Eight Tools of Watershed Protection

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Information about Eight Tools of Watershed Protection

Published on March 17, 2008

Author: watershedprotection

Source: slideshare.net

Introduction to the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection Presented by:

1. Land Use

LAND USE

Preparing a Land Use Plan When preparing a land use plan, a watershed manager needs to: Predict what will happen to water resources with future land use changes. Obtain consensus on the most important water resource goals in the watershed. Develop a future land use pattern for the subwatersheds that can meet those goals. Select the most acceptable and effective land use planning techniques to reduce or shift impervious cover. Select the most appropriate combination of other watershed protection tools to apply to individual subwatersheds. Devise an ongoing management structure to adopt and implement the watershed plan.

When preparing a land use plan, a watershed manager needs to:

Predict what will happen to water resources with future land use changes.

Obtain consensus on the most important water resource goals in the watershed.

Develop a future land use pattern for the subwatersheds that can meet those goals.

Select the most acceptable and effective land use planning techniques to reduce or shift impervious cover.

Select the most appropriate combination of other watershed protection tools to apply to individual subwatersheds.

Devise an ongoing management structure to adopt and implement the watershed plan.

Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection This graph illustrates the relationship between impervious cover and stream quality, information that can be used to categorize streams as sensitive , impacted , or non-supporting .

This is an example of a Montgomery County, MD land use planning map that classifies subwatersheds based on an impervious cover model.

Land Use Planning Techniques Watershed Base Zoning Overlay Zoning Floating Zones Incentive Zoning Performance Zoning Urban Growth Boundaries Large Lot Zoning Infill Community Redevelopment Transfer of Development Rights

Watershed Base Zoning

Overlay Zoning

Floating Zones

Incentive Zoning

Performance Zoning

Urban Growth Boundaries

Large Lot Zoning

Infill Community Redevelopment

Transfer of Development Rights

This is another example of a watershed-based zoning map that uses impervious cover to categorize subwatersheds in Montgomery County, MD. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Watershed-based Zoning 1. Stream Inventory 2. Measure impervious cover 3. Verify impervious cover/ stream quality relationships 4. Project future levels of impervious cover 5. Classify subwatersheds 6. Modify master plans/zoning to correspond 7. Incorporate management priorities from larger watershed units 8. Adopt specific watershed protection strategies 9. Long term monitoring

This is a map of a barrier island which would benefit from zoning measures to protect its resources.

By using overlay zoning, the same barrier island and its resources can be protected.

Criteria for Urban Growth Boundaries Provide nearby public facilities and services Provide a sufficient amount of land to meet projected growth Provide a mix of land uses Analyze the impact of growth on natural resources Boundary criteria should be fair and include natural resources

Provide nearby public facilities and services

Provide a sufficient amount of land to meet projected

growth

Provide a mix of land uses

Analyze the impact of growth on natural resources

Boundary criteria should be fair and include natural

resources

Other Land Use Planning Techniques Large Lot Zoning Infill/Community Redevelopment Transfer of Development Rights ( TDRs )

Large Lot Zoning

Infill/Community Redevelopment

Transfer of Development Rights ( TDRs )

Key Land Use Planning Choices for the Watershed Manager What are the most acceptable land use planning techniques that can be used to shift/reduce impervious cover? How accurate are the estimates of future impervious cover? What are the future impacts of impervious cover ? Which subwatersheds are capable of absorbing future impervious cover?

What are the most acceptable land use planning

techniques that can be used to shift/reduce

impervious cover?

How accurate are the estimates of future impervious

cover?

What are the future impacts of impervious cover ?

Which subwatersheds are capable of absorbing future

impervious cover?

