembre 2, 1899. Ito ang dahilan ng kanyang pagkamatay. Naitulong sa kilusan: Namuno sa pagtulong para sa pagtakas ni Aguinaldo.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  Bienvenido Santos From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia • Interested in contributing to Wikipedia? • Jump to: navigation, search Bienvenido N. Santos (1911-1996) is a very important Filipino-American fictionist, poet and nonfiction writer. He was born raised in Tondo, Manila. His family roots are originally from Lubao, Pampanga, Philippines. He lived in the United States for many years where he is widely credited as a pioneering Asian-American writer. Santos received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of the Philippines where he first studied creative writing under the tutelage of pioneering fictionist Paz Marquez Benitez. Santos was a government pensionado (scholar) to the United States at the University of Illinois, Columbia University, and Harvard University in 1941. During World War II, he served with the Philippine government in exile under President Manuel L. Quezon in Washington, D.C. together with the playwright Severino Montano and Philippine National Artist Jose Garcia Villa. In 1946, he returned to the Philippines to become a teacher and university administrator. He received a Rockefeller fellowship at the Writers Workshop of the University of Iowa where he later taught as a Fulbright exchange professor. Santos has also received a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, a Republic Cultural Heritage Award in Literature as well as several Palanca Awards for his short stories. Scent of Apples, his only book to be published in the United States, won an American Book Award from the Before Columbus Foundation in 1980. Santos received honorary doctorate degrees in Humanities and Letters from the University of the Philippines, and Bicol University (Legazpi City, Albay) in 1981. He was also a Professor of Creative Writing and Distinguished Writer in Residence at the Wichita State University (Kansas, U.S.A.) from 1973 to 1982. Santos also received an honorary doctorate degree in Humane Letters from Wichita State University in 1982. After his retirement, Santos became Visiting Writer and Artist at De La Salle University in Manila. De La Salle University honored Bienvenido Santos by renaming its Creative Writing Center after him. Works [edit] Novels • Brother My Brother (1960) • The Volcano (1965) • Villa Magdalena (1965) • The Praying Man (1977) • The Man Who (Thought He) Looked Like Robert Taylor

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  The blood that flows through this network of veins and arteries is called whole blood, and it contains three types of blood cells: 1. RED BLOOD CELLS (RBCS) 2. WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBCS) 3. PLATELETS BLOOD: Blood is made up of four main parts: Red blood cells Red blood cells deliver oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and transport carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. White blood cells White blood cells fight infection and kill of germs and CO2. Platelets Platelets combine with other blood components to form clots to prevent bleeding. Plasma Plasma, which is 90% water, is the medium in which all the blood components and clotting factors are transported

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BLOOD PLASMA Blood plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood in which the blood cells in whole blood are normally suspended. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside of  cells).  It  is  mostly  water  (93%  by  volume)  and  contains  dissolved  proteins, glucose,  clotting  factors,  mineral  ions,  hormones  and  carbon  dioxide  (plasma being  the  main  medium  for  excretory  product  transportation).  Blood  plasma  is prepared  by  spinning  a  tube  of  fresh  blood  containing  an  anti‐coagulant  in  a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off.[1] Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 kg/l.  

