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ElderlyandMedia

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Information about ElderlyandMedia
Education

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Doride

Source: authorstream.com

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The elderly and the media:  The elderly and the media The elderly as a group:  The elderly as a group Treated as a minority in US, western world Only minority that the ‘majority’ are likely to become members of Media have been said to ignore seniors, treat them with disdain Longevity Revolution:  Longevity Revolution Increasing life expectancy Decreasing birth rate Baby boomer generation Countervailing force: immigration Overall: Aging of the population Significant social and economic change as a result Myths of Aging – Spurious Correlations:  Myths of Aging – Spurious Correlations The topic of aging is durably encapsulated in a layer of myths in our society. And, like most myths, the ones about aging include a confusing blend of truth and fancy. We have compressed a few of the most familiar of the aging myths into single sentence assertions – frequently heard, usually with some link to reality, but always (thankfully) in significant conflict with recent scientific data. Slide5:  Myth #1: You get old; you get sick Myth #2: You get old; you lose interest in intimacy Myth #3: You get old; you are unwilling to try anything new Myth #4: You get old; you lose control of bodily functions Myth #5: You get old; you can’t function in the work place Myth #6: You get old; you can’t understand technology Slide6:  Myth #7: You get old; you have no social life Myth #8: You get old; you cannot fully participate or pull you own weight Myth #9: You get old; you need help to make decisions Population:  Population Fifty-plus adults now comprise 38 percent of the U.S. population and this number jumps to 47 percent by 2020. (Census Bureau) Fifty-plus adults account for approximately 80 percent of personal wealth in U.S. banks and financial institutions, and have 50 percent of all discretionary income. (Age Wave Report, 2001) Approximately 6,000 Americans each day celebrate their 65th birthday. (Selling to Seniors, 2001) A person who turned 65 in 1998 can expect to live an additional 17.8 years. (Research Alert, 2001) Slide8:  An analysis by the U.S. Bureau of Labor says 17.5 percent of men 65-plus were still in the workforce in 2000 (up from 16.4 percent in 1990), as were 9.4 percent of women 65 plus (up from 8.7 percent in 1990). Median household net worth in 1999, according to age of household head: 55-64, $145,000; 65-74, $190,000; 75 plus, $132,900. (Administration on Aging, 2001) Fifty-plus adults own almost 50 percent of the credit cards in the U.S. (Age Wave Report, 2001) Slide9:  Distribution of sources of income for Americans 65-plus based on a study in 2000 by the Employee Benefit Research Institute: Social Security, 41 percent; earnings from work, 20 percent; asset income, 18 percent; pensions and annuities, 19 percent; other, 2 percent. Percentage who owned their own homes in 1999: 50-54, 77.8 percent; 55-59, 80.7 percent; 60-64, 81.3 percent. Spending:  Spending Fifty-plus adults buy 41 percent of all new cars, and 48 percent of all luxury automobiles. Consumers in the 60-69 age bracket have more than doubled their new-vehicle purchases since the early 1970s. (Age Wave Report, 2001) Today’s 50-plus adults represent 80 percent of all luxury travel, and spend 74 percent more on a typical vacation than 18-49-year-olds. According to an Age Wave report in 2001, they spend 40 percent more time vacationing in their 50s than they did in their 40s. Portrayal of the elderly on television:  Portrayal of the elderly on television Elderly are greatly underrepresented on television Often shown as feeble, in need of care by younger people Situation has improved somewhat, though Early 1990s saw increase in programming targeting elderly Murder She Wrote, Matlock, Golden Girls, Jake and the Fat Man, In the Heat of the Night Seems to have declined as older-skewing shows have been canceled with equivalent or larger audiences compared to younger-skewing shows Portrayal of the elderly on television:  Portrayal of the elderly on television Elderly women treated more negatively than men Older men paired with younger women is considered more acceptable than older women paired with