 

Tool #2: Land Conservation Five types of land may need to be conserved in a subwatershed: Critical habitats Aquatic corridor Hydrologic reserve area Water pollution hazards Cultural areas

Five types of land may need to be conserved in a subwatershed:

Critical habitats

Aquatic corridor

Hydrologic reserve area

Water pollution hazards

Cultural areas

Conservation Area: Critical Habitat Description: essential spaces for plant and animal communities Tidal wetlands Freshwater wetlands Large forest clumps Springs Spawning areas Habitat for rare or endangered species Potential restoration sites Native vegetation areas Coves

Description: essential spaces for plant and animal communities

Tidal wetlands

Freshwater wetlands

Large forest clumps

Springs

Spawning areas

Habitat for rare or endangered species

Potential restoration sites

Native vegetation areas

Coves

Tidal wetland s are considered critical habitat and provide essential spaces for plant and animal communities. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Freshwater areas like this are also considered critical habitat since they provide spawning areas for trout. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Conservation Area: Aquatic Corridor Description: Area where land and water interact Floodplains Stream channels Springs and seeps Steep slopes Small estuarine coves Littoral areas Stream crossing Shorelines Riparian forest Caves Sinkholes

Description: Area where land and water interact

Floodplains

Stream channels

Springs and seeps

Steep slopes

Small estuarine coves

Littoral areas

Stream crossing

Shorelines

Riparian forest

Caves

Sinkholes

The aquatic corridor is comprised of the stream and its rights-of-way. Healthy stream channels diverge, converge, and meander along the natural stream path. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Description: Undeveloped areas that maintain the pre-development hydrologic response of a subwatershed: Forest Meadow Prairie Wetland Crop Pasture Managed forest Conservation Area: Hydrologic Reserve

Description: Undeveloped areas that maintain the pre-development hydrologic response of a subwatershed:

Forest

Meadow

Prairie

Wetland

Crop

Pasture

Managed forest

This aerial photo shows several types of land uses, including crops, forests, and pastures, that can function as hydrologic reserves. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Forests are important conservation areas because they can help maintain the pre-development hydrologic response of a subwatershed. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Septic systems Landfills Hazardous waste generators Above/below ground tanks Impervious cover Surface/subsurface discharge of wastewater effluent Conservation Area: Water Pollution Hazard Land application sites Stormwater “hotspots ” Pesticide application areas Industrial sites Road salt storage areas Water supply intakes Description: Land use or activity that creates a greater risk of potential water pollution

Septic systems

Landfills

Hazardous waste generators

Above/below ground tanks

Impervious cover

Surface/subsurface discharge of wastewater effluent

Land application sites

Stormwater “hotspots ”

Pesticide application areas

Industrial sites

Road salt storage areas

Water supply intakes

Hazardous wastes left in areas not designated for proper collection can create “stormwater hotspots.” Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Facilities that may be potential pollutant sources are often kept a designated distance away from streams, rivers, and other water bodies. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Description: Areas that provide a sense of our place in the landscape: Historic and archaeological sites Trails Parkland Scenic views Water access Bridges Recreational areas Conservation Area: Cultural Areas

Description: Areas that provide a sense of our place in the landscape:

Historic and archaeological sites

Trails

Parkland

Scenic views

Water access

Bridges

Recreational areas

Historic sites such as the one shown here in historic Ellicott City, MD are not only aesthetic and educational but provide a sense of community as well. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Pullovers are provided off the George Washington Parkway so that the public can enjoy the scenic overlook. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This trail which runs alongside the Choptank River in Maryland provides the public with a form of recreation and access to the water. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

The numerous docks in Annapolis provide recreational access to the water, which can promote public appreciation for water resources. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Land Acquisition Conservation Easements Regulation of Land Alteration Exclusion or Setbacks of Water Pollution Hazards Protection Within Open Space Designs Landowner Stewardship Public Sector Stewardship Land Conservation Techniques

Land Acquisition

Conservation Easements

Regulation of Land Alteration

Exclusion or Setbacks of Water Pollution Hazards

Protection Within Open Space Designs

Landowner Stewardship

Public Sector Stewardship

Key Land Conservation Choices for the Watershed Manager What fraction of the watershed needs to be conserved? What are the highest priorities for land conservation? How will long-term management be handled? What incentives can be used to encourage stewardship of private lands? Does a land trust exist to accept and manage conservation areas? What are the most appropriate techniques to conserve land? How should conservation areas be delineated?

