Electrical distribution system

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Information about Electrical distribution system

Published on September 20, 2015

Author: 9anku

Source: slideshare.net

1. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 1 BY VIDISHA 601; PARAS 602;ANKUSH603;DAKSH 604;AANCHAL 605 MEGHNA 606;SUKRIT 12604

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5. Contents To Be Covered:  Definition  Classification Of Distribution System  Distribution System Losses 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 5

6. Distribution System  “The part of power system which distributes electrical power for local use is known as DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.”  This system is the electrical system between the substation fed by the transmission system and consumer meter.  Distribution line generally consist of  Feeders  Distributers  Service mains 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 6

7. FEEDERS DISTRIBUTORS SERVICE MAINS Distribution 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 7

8. Feeder  A Feeder is conductor which connects the substation to the area where power is to be distributed .  Feeder are used to feed the electrical power from the generating station to the substation  No tapings are taken from the feeder  So the current in it remains the same throughout  Main consideration in the design of feeder is the Current carrying capacity. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 8

9. Distributer  A distributer is a conductor from which tapings are taken from pole mounted transformer to the consumer  The current through a distributer is not constant because tapings are taken at various places along its length  Voltage drop is main consideration  Limit of variation is 6% of rated at consumer 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 9

10. Service mains  A service mains is a generally a small cable which connects the distributer to the consumer ‘s meter.  The connecting links between the distributor and the consumer terminals. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 10

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16. Introduction:  Distribution system is a part of power system, existing between distribution substations and consumers.  It is further classified on the basis of voltage  Primary distribution system- 11 KV or 6.6 KV or 3.3 KV  Secondary distribution system- 415 V or 230 V 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 16

17. Classification Of Distribution System: It can be classified under different considerations as; 1. Type Of Current: a) AC Distribution System b) DC Distribution System 2. Type Of Construction: a) Overhead System b) Underground System 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 17

18. 3. Type Of Service: a) General Lighting & Power b) Industrial Power c) Railway d) Streetlight etc 4. Number Of Wires: a) Two Wire b) Three Wire c) Four Wire 5. Scheme Of Connection: a) Radial Distribution System b) Ring or Loop Distribution System c) Interconnected Distribution System 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 18

19. Ac distribution  A.c. distribution system is the electrical system between the step-down substation fed by the transmission system and the consumers’ meters. The a.c. distribution system is classified into  ( i) primary distribution system and  ( ii) secondary distribution system. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 19

20. Primary distribution system  voltages somewhat higher than general utilisation and handles large blocks of electrical energy than the average low-voltage consumer uses.  Commonly used primary distribution voltage 11KV, 6.6 KV,3.3 KV.  Electric power from the generating station is transmitted at high voltage to the substation located in or near the city.  At this substation, voltage is stepped down to 11 kV with the help of step-down transformer.  Power is supplied to various substations for distribution or to big consumers at this voltage.  This forms the high voltage distribution or primary distribution. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 20

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22. Secondary distribution system.  It is that part of a.c. distribution system which includes the range of voltages at which the ultimate consumer utilizes the electrical energy delivered to him.  The secondary distribution employs 400/230 V, 3-phase, 4-wire system. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 22

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24. D.C. Distribution  D.c. supply is required for the operation of variable speed machinery ( i.e., d.c. motors), for electro-chemical work and for congested areas where storage battery reserves are necessary.  For this purpose, a.c. power is converted into d.c. power at the substation by using converting machinery e.g., mercury arc rectifiers, and motor-generator sets. The d.c. supply from the substation may be obtained in the form of 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 24

25. Type of DC distributor  The dc supply from the substation may be obtained in form of  ( i) 2-wire or  ( ii) 3-wire for distribution. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 25

26. 2 wire 3 wire 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 26

27. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 27  Two outer and a middle or neutral wire is earthed at the s/s.  Voltage between the outer is twice the voltage between either outer and neutral wire.  Advantage – available two voltage at the consumer terminal.  Loads requiring high voltage connected across the outers.  Lamps and heating circuits requiring less voltage are connected between either outer and neutral.

