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Egypt: The Kingdom Along the Nile

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Information about Egypt: The Kingdom Along the Nile

Published on February 23, 2009

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Describes Pharaonic Egypt, Its History, its Pantheon, and its Art and Architecture
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Egypt The Kingdom Along the Nile

Egypt: Introduction A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia, as we will see. After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt The empire lasted 2500-3000 years, depending on interpretation Only one major episode of political fragmentation (2200-2000 BC)

A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia, as we will see.

After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt

The empire lasted 2500-3000 years, depending on interpretation

Only one major episode of political fragmentation (2200-2000 BC)

Location and Map of Egypt Lower Egypt comprises the Nile delta Upper Egypt comprises the Nile below the delta The Nile is constant There is a predictable flood every spring Desert on either side contributed to its isolation

Lower Egypt comprises the Nile delta

Upper Egypt comprises the Nile below the delta

The Nile is constant

There is a predictable flood every spring

Desert on either side contributed to its isolation

Ecology of the Nile Valley The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river regularly every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding Egypt also had precious metals, stone that was useful both for tools and construction

The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river regularly every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa

Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia

Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding

Egypt also had precious metals, stone that was useful both for tools and construction

Demographics of the Nile The population itself was uniform, with the same language and similar, if not the same, culture Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation, an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked. Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta.

The population itself was uniform, with the same language and similar, if not the same, culture

Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation, an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked.

Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta.

Egyptian Neolithic: Overview Domesticated Plants Food plants: wheat and barley Fiber plants: flax Domesticated animals: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Small villages formed along both banks of the Nile

Domesticated Plants

Food plants: wheat and barley

Fiber plants: flax

Domesticated animals: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs

Small villages formed along both banks of the Nile

Egyptian Neolithic: Merimbe Merimbe, near Nile Delta (4900) Subterranean oval houses with roofs of sticks and mud Tools: stone axes, knives, arrowheads Grains stored in ceramic jars, pits, baskets Circular clay-lined threshing floor

Merimbe, near Nile Delta (4900)

Subterranean oval houses with roofs of sticks and mud

Tools: stone axes, knives, arrowheads

Grains stored in ceramic jars, pits, baskets

Circular clay-lined threshing floor

Egyptian Neolithic: Badari Clusters of huts or skin tents These were precursors of later burial customs Bodies lowered into circular or rectangular pits after faces painted with green coloring Grave goods included utensils, food, ivory spoons, and vases of ivory or stone Possibly the root of Egyptian burial customs This statuette was buried with both men and women Sexuality was emphasized, but they also suggest rebirth and regeneration in the afterlife

Clusters of huts or skin tents

These were precursors of later burial customs

Bodies lowered into circular or rectangular pits after faces painted with green coloring

Grave goods included utensils, food, ivory spoons, and vases of ivory or stone

Possibly the root of Egyptian burial customs

This statuette was buried with both men and women

Sexuality was emphasized, but they also suggest rebirth and regeneration in the afterlife

Pre-Dynastic Egypt: Central Places Nagada (Naqada) Early evidence of stratification: sumptuous burials Control of large hinterland by 5500 BP Hierkonopolis (Nehken) Center of pottery manufacture, whose design appears throughout Egypt Center of a necropolis, or “city of the dead,” evidence by tombs Left: Mace head of Scorpion II at Hierkonopolis

Nagada (Naqada)

Early evidence of stratification: sumptuous burials

Control of large hinterland by 5500 BP

Hierkonopolis (Nehken)

Center of pottery manufacture, whose design appears throughout Egypt

Center of a necropolis, or “city of the dead,” evidence by tombs

Left: Mace head of Scorpion II at Hierkonopolis

The Principal Gods of Egypt I: Amon: (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun (depicted as the sun’s rays; upper left) He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning (lower left) Anubis: the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal) Aten: the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun) Hapi: the god of the Nile Hathor: Mother, wife, daughter of Ra

Amon: (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun (depicted as the sun’s rays; upper left)

He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning (lower left)

Anubis: the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal)

Aten: the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun)

Hapi: the god of the Nile

Hathor: Mother, wife, daughter of Ra

The Principal Gods of Egypt II Osiris: God of the underworld (upper left; depicted with Isis) Set or Seth: God of storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him Isis: Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility Horus: Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky. Horus (with head of falcon) and Seth (head of dog) crown Ramses III (lower left)

Osiris: God of the underworld (upper left; depicted with Isis)

Set or Seth: God of storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him

Isis: Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility

Horus: Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky.