younger men Economic imperative:  Economic imperative Advertisers are most interested in younger audiences Less income per show when audience is dominated by elderly/aged TV shows that draw from older audience dropped even if their numbers are better than younger-skewing shows New networks have successively gone for younger audiences Trends in the Portrayal of the Elderly:  Trends in the Portrayal of the Elderly Greenberg, Bradley S., Korzenny, Felipe, and Atkin, Charles K. (1980) Ch. 3 in Life on Television Three season distribution of character ages:  Three season distribution of character ages Program time by Age of TV character for two seasons:  Program time by Age of TV character for two seasons Major program types by age of TV characters:  Major program types by age of TV characters Selected attributes of characters by age:  Selected attributes of characters by age Prosocial behavior:  Prosocial behavior Target of prosocial behavior:  Target of prosocial behavior Antisocial behavior:  Antisocial behavior Target of antisocial behavior:  Target of antisocial behavior Summary:  Summary “The portrayal of the elderly as fictional television characters, during the 1975-76 and 1976-77 seasons, had these primary attributes: . . . A very small number of characters in the 65-and-over group, averaging about 3 percent of all characters, with no trend of increase; . . . An increasing distribution of older characters into Saturday morning and late evening programs; . . . A disproportionately high placement of older characters in situation comedies; . . . A distinctly male bias in portrayal of the elderly; Slide45:  . . . Increased casting into regular, rather than guest roles; . . . Increasing representation of the elderly in lower-class portrayals; . . . The giving and getting of acts of altruism and affection at rates equivalent to other age groups; . . . The commission of acts of physical aggression at lower rates, while equally likely to be the targets of such acts, . . . The commission of acts of verbal aggression at higher rates than other age groups.” The invisible generation: Portrayals of the elderly on prime-time television:  The invisible generation: Portrayals of the elderly on prime-time television Robinson, James D. and Skill, Thomas, Communication Reports, 8(2) 111-120, Summer 1995. Content analysis of primetime, 1990 season. Age distribution of speaking characters by gender, 1990 primetime television season (%):  Age distribution of speaking characters by gender, 1990 primetime television season (%) Comparison of character age among males, 1975 and 1990 primetime television seasons (%) :  Comparison of character age among males, 1975 and 1990 primetime television seasons (%) Age distribution of female characters, primetime TV 1975 and 1990 (%):  Age distribution of female characters, primetime TV 1975 and 1990 (%) Major v. minor roles by character age, primetime TV, 1990:  Major v. minor roles by character age, primetime TV, 1990 Age distribution in primetime, 1994-1997 (Gerbner, 1998):  Age distribution in primetime, 1994-1997 (Gerbner, 1998) Age distribution in daytime, 1994-1997 (Gerbner, 1998):  Age distribution in daytime, 1994-1997 (Gerbner, 1998) Age by gender, primetime characters 1994-97 (Gerbner, 1998):  Age by gender, primetime characters 1994-97 (Gerbner, 1998) Age by gender, daytime characters 1994-97 (Gerbner, 1998):  Age by gender, daytime characters 1994-97 (Gerbner, 1998) Even so, elderly are heavy media users:  Even so, elderly are heavy media users Heavy users of nearly all media Heaviest users of television of any group Heaviest readers of newspapers Loyal magazine readers Main exception is out-of-home media Movies Portrayal of elderly in advertising:  Portrayal of elderly in advertising Elderly not considered as important in terms of consumption as young are “Radio stations, ad agencies and even advertisers were amazingly indifferent, if not outrightly negative on the subject of aging.” (Starr, 2000) “underlying assumption that older people are not real consumers except for health care and financial products” Slide59:  Perfect grandparent; Golden ager John Wayne conservative Liberal matriarch/patriarch Activist Small–town neighbour. The negative stereotypes were the: Despondent Vulnerable Severely impaired Shrew/curmudgeon Recluse Mildly impaired Self–centred Elitist Slide65:  The Representation of Elderly Persons in Prime Time Television Advertising Masters Thesis -Meredith Tupper-November 1995 Findings:  Findings Slide67:  Gender Of the 68 elderly characters, 39 were male and 29 were female.  