Published on March 7, 2014
Electrical Energy Sarah Jones www.drecart.com
• All matter is made up of atoms. • Centre of each atom is a heavy nucleus. • Surrounding the nucleus is a lot of empty space and tiny particles called electrons (which are constantly moving around the nucleus). • Each electron carries a negative electric charge. Hydrogen Atom
• Inside the nucleus are two different types of particles – protons and neutrons. • Protons are much heavier than electrons and they carry a positive electric charge. • Neutrons have a similar mass to protons but carry no electric charge. • The positive electric charge of a proton exactly balances the negative charge of an electron. Atoms contain an equal number of electrons and protons.
• Any particle or substance that has more protons than electrons is said to be positively charged. • More electrons than protons is said to be negatively charged. • Equal amounts of positive and negative charge is said to be neutral. Helium Atom
Static Electricity • Is the build up of electric charge on a surface. • Commonly occurs because of two surfaces rubbing against each other. • The electrons are rubbed off one surface – charging is positive – and are transferred to the other surface – charging it negative. homeschooljabber.blogspot.com
Current Electricity • Power from batteries and power points is made up of electrons moving along a wire – electric current. • The energy from the moving electrons is transformed into other forms of energy such as heat and movement. www.nmsea.org
Measuring Electricity • Electric Current – when charge flows (measured using a ammeter). • Unit used to measure current is ampere/amps (A). • Voltage – measure of the amount of energy supplied and used by the charges. • Unit used to measure voltage is volts (V). wps.pearsoned.ca
• Supply Voltage – Australia 240V • Some household items use transformers. • A step-down transformer reduces 240V to the amount required by an appliance.
Batteries • Portable electrical energy. • Wet Cell – two electrodes placed in a liquid electrolyte i.e. conducts electricity. • Dry Cell – used in torches, toys etc. don’t leak because they use paste instead of liquid. • Photovoltaic Cells – solar cell.
• Resistance – when electrons pass along wires their path is restricted by the atoms that make up the wires. • A measure of how difficult it is for an electric current to flow. https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/resistors
Conductors and insulators • Conductors - materials with little resistance to the flow of electric charge (e.g. plastic coated copper wires used in most electric circuits = excellent conductors). • Little energy is needed for electric charge to flow through conductors. • Most metals are very good conductors of electricity.
• Insulators - materials with a lot of resistance to the flow of electric charge • Allow very little or no electric current through e.g. air, rubber and plastic.
Circuit Diagrams • Circuit diagrams are universal so they can be used all over the world.
Series Circuit • A string of Christmas tree lights are all connected to the same power supply. • If you remove a single light the rest of the lights will go off. • This is because the lights are connected in series.
Parallel Circuit • The ceiling lights in most homes need to be connected together so that if one light globe or tube stops working, the others remain on – this requires a parallel circuit.
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