What fraction of the watershed needs to be conserved?

What are the highest priorities for land conservation?

How will long-term management be handled?

What incentives can be used to encourage stewardship of

private lands?

Does a land trust exist to accept and manage conservation

areas?

What are the most appropriate techniques to conserve

land?

How should conservation areas be delineated?

 

This buffer was reestablished with great success in Anacostia near Washington, DC. After only two growing seasons, the vegetation showed dramatic recovery growth. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Benefits of Aquatic Buffers Regulates light and temperature conditions, improving the habitat for aquatic plants and animals Effective in removing sediment, nutrients, and bacteria from stormwater and groundwater Helps to stabilize and protect the streambank

Regulates light and temperature conditions, improving the habitat for aquatic plants and animals

Effective in removing sediment, nutrients, and bacteria from stormwater and groundwater

Helps to stabilize and protect the streambank

 

This development in Howard County, MD illustrates a buffer. The outer zones consist of backyards where usage is unrestricted and the vegetative target can be turf grass. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This tree preservation area is clearly marked throughout the construction stage to prevent clearing. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Key Buffer Choices for the Watershed Manager How much of the aquatic corridor can be protected by buffers? How should buffers be managed and crossed? Is restoration or better stewardship possible along an aquatic corridor that has already been developed? How will the buffer network be managed? Long-term maintenance? How much pollutant removal is to be expected by the buffer network?

How much of the aquatic corridor can be

protected by buffers?

How should buffers be managed and crossed?

Is restoration or better stewardship possible

along an aquatic corridor that has already been

developed?

How will the buffer network be managed?

Long-term maintenance?

How much pollutant removal is to be expected by

the buffer network?

 

A typical conventional site contains huge areas of impervious cover that can potentially be reduced. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Typical streets are often excessively wide, increasing traffic speeds and making streets unfriendly to pedestrians. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Typical cul-de-sacs are often large enough to double as spaceship landing pads. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This conceptual plan utilizes several better site design techniques, including a vegetated island that allows stormwater filtration, shorter driveways, narrow streets, and alternate pavement for overflow parking.

Better Site Design Three Categories: Residential Streets and Parking Lots Lot Development Conservation of Natural Areas

Three Categories:

Residential Streets and Parking Lots

Lot Development

Conservation of Natural Areas

Parking lots are often underutilized and can be minimized through better site design techniques. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This example of an open space design utilizes the existing character of the area by minimizing clearing and grading and preserving large tracts of natural open space.

Key Site Design Choices for the Watershed Manager Will better site design reduce the amount of impervious cover in my subwatershed? What are the most important development rules that need to be changed to promote better site design? What incentives can be used to encourage developers to utilize better site design? What is the time frame for revising codes and ordinances?

Will better site design reduce the amount of

impervious cover in my subwatershed?

What are the most important development rules

that need to be changed to promote better site

design?

What incentives can be used to encourage

developers to utilize better site design?

What is the time frame for revising codes and

ordinances?

 

Clearing and grading of the entire site, and all at once, is a common construction practice. Some state regulations require exposed soils to be stabilized within 7 - 10 days. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Ten Elements of an Effective ESC Plan 1. Minimize Needless Clearing and Grading 2. Protect Waterways and Stabilize Drainage Ways 3. Phase Construction to Limit Soil Exposure 4. Stabilize Exposed Soils Immediately 5. Protect Steep Slopes and Cuts 6. Install Perimeter Controls to Filter Sediments 7. Employ Advanced Sediment Settling Controls 8. Certify Contractors on ESC Plan Implementation 9. Adjust ESC Plan at Construction Site 10. Assess ESC Practices After Storms

The use of straw is one technique for stabilizing soils. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This sedimentation basin was constructed to treat the erosion from the construction right in the background. However, the basin is not being maintained properly and the heavy sedimentation is a sign of failure. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Silt fences are another ESC measure, but are worthless without proper installation and maintenance. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Key Erosion and Sediment Control Choices for the Watershed Manager Is a higher level of ESC practice or more frequent inspection needed to protect my subwatershed? How well do current ESC programs reinforce other watershed protection tools? What incentives can be used to minimize the amount of clearing at development sites?

