Electrical Risk Management

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Information about Electrical Risk Management

Published on June 15, 2008

Author: guest81e1c7

Source: slideshare.net

-Electrical Safety -Electrical Safety Global Developments Pillai Sreejith [email_address]

In this presentation…… Section I Electrical hazards Electrical accidents – Statistics Humans & Electricity Electrical Safety Programme elements Section II Global Developments in Electrical Safety

Section I

Electrical hazards

Electrical accidents – Statistics

Humans & Electricity

Electrical Safety Programme elements

Section II

Global Developments in Electrical Safety

Electrical Accidents-Statistics 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India) 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity

25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA)

411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH)

Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH

About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India)

42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD)

8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity

ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period, Chemical Industry

 

Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents- Major Causes Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions Leaving unsafe conditions

Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE

Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions

Leaving unsafe conditions

Electricity and People A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground Electricity always tries to travel to ground

A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity

The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground

Electricity always tries to travel to ground

ELECTRICAL FIRES …. ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.) STATIC DISCHARGES LIGHTNING USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.)

STATIC DISCHARGES

LIGHTNING

USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

Earthing Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?) Double & Single earthing- differentiation? Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70 Take action on high ER values Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out

Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system

Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)

Double & Single earthing- differentiation?

Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70

Take action on high ER values

Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out

Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power Can be used with extension cords and portable tools Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA)

ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks

Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power

Can be used with extension cords and portable tools

Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people

Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA)

Static Electricity Created when materials rub together Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns Can damage sensitive electronic equipment Reduced or prevented by: Proper grounding Anti-Static rubber matting Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines

Created when materials rub together

Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns

Can damage sensitive electronic equipment

Reduced or prevented by:

Proper grounding

Anti-Static rubber matting

Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines

Electrical Fire Protection Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors Consider all major electrical fires in EMP Install master control switches outside all stores Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels

Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors

Consider all major electrical fires in EMP

Install master control switches outside all stores

Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms

Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels

Case Study An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition. He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand. Post Accident Correction: Working on live circuits not permitted LOTO to be strictly enforced

An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition.

He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.

Post Accident Correction:

Working on live circuits not permitted

LOTO to be strictly enforced

Equipment Operators Never tamper with electrical interlocks Do not repair electrical components of your machine Properly shut off machinery before operation Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures Follow PTW procedures strictly

Never tamper with electrical interlocks

Do not repair electrical components of your machine

Properly shut off machinery before operation

Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures

Follow PTW procedures strictly

Electrical Preventive Maintenance Identification of critical Electrical Equipment Emergency lighting Fire Alarm System Protection Supply DC System UPS System, Battery Banks Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B

Identification of critical Electrical Equipment

Emergency lighting

Fire Alarm System

Protection Supply DC System

UPS System, Battery Banks

Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B

Planning for EPM Personal Safety Equipment Failure Production Economics

Personal Safety

Equipment Failure

Production Economics

Electrical Preventive Maintenance Implement EPM without slippage Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil, DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.) Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance Adopt Risk Based maintenance Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)

Implement EPM without slippage

Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil, DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.)

Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance

Adopt Risk Based maintenance

Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)

‘ All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound ’

ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view

A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view

Global Developments in Electrical Safety

Present Status - ES-India ES Awareness is slowly growing Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

ES Awareness is slowly growing

Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many

More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India

Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)

Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

Evolvement of ES Standards / organizations-United States NFPA - NEC ( 1897 ) NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970 OSHA ( 1970 ) NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 ) NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

NFPA - NEC ( 1897 )

NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE

NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970

OSHA ( 1970 )

NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA

Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 )

NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

ES Products...

ES Auditing Techniques Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment Benchmarking against applicable standards: NFPA 780 Lightning Protection NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety

Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique

Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment

Benchmarking against applicable standards:

NFPA 780 Lightning Protection

NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance

NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety

Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues - correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation

RCCB Tripping How do we solve this problem in India ? Bypass it !!!

How do we solve this problem in India ?

ES related Information Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.): (MoP, CEA web site, http://powermin.nic.in) Lightning Protection Risk Assessment: www.furse.com National Electrical Safety Foundation : www.nesf.org Free safety Power Point presentations : http://siri.org/ Electrical Accidents : http://www.safteng.net : IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004

Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.):

(MoP, CEA web site, http://powermin.nic.in)

Lightning Protection Risk Assessment: www.furse.com

National Electrical Safety Foundation : www.nesf.org

Free safety Power Point presentations : http://siri.org/

Electrical Accidents : http://www.safteng.net :

IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004

Standards & Codes NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance NFPA 780- Lightning Protection API RP 2003- Static Electricity API RP 500- HAC OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash NFPA 70- NEC IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection NFPA 77- Static Electricity OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety

NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance

NFPA 780- Lightning Protection

API RP 2003- Static Electricity

API RP 500- HAC

OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash

NFPA 70- NEC

IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection

NFPA 77- Static Electricity

OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety

Summary Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person Earthing has an important role in ES Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life! Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres

Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person

Earthing has an important role in ES

Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged

Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified

Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life!

Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres

Thank you!! Pillai Sreejith [email_address]

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