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  LOOD:  PLASMA  Blood plasma, the yellow‐colored liquid component of blood, in which blood cells are  suspended.    PLATELETS  Platelets, or thrombocytes, are small, irregularly  shaped anuclear cells, 2‐4 µm in diameter, which are  derived from fragmentation of precursor  megakaryocytes.  The average lifespan of a platelet is  between 8 and 12 days.  Platelets play a fundamental  role in hemostasis and are a natural source of growth  factors.  They circulate in the blood of mammals and  are involved in hemostasis, leading to the formation of  blood clots.  WHITE BLOOD CELLS  White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled  "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system  defending the body against both infectious disease  and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types  of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and  derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow  known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are  found throughout the body, including the blood and  lymphatic system.  RED BLOOD CELLS  Red blood cells are the most common type of blood  cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of  delivering oxygen to the body tissues via the blood.  They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it  while squeezing through the body's capillaries. The  cells are filled with hemoglobin, a biomolecule that  can bind to oxygen. The blood's red color is due to the  color of hemoglobin. In humans, red blood cells  develop in the bone marrow and live for about 120  days; they take the form of flexible biconcave disks  that lack a cell nucleus and organelles and they cannot  synthesize proteins.    Blood types    A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or  Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BONE AND MUSCLE DISEASES BONE DISEASES: • Arthritis ~ Inflammation of one or more joints that can be caused by gout, rheumatic fever, or ankylosing spondylitis, a disease that affects the spine. o Osteoarthritis - It is usually a mild, sometimes painful disease occurring primarily with advancing age, when degenerative changes alter the structure of the joints. Symptoms may be relieved and the condition controlled with drugs, exercise, and other measures, sometimes including orthopaedic surgery; o Rheumatoid arthritis - Is by far the more serious, painful, and potentially crippling form; it is chronic, is characterized by flare-ups and remissions, and occurs throughout the world, in all climates and ethnic groups. The prevalence in developed countries is generally about 3 per cent, with three times as many women as men affected. o Gout - complex disease of uncertain origin caused by the faulty metabolism of uric acid produced in the body, and resulting in elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in malt beverages, wines, and proteins may precipitate individual attacks but does not cause the disease. Its incidence is not usually affected by climate or season; about 95 per cent of sufferers are men. The disease is rare in people under the age of 30; between 10 and 20 per cent of cases have a family history of the disease. • Rickets ~ nutritional disorder characterized by skeletal deformities. Rickets is caused by a decreased mineralization of bones and cartilage due to low levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of normal calcium and phosphorus levels. Classic rickets, a deficiency disease of children characterized by improper development or hardening of bones, is due to lack of sufficient vitamin D in the diet, or to insufficient ultraviolet radiation from direct sunlight, a lack that prevents conversion of the element 7- dehydrocholesterol in the skin to vitamin D. • Poliomyelitis ~ infectious viral disease of the central nervous system, sometimes resulting in paralysis. The greatest incidence of the disease, also known as infantile paralysis, is in children between the ages of five and ten years. • Osteomyelitis ~ is a term applied to any inflammation of bone or bone marrow, usually caused by infection by such micro-organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, various streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a host of others, as well as

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ☺ DIVISIONS AND BRANCHES OF SCIENCE ☺ I. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE – Life A. Zoological Science – Animal Life Ornithology – study of birds Helminthology – study of parasitic worms Oology –scientific study of bird’s eggs Hippology –study of horses Entomology – the branch of zoology that deals with insects Herpetology – the study of snakes and amphibians Conchology – the branch of zoology that treats of mollusks and their shells Inchtyology – study of fishes Parasitology – study of parasites Mammalogy – the branch of zoology involving the study of mammals B. Botanical Science – Plant Life Astrobotany – the study of plants in space Phycology – the study of algae Mycology – the science of fungi or mushrooms Paleobotany – the study of fossil plants Orchidology – the study of orchids Pomology – the study of fruit growing Floriculture – the cultivation of flowers Pteridology – the study of ferns Ethnobotany – the study of primitive uses of plants Dendrology – the scientific study of trees and other woody plants II. Physical Science – force and energy and the interactions within them Chemistry – the science of the properties of substances

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  CHEMICAL TOILET A chemical toilet is a toilet using chemicals to deodorize the waste instead of simply storing it in a hole, or piping it away to a sewage treatment plant. These toilets are most commonly found on airplanes, trains, caravans and motorhomes, identified with a blue-colored dye in the bowl water.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  CLOUDS Clouds are the pretty white fluffs you see in the sky. They are made up of tiny water drops. Sometimes, if the wind is fast enough, you can even watch the clouds move. Clouds can come in all sizes and shapes and are formed by different processes. They can be near the ground or way up high. Ever wonder what different types of clouds are called? Different types of clouds cause different kinds of weather. Sometimes clouds get dark and scary looking when a thunderstorm or tornado has formed. At any given time, about half of Earth is covered by clouds. We would not have rain, rainbows, or snow without clouds. Clouds make up some of the atmospheric optics we can see in the sky. The atmosphere would be boring if the sky was always blue! HOW CLOUDS ARE FORMED A cloud is composed of tiny water droplets or ice crystals. A series of things have to happen in order for these water droplets or ice crystals to form into clouds in the atmosphere, and different types of clouds form in different ways. The four main ways that clouds can form are: • Surface Heating • Mountains and Terrain • Air Masses Being Forced to Rise • Weather Fronts (cold or warm) All of these processes involve the cooling of air. Warm air is able to hold larger amounts of water vapor than cool air, so when air cools it can't hold as much water vapor as when it was warm. This extra water vapor begins to condense out of the air into liquid water droplets. Water vapor usually needs some sort of particle, such as dust or pollen, to condense upon. These particles are called condensation nuclei. Eventually, enough water vapor will condense upon condensation nuclei to form a cloud. The water droplets in the cloud may eventually fall down to Earth in the form of rain or snow (or other forms of precipitation).