Is a higher level of ESC practice or more frequent

inspection needed to protect my subwatershed?

How well do current ESC programs reinforce

other watershed protection tools?

What incentives can be used to minimize the

amount of clearing at development sites?

 

Goals of Stormwater BMPs Maintain groundwater recharge and quality Reduce stormwater pollutant loads Protect stream channels Prevent increased overbank flooding Safely convey extreme floods

Maintain groundwater recharge and quality

Reduce stormwater pollutant loads

Protect stream channels

Prevent increased overbank flooding

Safely convey extreme floods

Best Management Practices Most stormwater BMPs can be grouped into five general categories: Ponds Wetlands Infiltration Filtering systems Open channels

Most stormwater BMPs can be grouped into five general categories:

Ponds

Wetlands

Infiltration

Filtering systems

Open channels

Stormwater wet ponds are characterized by a permanent pool of water. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Stormwater wetlands treat the stormwater for both quality and quantity. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Infiltration trenches allow stormwater to percolate slowly into the soil. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Bioretention areas are a type of filtering system often used in parking lots. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Open channels are often used along roadways to convey and infiltrate stormwater. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Key Stormwater Choices for the Watershed Manager Determine the most effective mix of structural and non-structural BMPs that can meet my subwatershed goals Which hydrologic variables do we want to manage in the subwatershed? What are the primary stormwater pollutants of concern? Which BMPs should be avoided because of their environmental impacts? What is the most economical way to provide stormwater management? Which BMPs are the least burdensome to maintain with local budgets?

Determine the most effective mix of structural and non-structural BMPs that can meet my subwatershed goals

Which hydrologic variables do we want to manage in the subwatershed?

What are the primary stormwater pollutants of concern?

Which BMPs should be avoided because of their environmental impacts?

What is the most economical way to provide stormwater management?

Which BMPs are the least burdensome to maintain with local budgets?

 

Non-Stormwater Discharges Septic Systems Sanitary Sewers Other Industrial NPDES discharges Urban “return flows” Water diversions Runoff from confined animal feeding lots Miscellaneous

Septic Systems

Sanitary Sewers

Other

Industrial NPDES discharges

Urban “return flows”

Water diversions

Runoff from confined animal feeding lots

Miscellaneous

This schematic of a septic system shows how a faulty septic tank could potentially pollute groundwater.

Septic systems that fail or are improperly located have the potential to pollute our lakes and streams. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Illicit connections to the storm drain also pollute our waters. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Runoff from animal lots can contaminate our streams without proper treatment. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Key Non-Stormwater Discharge Choices for the Watershed Manager Can permit programs be utilized to improve compliance? Does it make sense to extend the sewer envelope into the watershed? Where will the sewer be located in relationship to the stream corridor? Are current permits adequate?

Can permit programs be utilized to improve compliance?

Does it make sense to extend the sewer envelope into the watershed?

Where will the sewer be located in relationship to the stream corridor?

Are current permits adequate?

 

Watershed Stewardship Programs Watershed Advocacy Watershed Education Pollution Prevention Watershed Maintenance Indicator Monitoring Restoration

Watershed Advocacy

Watershed Education

Pollution Prevention

Watershed Maintenance

Indicator Monitoring

Restoration

Elements of Watershed Education Watershed awareness Personal stewardship Professional training Watershed engagement

Watershed awareness

Personal stewardship

Professional training

Watershed engagement

The Adopt-A-Stream program provides an excellent opportunity for active public participation and education. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

These citizen volunteers are planting trees to help reforest a buffer. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Assessing the quality and quantity of aquatic biota is one way to monitor the health of a watershed. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Hydrologic gauging stations compute stream velocity and measure pollutant levels. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

This stream restoration project included building log drops to provide spawning habitat for salmon. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection

Key Stewardship Choices for the Watershed Manager Is my community ready to undertake restoration? Which mix of stewardship programs is best? Who are the best targets for watershed education? How am I going to pay for a stewardship program?

