Einstein and the 2005 Year of Physics

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Published on October 16, 2007

Author: CoolDude26

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Slide1:  Please be Seated Physics is Phun November 2005:  Physics is Phun November 2005 Einstein and the 2005 Year of Physics In 1905, at the age of 25, Einstein published papers on Brownian Motion, the Photoelectric Effect, and Relativity.:  In 1905, at the age of 25, Einstein published papers on Brownian Motion, the Photoelectric Effect, and Relativity. This achievement has been called the most productive year for any scientist, ever.:  This achievement has been called the most productive year for any scientist, ever. The centennial of this event is celebrated as the 2005 Year of Physics:  The centennial of this event is celebrated as the 2005 Year of Physics Quote of the Century: "The word ‘genius’ isn't applicable in football. A genius is a guy like Norman Einstein." --Joe Theismann, NFL football quarterback & sports analyst. :  Quote of the Century: "The word ‘genius’ isn't applicable in football. A genius is a guy like Norman Einstein." --Joe Theismann, NFL football quarterback & sports analyst. Slide7:  In the matter of physics, the first lessons should contain nothing but what is experimental and interesting to see. A pretty experiment is in itself often more valuable than twenty formulae extracted from our minds.   -Albert Einstein Some Reference materials: National Science Foundation web site American Association of Physics Teachers web site University of Maryland Physics Question of the Week web site:  Some Reference materials: National Science Foundation web site American Association of Physics Teachers web site University of Maryland Physics Question of the Week web site Slide9:  Topics for this evening: Brownian Motion The Photoelectric Effect Relativity Slide10:  Brownian motion: is the small molecular motion inherent in all molecules, even at the lowest possible temperature. Discovered by botanist Robert Browne (1773-1858) “..in 1827. The story goes that Brown was studying pollen particles floating in water under the microscope.” :  Discovered by botanist Robert Browne (1773-1858) “..in 1827. The story goes that Brown was studying pollen particles floating in water under the microscope.” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Brownian Motion of smoke particles demonstration:  Brownian Motion of smoke particles demonstration Java applet of Brownian motion:  Java applet of Brownian motion Mechanical Model of Brownian Motion:  Mechanical Model of Brownian Motion Slide15:  “More accurate” description: statistical fluctuations requiring ~10,000 net molecular collisions to change particle motion. Implications of Brownian Motion::  Implications of Brownian Motion: Air pressure Diffusion of gases Reducing Brownian Motion:  Reducing Brownian Motion Minimizing molecular motion in atomic clocks increases accuracy of clocks and GPS. Slide18:  William Phillips Professor of Physics, University of Maryland Nobel prize in 1997 for Laser cooling of atoms Video showing magnetically trapped block of cesium atoms Slide19:  The Photoelectric Effect: describes the particle behavior of light. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on the Photoelectric Effect:  Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on the Photoelectric Effect Ef = h f E = photon energy h = Planck’s constant (~6.6x10-34 Joule-sec) f = light frequency:  Ef = h f E = photon energy h = Planck’s constant (~6.6x10-34 Joule-sec) f = light frequency Slide23:  KEe = Ef – W = hf - W A single photon of light is absorbed by an electron, causing it to be ejected from the surface of the metal. Graphic from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Demonstrations:  Demonstrations Photoelectric effect in zinc 2. Full photoelectric effect Applications::  Applications: Solar power Solar engines Solar switches “Hydrogen” economy 2005 Nobel prize in Physics to Glauber, Hall, & Haensch (application of quantum nature of light to build atomic clocks to 10-15 accuracy and thus improve GPS accuracy ):  2005 Nobel prize in Physics to Glauber, Hall, & Haensch (application of quantum nature of light to build atomic clocks to 10-15 accuracy and thus improve GPS accuracy ) Slide27:  Relativity: deals in part with frames of reference and how we view physical phenomena. Slide28:  Physics experiments are fully accurate only in an inertial frame of reference or in a local inertial frame. When might a physics experiment be correct? Galilean Relativity and the Funnel Cart Demonstration:  Galilean Relativity and the Funnel Cart Demonstration Local inertial frame of reference demonstration:  Local inertial frame of reference demonstration Einstein’s favorite demonstration:  Einstein’s favorite demonstration The Speed of Light and the search for a Preferred Inertial Frame of Reference:  The Speed of Light and the search for a Preferred Inertial Frame of Reference The Michelson-Morley experiment:  The Michelson-Morley experiment Slide34:  1. There is NO preferred frame of reference. 2. The speed of Light is the same in all inertial frames:  2. The speed of Light is the same in all inertial frames Applications of Relativity:  Applications of Relativity Michelson Interferometer with White Light Color Mixing: W = R + G + B W – R = G + B = C W – G = R + B = M W – B = R + G = Y:  Michelson Interferometer with White Light Color Mixing: W = R + G + B W – R = G + B = C W – G = R + B = M W – B = R + G = Y Slide38:  Michelson Interferometer setup using White Light Michelson Interferometer with White Light:  Michelson Interferometer with White Light Slide40:  Michelson Interferometer with White Light Full motion of mirror for this video ~10 μ = 0.000,010m = 0.01 mm Slide41:  We are on the web at http://www.physics.umd.edu/lecdem/ Animated Gifs compliments of bellsnwhistles.com The End See you in January!

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