Published on May 8, 2014
Presented by : EKATA KARKI
Introduction Causes and symptoms of hypertension Nursing implication on hypertension Methods of nursing implication Assessment Nursing diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation Teaching patient and family Summary References
Hypertension is defined as sustained rise in systolic blood pressure(SBP) greater than 140mm of Hg or a sustained diastolic pressure(DBP) is greater than 90 mm of Hg.
The causes of hypertension are: Smoking Being overweight or obese Lack of physical activity Too much salt in the diet Too much alcohol consumption Stress Older age Genetics Family history of high blood pressure Chronic kidney disease
A multi disciplinary approach is important in treatment of hypertension & the treatment will consist of nurse ,doctors ,pharmacists& social workers. The management of hypertension may be by using anti hypertension drugs & educating about its causes &effects. In addition to the technical knowledge nurse will have most important role in patient support. The nurse should provide the information about hypertension & educate about the treatment in several methods like booklets ,videos ,question & answer session & group discussion so that they can get support from others in similar circumstances.
These can be done by the methods of data collection Observation: patient’s state of health, behavior, communication pattern ,facial expression (e . g signs of discomfort ,anger)etc are observed. Lifestyle interventions :Assessment of dietary risk factors, weight, physical activity etc Nursing health history : when the symptoms started ,how often problems occur, factors that alleviate the problems and so on. Physical examination:Two or more blood pressure measurements. Measurements may be taken from both the left and right arms , An exam of the retina,A heart exam.
Regular accurate blood pressure measurement using sphygmomanometer and stethoscopes. Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) test is done that measures the electrical activity, rate, and rhythm of your heartbeat via electrodes attached to your arms, legs, and chest. Echocardiogram test is done that uses ultrasound waves to provide pictures of the heart's valves and chambers so the pumping action of the heart can be studied and measurement of the chambers and wall thickness of the heart can be made.
Maintain/enhance cardiovascular functioning. Prevent complications. Provide information about disease process/prognosis and treatment regimen. Support active patient control of condition. Goal are made in order to achieve the target: BP within acceptable limits for individual. Cardiovascular and systemic complications prevented/minimized. Disease process and therapeutic regimen understood. Necessary lifestyle/behavioral changes initiated. Plan in place to meet needs after discharge.
Monitor and measure blood pressure in both hands, using a cuff and proper techniques in terms of measuring blood pressure. Auscultation of breath sounds and heart tone. Observe skin color, moisture & temperature. Note the presence, quality of the central and peripheral pulses. Maintain restrictions on activities such as rest in bed or chair. Assist in performing self-care activities as needed. Provide a quiet environment, convenient, and therapeutic and reduce activity. Monitor response to medication to control blood pressure. Give fluid and dietary sodium restriction as indicated. Medical collaboration in the provision of drugs as indicated.
Reduction in systolic blood pressure, should be assessed using computerized records where blood pressure was measured independently by practice staff before or after the intervention period. Check the changes seen before and after the nursing implementation done to the patients.
Different drugs used in hypertension have different side effects like beta blockers causes dizziness, slowing of the pulse, fatigue, and hypotension . Family members should be known about this side effect. They should be encourage to avoid those factor that causes hypertension by educating them about it.
Hypertension is defined as sustained rise in SBP(<140mm of HG)and DBP(<90 mm of HG ). CAUSES were stress, smoking ,obese, too much salt intake etc and symptoms were confusion ,headache , stroke etc Methods of nursing implication : Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation Teaching
www.americannursetoday.com/article. fampra.oxfordjournals.org/ www.guideline.gov/cnanda- nursinginterventions.blogspot.comontent.asp Text book of pharmacology (kd tripathi)
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