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To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  DEFINITION OF TERMS:    ATOM ‐ A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element  and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons. The  entire structure has an approximate diameter of 10 ‐8  centimeter and characteristically remains  undivided in chemical reactions except for limited removal, transfer, or exchange of certain electrons.  An atom (Greek άτοµον) is a microscopic structure found in all ordinary matter around us. Atoms are composed of 3 types of subatomic particles: electrons, which have a negative charge; protons, which have a positive charge; and neutrons, which have no charge.       NUCLEUS ‐ Central, positively charged core of an atom. It consists of positively charged protons and  neutral neutrons, known collectively as nucleons, held together by the strong force. The number of  nucleons can range from 1 to about 270, depending on the element.    PROTON ‐ Stable subatomic particle (one of the baryons) with a unit of positive electric charge and a  mass 1,836 times that of the electron. Protons are found in the atomic nucleus along with neutrons. For  every nucleus of a given element, the number of protons is always the same; this number is the  element's atomic number.    ELECTRON  ‐ Lightest electrically charged subatomic particle known. It carries a negative charge (see  electric charge), the basic charge of electricity. An electron has a small mass, less than 0.1% the mass of  an atom. Under normal circumstances, electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in orbitals that  form an electron cloud bound in varying strengths to the positively charged nucleus. Electrons closer to 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS  1. Water Code (PD 1067) – Preservation and protection of waterways and lakes  2. Improper disposal of Garbage (PD 825) – Against improper waste disposal  3. Water & Air Pollution Control (RA 3931) – To Control water and air pollution  4. Coconut Preservation Act (RA 8048) – Against illegal cutting of coconut trees  5. Indigenous Peoples Right (RA 8371) – Preservation and protection of indigenous people  6. Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (RA 8435) – Controlling the use of modern  equipment for agriculture and fisheries while protecting these resources  7. Animal Welfare Act (RA 8485) – Against abuse to animals as pets  8. Fisheries Code (RA 8550) – Against illegal fishing  9. Waste Management (RA 9003) – Waste segregation and recycling  10. Cave Protect Mgmt (RA 9072) – Preservation and protection of caves  11. Wildlife Protection (RA 9147) – Protection of animals in the wild against captivity and illegal  hunting  12. Plant Variety Protection (RA 9168) – Law promoting and protecting of varieties of plants in  the wild and cultivated  13. Chainsaw Act (RA 9175) – Law against illegal cutting of trees]  14. Local Government Code (RA 7160) – Provided the Local Government Executives shall  protect environment in their jurisdiction against degradation and abuse, and shall  implement waste management    LAND MANAGEMENT LAWS:  1. Revised Regulations on Land Surveys   2. Declaring Certain Portions of the Public Forest as Agricultural Land (Alienable and  Disposable) for Cropland and other Purposes and Setting Aside Certain Parcels Thereof for  Permanent Forest Purposes Under LC Project No. 40 of the Municipality of Laurel, Province  of Batangas   3. Amending DAO 2007‐01, Establishing The National List Of Threatened Philippine Plants And  Their Categories, And The List Of Other Wildlife Species   4. Rules and Regulations Governing the Issuance of Permit over Reclamation Projects and  Special Patents over Reclaimed Lands    

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BIAG NI LAM‐ANG  (Luzon)        Sa lambak ng Nalbuan sa baybayin ng Ilog Naguilian sa La Union ay may mag‐asawang kilala sa pangalang Don Juan at Namongan.    Nang malapit nang magsilang ng sanggol si Namongan, nilusob ng tribo ng Igorot ang nayon at pinatay ang maraming tauhan ni Don Juan. Sa laki ng galit, nilusob naman ni Don Juan ang mga Igorot  upang  ipaghiganti  ang  mga  tauhan  niya.  Hindi  na  nakabalik  si  Don  Juan  sa  kanyang nayon. Ang naging balita, siya ay pinugutan ng ulo ng mga Igorot.    Isinilang ni Namongan ang kanyang anak. Ang sanggol ay nagsalita agad at siya na ang pumili ng pangalang Lam‐ang at siya na rin ang pumili ng kanyang magiging ninong.    Nang  malaman  ni  Lam‐ang  ang  masakit  na  nangyari  sa  kanyang  ama,  sumumpa  siyang ipaghihiganti  niya  ito.  Sa  gulang  na  siyam  na  buwan  pa  lamang,  ay  malakas,  matipuno  at malaking lalaki na siya. Ayaw man siyang payagan ng kanyang ina upang hanapin ang bangkay ng kanyang ama, ay nagpilit din si Lam‐ang na makaalis.    Kasama  niya  sa  pagtungo  sa  lupain  ng  mga  Igorot  ay  isang  mahiwagang  tandang,  ang tangabaran, at mahiwagang aso.  Baon rin niya ang kanyang talisman mula sa punong saging. Sa tulong ng kanyang talisman ay madali niyang nalakbay ang mga kabundukan at kaparangan. Sa laki ng pagod ni Lam‐ang, siya ay nakatulog.  Napangarap niya ang mga Igorot na pumatay sa kanyang ama na nagsisipagsayaw at nililigiran ang pugot na ulo ng kanyang ama.  Nagpatuloy si