28. Method of obtaining 3 wire D.c system  Two generator method.  3-wire D.c. generator.  Balancer set 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 28

29. Two generator method 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 29

30. Two generator method  D.c generator G1 and G2 are connected in series and the neutral is obtained from the common point btwn generator  G1 supplies a I1, G2 supplies a I2  Difference of load current on both side (I1-I2) flow through the neutral wire.  Disad.:two separate generator are required. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 30

31. 3-wire D.c. generator. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 31

32. 3-wire D.c. generator.  Consist of a standard 2 wire machine with one or two coils of high reactance and low resistance that connected to opposite points of the armature winding.  Neutral wire is obtained from common point. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 32

33. Connection schemes of distribution system  Radial system  Ring main system  Interconnected system 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 33

34. Radial Distribution System:  separate feeders radiate from a single substation and feed the distributors at one end only.  Only one path is connected between each customer and substation.  Electrical power flows along a single path.  If interrupted, results in complete loss of power to the customer. Advantages:  Low cost .  Simple planning. Disadvantages :  The radial system is employed only when power is generated at low voltage and the substation is located at the centre of the load.  Distributor nearer to feeding end is heavily loaded.  Consumers at far end of feeder would be subjected to serious voltage fluctuations. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 34

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37. Ring or Loop Distribution System:  It consists of two or more paths between power sources and the customer.  The loop circuit starts from the substation bus-bars, makes a loop through the area to be served, and returns to the substation Advantages:  Less conductor material is required.  Less voltage fluctuations.  More reliable. Disadvantages:  It is difficult to design as compared to the design of radial system. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 37

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39. Interconnected Distribution System:  It is supplied by a number of feeders.  Radial primary feeders can be tapped off from the interconnecting tie feeders.  They can also serve directly from the substation. Advantages:  Increases the reliability of supply  Losses are less  Quality of service is improved. Disadvantages:  Its initial cost is more.  Difficult in planning, design and operation. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 39

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43. D.C. Distribution  D.c. supply is required for the operation of variable speed machinery ( i.e., d.c. motors),  for electro-chemical work and for congested areas where storage battery reserves are necessary.  For this purpose, a.c. power is converted into d.c. power at the substation by using converting machinery e.g., mercury arc rectifiers, rotary converters and motor-generator sets. The d.c. supply from the substation may be obtained in the form of 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 43

44. DC Distribution:  Voltage drop along distributor is considered as a main factor while designing a distributor.  It depends upon the nature of load and also on feeding, whether it is fed at one or both ends. According to loading, a distributor can be classified as: i. Fed at one end. ii. Fed at both ends. a). With equal voltages. b). With unequal voltages. iii. Fed at centre. iv. Ring mains. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 44

45. DC Distribution Feed at one end 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 45

46.  a) The current in the various sections of the distributor away from feeding point goes on decreasing. Thus current in section AC is more than the current in section CD and current in section CD is more than the current in section DE.  (b) The voltage across the loads away from the feeding point goes on decreasing. Thus in Fig. 13.1, the minimum voltage occurs at the load point E.  (c) In case a fault occurs on any section of the distributor, the whole distributor will have to be disconnected from the supply mains. Therefore, continuity of supply is interrupted 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 46

47. Distributor fed at center 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 47

48.  In this type of feeding, the distributor is connected to the supply mains at both ends and loads are tapped off at different points along the length of the distributor.  The voltage at the feeding points may or may not be equal. distributor A B fed at the ends A and B and loads of I1, I2 and I3 tapped off at points C respectively.  Here, the load voltage goes on decreasing as we move away from one feeding point say A , reaches minimum value and then again starts rising and reaches maximum value when we reach the other feeding point B.  The minimum voltage occurs at some load point and is never fixed. It is shifted with the variation of load on different sections of the distributor. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 48

49. Advantages  (a) If a fault occurs on any feeding point of the distributor, the continuity of supply is main-tained from the other feeding point.  (b) In case of fault on any section of the distributor, the continuity of supply is maintained from the other feeding point.  (C)The area of X-section required for a doubly fed distributor is much less than that of a singly fed distributor. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 49

50. Ring Distributor 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 50

51. 9/20/2015 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604 51  In this type of feeding, the centre of the distributor is connected to the supply mains as shown in Fig.  It is equivalent to two singly fed distributors, each distributor having a common feeding point and length equal to half of the total length

52. 9/20/201552 13601,13602,13603,13604,13605,13606 01,02,03,04,05,06,12604

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