Is my community ready to undertake restoration?

Which mix of stewardship programs is best?

Who are the best targets for watershed education?

How am I going to pay for a stewardship program?

Summary This presentation provides a simple introduction to the eight basic watershed protection tools essential to the protection, preservation, and restoration of our lakes, streams, and estuaries. For more information on the watershed protection tools, please consult the Rapid Watershed Planning Handbook , 1998.

Are You an Expert on the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection? Simply use your mouse to click on the correct answer for each multiple choice question. If you are correct, you will immediately advance to the next slide. Good luck!

Simply use your mouse to click on the correct answer for each multiple choice question. If you are correct, you will immediately advance to the next slide. Good luck!

Land use planning County codes and ordinances Gravel What is the single most important tool of watershed protection?

Land use planning

County codes and ordinances

Gravel

At what scale is watershed planning most effective? Largest scale possible Subwatershed scale Stream level

What is the disadvantage of using large lot zoning as a land use planning tool? Large lots spread out development, resulting in sprawl Large lots are often economically unfeasible Large lots mean longer driveways

What is an aquatic buffer? An area of trees that blocks noise pollution Tool designed to polish rough, polluted areas Area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited

What is cluster development? Development that groups economically similar groups together Development that reduces individual lot size and creates more open space Development designed to concentrate pollutants in one small area

What is the most destructive stage of the development cycle? Clearing & grading Installation of underground pipes & lines Structure erection

What is the most effective technique for providing erosion and sediment control? Wetting down building sites Increasing cleared areas Minimizing clearing

What is NOT a structural stormwater practice? Ponds Wetlands Infiltration Filtering Systems Buffer clearing Open channels

What non-stormwater discharge is not regulated by the NPDES? Factory discharge Septic systems Farm discharge

What is the primary goal of watershed stewardship programs? Increase public awareness & participation Save money Preserve non-profit status

What is a conservation easement? A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources An amendment relaxing conservation restrictions A special dispensation to deputize conservation officers

What are stormwater hotspots? Urban areas that contribute 5-10 times higher pollutant levels in stormwater runoff Areas of increased water temperature that destroy habitat Areas that are 5-10 times more likely to experience flooding

Congratulations! You’re familiar with the eight tools of watershed protection! Contact the Center for Watershed Protection if you’re interested in learning more.

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Eight Tools of Watershed Protection Vocabulary

Aquatic corridor Areas of land and water that are important to the integrity and quality of a stream, river, or other body of water. An aquatic corridor usually consists of the actual stream or river, the aquatic buffer, and other areas which are part of the stream’s right-of-way. BACK

Areas of land and water that are important to the integrity and quality of a stream, river, or other body of water. An aquatic corridor usually consists of the actual stream or river, the aquatic buffer, and other areas which are part of the stream’s right-of-way.

Buffer An area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited. BACK

An area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited.

Cluster or Open Space Development The use of designs which incorporate open space into a development site; these areas can be used for either passive or active recreational activity or preserved as naturally vegetated land. BACK

The use of designs which incorporate open space into a development site; these areas can be used for either passive or active recreational activity or preserved as naturally vegetated land.

Conservation easements A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources. Typically, a landowner will grant a parcel of land to a qualified recipient (e.g. public agency or non profit land conservancy organization). The easement gives the recipient the right to enforce the restrictions. The recipient does not assume ownership but does assume long-term responsibility for enforcement and stewardship of the easement. BACK

A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources. Typically, a landowner will grant a parcel of land to a qualified recipient (e.g. public agency or non profit land conservancy organization). The easement gives the recipient the right to enforce the restrictions. The recipient does not assume ownership but does assume long-term responsibility for enforcement and stewardship of the easement.

Floodplain Areas adjacent to a stream or river that are subjected to flooding or inundation during severe storm events (often called a 100 year floodplain, it would include the area or flooding that occurs, on average, once every 100 years). BACK

Areas adjacent to a stream or river that are subjected to flooding or inundation during severe storm events (often called a 100 year floodplain, it would include the area or flooding that occurs, on average, once every 100 years).