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  EROSION Erosion  is displacement  of  solids  (sediment,  soil,  mud,  rock  and  other particles)  usually  by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice by downward or down‐slope movement in response to gravity or by living organisms (in the case of bioerosion).  Erosion  is  distinguished  from  weathering,  which  is  the  breaking  down  of  rock  and  particles through  processes  where  no  movement  is  involved,  although  the  two  processes  may  be concurrent.  Erosion is an intrinsic natural process but in many places it is increased by human land use. Poor land use practices include deforestation, overgrazing, unmanaged construction activity and road or trail building. Land that is used for the production of agricultural crops generally experiences a significant greater rate of erosion than that of land under natural vegetation. This is particularly true if tillage is used, which reduces vegetation cover on the surface of the soil and disturbs both soil structure and plant roots that would otherwise hold the soil in place. However, improved land use  practices  can  limit  erosion,  using  techniques  like  terrace‐building,  conservation  tillage practices, and tree planting.  A certain amount of erosion is natural and, in fact, healthy for the ecosystem. For example, gravels continuously  move  downstream  in  watercourses.  Excessive  erosion,  however,  does  cause problems, such as receiving water sedimentation, ecosystem damage and outright loss of soil.  Causes  The rate of erosion tenses on many factors, including the amount and intensity of precipitation, the  texture  of  the  soil,  the  gradient  of  the  slope,  ground  cover  from  vegetation,  rocks,  land use,how much water there is, and possibility of erosion from speed of a stream. The first factor, rain, is the agent for erosion, but the degree of erosion is governed by other factors.  The first three factors can remain fairly constant over time. In general, given the same kind of vegetative cover, you expect areas with high‐intensity precipitation, sandy or silty soils and steep slopes to be  the  most erosive.  Soils  with  a  greater proportion  of  clay  that  receive  less  intense precipitation and are on gentle slopes tend to erode less. But here, the impact of atmospheric sodium on erodibility of clay should be considered (Schmittner and Giresse, 1999).  The  factor  that  is  most  subject  to  change  is  the  amount  and  type  of  ground  cover.  In  an undisturbed forest, the mineral soil is protected by a litter layer and an organic layer. These two layers protect the soil by absorbing the impact of rain drops. These layers and the underlaying soil in a forest is porous and highly permeable to rainfall. Typically only the most severe rainfall events will lead to overland flow in a forest. If the trees are removed by fire or logging, infiltration rates remain high and erosion low to the degree the forest floor remains intact. Severe fires can lead to significantly increased erosion if followed by heavy rainfall. In the case of construction or road

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  A agaw-buhay -- naghihingalo between life and death (literal=life about to be snatched away) anak-pawis -- magsasaka; manggagawa farmer; laborer; blue-collar worker anak-dalita -- mahirap poor alilang-kanin -- utusang walang sweldo, pagkain lang house-help with no income, provided with food and shelter Back to Top Back to Tagalog Homepage B balitang kutsero -- hindi totoong balita rumor, gossip, false story balik-harap -- mabuti sa harapan, taksil sa likuran double-faced person, one who betrays trust bantay-salakay -- taong nagbabait-baitan a person who pretends to be good, opportunist bungang-araw -- sakit sa balat prickly heat (literal=fruit of the sun) bungang-tulog -- panaginip dream (literal=fruit of sleep) BALAT (SKIN) balat-sibuyas -- manipis, maramdamin a sensitive person (literal=onion-skinned) balat-kalabaw -- mahina ang pakiramdam, di agad tinatablan ng hiya one who is insensitive; with dense-face (literal=buffalo-skinned) buto't balat -- payat na payat malnourished (literal=skin-and-bone) BIBIG (MOUTH) tulak ng bibig -- salita lamang, di tunay sa loob insincere words (literal=pushed-by-the- mouth) dalawa ang bibig -- mabunganga, madaldal nagger, talkative person (literal=two- mouthed) BITUKA (INTESTINE) halang ang bituka -- salbahe, desperado, hindi nangingiming pumatay ng tao a person with no moral compunction (literal=with a horizontal intestine) mahapdi ang bituka -- nagugutom a hungry person (literal=sore intestine)