In contrast, females aged 65-74 outnumbered males in the same age group four to three in the 1990 U. S. Census (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1990). Slide68:  Role prominence A total of 135 elderly characters were coded. Of these, 49 (36% of total) appeared in major roles; 42 (31% of total) appeared in minor or 'single dialog line' roles, and 44 (33%) appeared in background or non-speaking roles. Slide69:  Table 2: Spots coded by locale Home setting            15 Spots           36% Recreational/social    6 spots           14% Prof/corp/retail         17 spots           40% Health care setting    2 spots              5% Other/indeterminate  2 spots              5% Slide70:  Ethnic elderly Of the 68 elderly characters, one was coded as African-American, one was coded as being of Hispanic origin, and two fell into the other visible minority category. Findings:  Findings 1. What is the percentage of elderly people in prime time television commercials compared to the percentage of elderly in the U.S. population? According to the 1990 U. S. Census, 12.6% of the U.S. population was aged 65 years or older.   In the television commercial population examined,  8.14% of the characters met the definition of elderly. Slide72:  2. What is the ratio of elderly females to elderly males in prime time television commercials as compared to previously cited ratios of elderly females to elderly males in the U.S. population? According to the 1990 U.S. Census, for ages 65 and up, the ratio of males to females is 67.3 males for every 100 females, and for ages 85 and up, the ratio dwindles to 46 males for every 100 females. In the study population, the ratio of elderly males to females was 133:100. Slide73:  3. What is the percentage of elderly African-Americans presented in prime time television commercials? 1.5% of the elderly were African-American. Slide74:  4. What is the percentage of elderly Hispanics presented in prime time television commercials? 1.5% of the elderly were Hispanic. Slide75:  5. What is the percentage of visible non-Anglo minorities (such as Asians, American Indians, or Middle Easterners) presented in prime time television commercials? Other visible minorities constituted 3% of the total elderly character population.  Slide76:  6. Do any negative, unflattering or stereotypical images of elderly people appear in prime time television commercials? No clear cut, definitive negative stereotypes of elderly people emerged from this study; in fact, elderly characters did not appear in the anticipated commercial categories.  For example, elderly characters did not appear in roles for products such as arthritis medication, denture care products, or skin wrinkle creams, nor did they appear in sick, weak, fragile, or absent-minded roles. Marketing to seniors:  Marketing to seniors www.jwtmmg.com Drugs and Health Care:  Drugs and Health Care Of the 50 drugs used most frequently by seniors, the average annual cost per prescription as of early 2001 was $956. (AARP) The average number of prescriptions per older American increased from 19.6 in 1992 to 28.5 in 2000. (Families USA, 2000) Consumers 50-plus purchase 77 percent of all prescription drugs and 61 percent of over-the counter drugs. (Advertising Age, 2000) Seniors spend anywhere from 12 percent to 19 percent of their income on out-of-pocket health expenses. (AARP, 2001) Technology:  Technology Half of 50-plus consumers have personal computers at home, and 70 percent of this group has Internet access. (Advertising Age, 2000) Ninety-two percent of those computer owners age 55-plus have shopped online, and 78 percent have made purchases. (Age Light Institute, 2000) Most popular on-line activities for senior Internet users according to a Pew Research Center study in 2000: e-mail, 93 percent; search for health info, 53 percent; get financial information, 44 percent; read political news, 36 percent; play a game, 32 percent; buy/sell stocks, 12 percent. Portrayal of disabilities, primetime 1994-97 (Gerbner):  Portrayal of disabilities, primetime 1994-97 (Gerbner) Portrayal of disabilities, daytime 1994-97 (Gerbner):  Portrayal of disabilities, daytime 1994-97 (Gerbner)

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