Illicit connections Illegal and/or improper waste discharges into storm drainage systems and receiving waters. BACK

Illegal and/or improper waste discharges into storm drainage systems and receiving waters.

Impacted stream or subwatershed Stream classification for a subwatershed with 11 to 25% ultimate impervious cover. Urbanization is expected to lead to permanent degradation to stream quality. BACK

Stream classification for a subwatershed with 11 to 25% ultimate impervious cover. Urbanization is expected to lead to permanent degradation to stream quality.

Impervious cover Any surface in the urban landscape that cannot effectively absorb or infiltrate rainfall. BACK

Any surface in the urban landscape that cannot effectively absorb or infiltrate rainfall.

Imperviousness The percentage of impervious cover within a development site or watershed. BACK

The percentage of impervious cover within a development site or watershed.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Established by Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, this federally mandated system is used for regulating point source and stormwater discharge. BACK

Established by Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, this federally mandated system is used for regulating point source and stormwater discharge.

Non-stormwater flows Runoff from sources other than rainwater. BACK

Runoff from sources other than rainwater.

Non-supporting stream or subwatershed Stream classification for a subwatershed with more than 25% total impervious cover. These streams are not candidates for restoration. BACK

Stream classification for a subwatershed with more than 25% total impervious cover. These streams are not candidates for restoration.

Open Space A portion of a development site that is permanently set aside for public or private use and will not be developed with homes. The space may be used for passive or active recreation, or may be reserved to protect or buffer natural areas. BACK

A portion of a development site that is permanently set aside for public or private use and will not be developed with homes. The space may be used for passive or active recreation, or may be reserved to protect or buffer natural areas.

Rooftop runoff Rainwater that falls on rooftops, does not infiltrate into soil, and runs off the land. BACK

Rainwater that falls on rooftops, does not infiltrate into soil, and runs off the land.

Sensitive stream or subwatershed Stream classification for a subwatershed with less than 10% impervious cover that is still capable of supporting stable channels and good to excellent biodiversity. BACK

Stream classification for a subwatershed with less than 10% impervious cover that is still capable of supporting stable channels and good to excellent biodiversity.

Stormwater “hotspots” Land-uses or activities that generate highly contaminated runoff. Examples include fueling stations and airport deicing facilities. BACK

Land-uses or activities that generate highly contaminated runoff. Examples include fueling stations and airport deicing facilities.

Stormwater management practice (BMP) A structural or non-structural technique designed to temporarily store or treat stormwater runoff in order to mitigate flooding, reduce pollution, and provide other amenities. BACK

A structural or non-structural technique designed to temporarily store or treat stormwater runoff in order to mitigate flooding, reduce pollution, and provide other amenities.

Stormwater runoff Rainwater that does not infiltrate into the soil and runs off the land. BACK

Rainwater that does not infiltrate into the soil and runs off the land.

Subwatershed A smaller geographic section of a larger watershed unit with a drainage area between 2 to 15 square miles and whose boundaries include all the land area draining to a point where two second order streams combine to form a third order stream. BACK

A smaller geographic section of a larger watershed unit with a drainage area between 2 to 15 square miles and whose boundaries include all the land area draining to a point where two second order streams combine to form a third order stream.

Transferable Development Rights (TDRs) A form of incentive for developers in which the developer purchases the rights to an undeveloped piece of property in exchange for the right to increase the number of dwelling units on another site. Often used to concentrate development density in certain land areas. BACK

A form of incentive for developers in which the developer purchases the rights to an undeveloped piece of property in exchange for the right to increase the number of dwelling units on another site. Often used to concentrate development density in certain land areas.

Watershed All the land which contributes runoff to a particular point along a waterway. BACK

All the land which contributes runoff to a particular point along a waterway.

Zoning A set of regulations and requirements that govern the use, placement, spacing and size of buildings and lots within a specific area or in a common class (zone). BACK

A set of regulations and requirements that govern the use, placement, spacing and size of buildings and lots within a specific area or in a common class (zone).

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