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To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  FOREST  Forest  is  a  large  area  of  land  thickly  covered with trees and bushes.  Types of Forests:  Forests  thrive  in  diverse  climatic  regions  throughout  the  world,  and  can  be  categorized  by  their  locations  and  elevations. Here are the different types of  forests:  • Tropical:  lush,  dense  forests  found  near  the  equator.  They  are  vital  storehouses  of  the  planet's  biodiversity;    • Sub‐tropical: consists of trees that can resist the summer drought.They are found to the  north and south of the tropical forests;    • Mediterranean: located to the south of the temperate regions and made up primarily of  evergreen trees;    • Temperate: mix of coniferous evergreen and deciduous trees found in North America,  northeastern Asia and Europe;    • Coniferous: These forests are found around the poles in cold, windy regions and contain  both conifers and hardwoods; and    • Montane: also known as cloud forests. Contain mainly conifers and are found in high‐ elevation tropical, sub‐tropical and temperate zones.  Importance of Forest in the Overall Ecosystem:  The world's forests hold importance for all of their inhabitants as well as for the overall health  of the planet. The benefits of forests to society and to the diversity of life make it vital that they  be protected from deforestation and other potential negative impacts of civilization.     

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  GO FOODS     

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  Hanamichi Sakuragi      Hanamichi Sakuragi is true? Hanamichi Sakuragi was born in 1968 in a family of the common working  class. His mother passed away when he was very young, without the love of his mother he use the  violence (out‐on‐the‐street fights) to resolve his problems. As a young boy he was very tall at the age of  12 average 1.75 mts, and his body began to acquire force and a lot of resistance through his fights. Once  he had a fight with the students in the sports zone of the University of Tokyo ; his abilities to fight,  velocity and to and physicality they attracted the coach of the basketball team, and offered him to join  the team.    In a party of practice, at the age of 17, against the National Team of Japan, Hanamichi of 1.89 mts, was  the unique one that was not frightened by the professionals and noted 33 points alone: 10 shots, 3  nailed, 1 triple, 1 shot that did not find the terminology to explain, and 2 free shots.    Although its team lost with only 59 points (59 – 115), It had been an excellent first game for Hanamichi.  Basketball was in chaos, and he was named “The Hope of the Japanese Basketball”. Nevertheless, its  father fell sick a year later. Hanamichi went of return to Tokyo , and this trip would cost him all. He  descended of the bus in Tokyo and he was on the verge of crossing the street across the hospital when a  car that went very fast hit him . Although he had the “body of steel”, the impact simply was too strong.  He collapsed, they carried him to the hospital. Unfortunately it was too late… before they sent him to  the operating room, he died from internal hemorrhage, only with 18 years of age.    The World of the Japanese Basketball was completely destroyed, they called this loss “Colossal”. The  mangaca Takehiko Inoue created its series” Slam Dunk” based on the history of this youth.. 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  HARAKIRI   Harakiri (or hara‐kiri) most often refers to a form of seppuku (or ritual suicide).    Seppuku ("stomach‐cutting") is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment.     Seppuku was originally reserved only for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was used voluntarily by samurai to die with honour rather than fall into the hands of their enemies (and likely suffer torture), as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed for other reasons that had brought  shame  to  them.  The  ceremonial  disembowelment,  which  is usually part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the abdomen and moving the blade from left to right in a slicing motion.    Spoken Term and Written Term:    Seppuku  is  also  known  as  harakiri  ("cutting  the  belly")  and  is  written  with  the  same  kanji  as seppuku,  but  in  reverse  order  with  an  okurigana.  In  Japanese,  the  more  formal  seppuku,  a Chinese on'yomi reading, is typically used in writing, while harakiri, a native kun'yomi reading, is used in speech. Ross notes,    "It is commonly pointed out that hara‐kiri is a vulgarism, but this is a misunderstanding. Hara‐kiri is a Japanese reading or Kun‐yomi of the characters, as it became customary to prefer Chinese readings in official announcements only the term seppuku was ever used in writing. So hara‐kiri is a spoken term and seppuku a written term for the same act."[2]     Part of the Bushido ‐‐ The Code of the Samurai:    Seppuku  was  a  key  part  of  bushido,  the  code  of  the  samurai warriors; it was used by warriors to avoid falling into enemy hands, and to attenuate shame and avoid possible torture. Samurai could also be ordered by their daimyo (feudal lords) to carry out seppuku. Later,  disgraced  warriors  were  sometimes  allowed  to  carry  out seppuku rather than be executed in the normal manner. The most common form of seppuku for men was composed of the cutting of the abdomen, and when the samurai was finished, he stretched out his neck for an assistant to decapitate him. Since the main point of the act was to restore or protect one's honor as a warrior, those who  did  not  belong  to  the  samurai  caste  were  never  ordered  or expected  to  carry  out  seppuku.  Samurai  generally  could  carry  out the act only with permission. 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  HEART   Parts of the Heart       

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  HUMAN BRAIN   The  human  brain  is  the  center  of  the  human  nervous  system.  Enclosed  in  the  cranium,  the  human  brain  has  the  same  general  structure  as  that  of  other  mammals, but is over three times larger than the brain of a typical mammal with  an equivalent body size. Most of the spatial expansion comes from the cerebral  cortex,  a  convoluted  layer  of  neural  tissue  which  covers  the  surface  of  the  forebrain.  Especially expanded  are  the  frontal  lobes, which  are  associated  with  executive  functions  such  as  self‐control,  planning,  reasoning,  and  abstract  thought.  The  portion  of  the  brain  devoted  to  vision,  the  occipital  lobe,  is  also  greatly enlarged in human beings. 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  LEAVES Leaves are the most active and conspicuous organs of plants. The most important of their function is absorbing sunlight to be used for photosynthesis. In order to do this, they expose large amounts of surface area to the environment. On a global basis, leaves produce more than 200 billion tons of sugars per year. Those sugars sustain most life on this planet. How leaves form: Leaves are the most diverse of all plant organs-because they can be tubular, feathery, needlelike, cupped smooth, sticky fragrant, or waxy. They range in size from pinhead-sized leaves to 20-meter across, and they range in number from millions to only one or two in the whole lifetime of the plant. Leaves are formed by the coordinated efforts of several meristems, each of which is named for its position. The earliest stage of leaf development is a small bulge at the shoot apex called a leaf buttress or primordium, which consists of 100 to 300 cells. It is formed by cellular divisions one to three cell layers below the overlying protoderm More cellular divisions and expansions produce a radially symmetrical cone called an apical peg, which has an apical meristem and a procambial strand that forms the leaf's midrib. The adaxial surface of the apical peg elongates slower than the abaxial surface, and arches the leaf primordium over the shoot apical meristem. The leaf then forms an adaxial meristem that thickens the leaf. It forms an upper leaf zone and a lower leaf zone. The upper zone contains marginal meristems that form the flattened blade and stalklike petiole that attaches the leaf to the stem. The lower leaf zone forms the leaf base. Continued growth of a leaf involves cellular expansion and division. These divisions continue until the leaf is one-half to three-fourths grown. Cellular expansion forms most of the intercellular spaces in a leaf. Stomata differentiate soon after intercellular spaces form. Except for vascular tissues which differentiates from the base into the tip of the leaf, other tissues in leaves differentiate from the tip toward the base. Until it is 30%-40% of its final size, a growing leaf depends on the rest of the plant for its nutrition. The Structure of Leaves: External Structure: There are four basic kinds of leaves: simple, compound, peltate, and perfoliate: • Simple leaves-have a flat, undivided blade that is supported by a stalk called a petiole. The petiole is typically supported by collenchyma and sclerenchyma fibers. • Compound leaves-have blades divided into leaflets that form in one plane and lack axillary buds. Each compound leaf has a single bud at the base of its petiole. There are two kinds of compound leaves: pinnately compound and palmately compound leaves. Pinnately form in pairs along a central stalklike rachis, and palmately attach at the same point. • Peltate leaves-have petioles that attach to the middle of the blade. • Perfoliate leaves-are sessile leaves that surround and are pierced by the stems. Internal Structure: Leaves consists of epidermal, ground, and vascular tissues. • Epidermis-it is compact, transparent, and usually not photosynthetic. It also contains many stomata. In horizontally oriented leaves, there are usually more stomata on the protected lower side that the exposed upper side. Vertical leaves usually have similar numbers of stomata on

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  Ang Pabula ng Kabayo at ng Mangngalakal A short story from Katig.com book of fables (Inspired by the ancient fables of Aesop) Isang mangangalakal ang maghahatid ng dalawang sakong asin sa palengke. Inilulan niya ang mga sako ng asin sa kanyang kabayo at nagtungo sila sa palengke. Nang tumatawid sila sa isang ilog na dinaanan ay hindi sinasadyang nadulas at natumba ang kabayo. Napunit ang mga sako at ang ilang bahagi ng asin ay nabuhos sa ilog at ang iba naman ay nalusaw dahil sa pagkababad sa tubig. Hindi naman nasaktan ang kabayo at napansin niya na lubhang gumaan ang pasan niyang dalawang sako ng asin at siya ay natuwa Nang sumunod na linggo ay magpupunta uli ang mangangalakal sa palengke at naglulan na nman ng dalawang sakong asin sa kanyang kabayo. nang mapalapit na sila sa ilog ay napagisip-isip ng kabayo: "Kung magpapadulas ako sa ilog ay tiyak na gagaan uli ang pasan ko," ang sabi ng kabayo sa kanyang sarili. Ganun na nga ang ginawa ng kabayo. Muling nabutas ang mga sako at ibang asin ay nabuhos sa ilog at ang iba naman ay nalusaw. Nguni't sa pagkakataong eto ay nakahalata ang mangangalakal na sadyang nagpadulas ang kabayo sa ilog. Pagdaan pa ng isang linggo ay muling magtutungo ang mangangalakal sa palengke subalit sa pagkakataong eto ay apat na baldeng may lamang alpombra ang kanyang inilulan sa kabayo - dalawang balde sa magkabilang tabi ng kabayo. "Aba, ok to, mas magaan ang pasan ko ngayon. Ganun pa man ay magpapadulas pa rin ako sa ilog para mas gumaan pa ang pasan ko," ang sabi ng kabayo sa kanyang sarili. Pagdating sa ilog ay kusa na namang nagpadulas ang kabayo ngunit laking gulat niya nang biglang bumigat ang kanyang pasan nang siya ay malublob sa tubig. Ang apat na balde na may alpombra ay napuno ng tubig at di hamak nanaging mas mabigat pa keysa sa dalawang sakong asin. Mga aral ng pabula: Ang masamang balakin ay may katapat na kaparusahan. Ang pagiging tuso ay may katapat na kabayaran.

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG BUGTONG        Isang uri ng panitikan na kawili‐wili.      Ito ay isang paraan ng pagpapalawak ng talasalitaan.    Pagsasanay sa mabilis na pag‐iisipIto ay may tugma at talinghaga    Kapupulutan ng mahalagang butil ng karunungan.    Nagsalin‐salin sa bibig ng ating mga ninuno.    Ang pagpapalitan ng bugtong o bugtungan ay karaniwang ginagawa sa  mga pagtitipon tulad ng:     lamayan sa patay    paggigiiik ng palay     tulungan tulad ng pagbubuhat ng bahay o bayanihan     paghahasik ng punla 

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  BIAG NI LAM‐ANG  (Luzon)        Sa lambak ng Nalbuan sa baybayin ng Ilog Naguilian sa La Union ay may mag‐asawang kilala sa pangalang Don Juan at Namongan.    Nang malapit nang magsilang ng sanggol si Namongan, nilusob ng tribo ng Igorot ang nayon at pinatay ang maraming tauhan ni Don Juan. Sa laki ng galit, nilusob naman ni Don Juan ang mga Igorot  upang  ipaghiganti  ang  mga  tauhan  niya.  Hindi  na  nakabalik  si  Don  Juan  sa  kanyang nayon. Ang naging balita, siya ay pinugutan ng ulo ng mga Igorot.    Isinilang ni Namongan ang kanyang anak. Ang sanggol ay nagsalita agad at siya na ang pumili ng pangalang Lam‐ang at siya na rin ang pumili ng kanyang magiging ninong.    Nang  malaman  ni  Lam‐ang  ang  masakit  na  nangyari  sa  kanyang  ama,  sumumpa  siyang ipaghihiganti  niya  ito.  Sa  gulang  na  siyam  na  buwan  pa  lamang,  ay  malakas,  matipuno  at malaking lalaki na siya. Ayaw man siyang payagan ng kanyang ina upang hanapin ang bangkay ng kanyang ama, ay nagpilit din si Lam‐ang na makaalis.    Kasama  niya  sa  pagtungo  sa  lupain  ng  mga  Igorot  ay  isang  mahiwagang  tandang,  ang tangabaran, at mahiwagang aso.  Baon rin niya ang kanyang talisman mula sa punong saging. Sa tulong ng kanyang talisman ay madali niyang nalakbay ang mga kabundukan at kaparangan. Sa laki ng pagod ni Lam‐ang, siya ay nakatulog.  Napangarap niya ang mga Igorot na pumatay sa kanyang ama na nagsisipagsayaw at nililigiran ang pugot na ulo ng kanyang ama.  Nagpatuloy si

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  Mga Pabula (Fables) Ang pabula ay maikling kwento na karaniwan at tungkol sa mga hayop na kapupulutan ng kabutihang asal. Ang Kambing at ang Lobo Ang Tigre at ang Matalinong Lobo Ang Matakaw na Kuneho Ang Mapaghiganting Bubuyog Ang Usa na Naligaw sa Sapa Ang Matigas na Ulong Sisiw Ang Lobo na Walang Buntot Ang Kambing at ang Lobo Isang kambing ang nasa dulo ng bangin at kasalukuyang kumakain ng damo roon. Namataan siya ng lobo at nais sana siyang kainin, ngunit hindi nito magawang sunggaban siya sa takot na baka pareho silang bumulusok sa matarik na bangin. "Ano't nagtitityaga ka sa maliit na damong kinakain mo diyan?", ang sabi ng lobo. "Bakit hindi ka dito sa baba kumain ng damo, kung saan mas marami at mas luntian ang mga kulay," panghihihkayat nito. Pero sa halip na matukso, ang kambing ay nanatili sa kanyang kinatatayuan at sinabing, "Aanhin ko ang luntiang damuhan, kung ito nama'y nakatanim sa lupang kinatatayuan ng isang matakaw na lobong tulad mo na walang ibang hangad kundi ang ako ay lamunin?" Ang Tigre at ang Matalinong Lobo Isang lobo ang nahuli ng isang tigre. Papatayin na sana ng tigre ang lobo upang kainin nang bigla itong magsalita at tumutol. "Huwag mo akong saktan! Huwag mo akong kainin!" "Bakit?" tanong ng tigre. "Sapagkat ako ay dapat mong katakutan! Hindi mo ba alam na ako ang itinuturing na hari ng mga halimaw? Kapag ako ay iyong kinain, magagalit sa iyo ang Diyos na naglalang sa akin . Parurusahan ka Niya." Ayaw maniwala ng tigre. "Sa pagkakaalam ko, leon ang tinaguriang hari ng mga halimaw sa buong kagubatan!"

To get the full COMPILATION, please message me: E‐mail: r_borres@yahoo.com  ANG INAHING MANOK AT ANG KANYANG MGA SISIW Isang  inahing  manok  na  may  anak  na  tatlong  sisiw  ang naninirahan  sa  gitna  ng  taniman  ng  mais.   Isang  araw,  lumabas  ng bahay  ang  magsasakang  may‐ari ng  taniman  at sinabing,  "Panahon na  upang  anihin  ko  ang  aking  maisan!   Kailangan  tawagin  ko  ang aking mga kapit‐bahay upang tulungan ako sa aking pag‐ani bukas!"    Narinig ito ng mga sisiw at agad iminungkahi sa kanilang ina, "Kailangang  lumikas  na  tayo  rito  at  humanap  ng  ibang  matitirahan inang!  Kung  hindi,  matatagpuan  tayo  rito  ng  mga  magsisipag‐ani bukas at huhulihin upang patayin!"    Huwag kayong mabahala mga anak," ang wika  ng inahing manok.   "Kung mga kapit‐ bahay lamang ang aasahan niya, hindi agad magsisipag‐kilos ang mga iyon!  May panahon pa tayo upang manirahan dito."    Tama nga ang sinabi ng inahing manok.  Sapagkat kinabukasan nga'y walang mga kapit‐ bahay na dumating upang tumulong sa pag‐ani ng magsasaka.      "Kung  hindi  ko  maasahan  ang  aking  mga  kapit‐bahay,  sa  aking  mga  kamag‐anak  ako lalapit upang humingi ng tulong sa isasagawa kong pag‐ani bukas!"    "Narinig ng mga sisiw ang sinabi ng magsasaka at dali‐daling iminungkahi sa

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