Horus (with head of falcon) and Seth (head of dog) crown Ramses III (lower left)

Other Gods of Egypt Thoth: God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing. Ptat: Creator of humankind; patron of the craftspeople Ma’at: Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth She wore an ostrich feather Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead Bes: Helper of women in childbirth; protector against snakes.

Thoth: God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing.

Ptat: Creator of humankind; patron of the craftspeople

Ma’at: Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth

She wore an ostrich feather

Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case

Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead

Bes: Helper of women in childbirth; protector against snakes.

Theocracy Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests Monarchs represented the will of the Sun God In many conceptions, the Pharaoh was a god; gods’ will flowed through him The Sphinx, who guarded the entrance to Gizeh’s pyramids, had the head of Khafre and the body of a lion They represented the head of a powerful man and the body of the king of beasts

Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests

Monarchs represented the will of the Sun God

In many conceptions, the Pharaoh was a god; gods’ will flowed through him

The Sphinx, who guarded the entrance to Gizeh’s pyramids, had the head of Khafre and the body of a lion

They represented the head of a powerful man and the body of the king of beasts

Cult of the Dead At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 25-26 for details. Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose. See pp. 28-29 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure.

At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity

A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 25-26 for details.

Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose.

See pp. 28-29 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure.

Egyptians: Conceptions of Death and the Soul Death was the doorway to a new life The body had to be preserved Ka : the dead person’s soul that it housed, enabling the body to enjoy life in the afterlife as in the earthly life Upraised arms above head symbolized the ka (upper left) A surrogate could act as substitute for body Second aspect: the akh , or spiritual transformation of the dead Third aspect: the ba , which entered and exited the body The ba was represented by a human-headed bird (lower left)

Death was the doorway to a new life

The body had to be preserved

Ka : the dead person’s soul that it housed, enabling the body to enjoy life in the afterlife as in the earthly life

Upraised arms above head symbolized the ka (upper left)

A surrogate could act as substitute for body

Second aspect: the akh , or spiritual transformation of the dead

Third aspect: the ba , which entered and exited the body

The ba was represented by a human-headed bird (lower left)

Mummification of the Body At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 88 for details. Here, the jackal-headed Anubis prepares the mummy for entombment He was the god of embalmers He was also the guide and the judge of the dead

At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity

A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 88 for details.

Here, the jackal-headed Anubis prepares the mummy for entombment

He was the god of embalmers

He was also the guide and the judge of the dead

Pyramids Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh; They were not used for ritual or any other purpose. See pp. 90-93 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure. This diagram shows the internal structure of the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) The largest pyramid at Giza

Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh;

They were not used for ritual or any other purpose.

See pp. 90-93 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure.

This diagram shows the internal structure of the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops)

The largest pyramid at Giza

Book of the Dead The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment. Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged

The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma

The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment.

Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at

If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged

Egypt: Upper and Lower Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile Lower Egypt : the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile Upper Egypt : All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom

Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile

Lower Egypt : the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile

Upper Egypt : All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom

Unification of Egypt After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer (left) The region was united into one empire Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue; And a White Crown (Upper Egypt) After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypts (lower left)

After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer (left)

The region was united into one empire

Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations

Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue;

And a White Crown (Upper Egypt)

After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypts (lower left)

The Symbolism of the Union—And Defeat of Upper Egypt To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name God Horus holds the captive by a feather Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side. There are the decapitated warriors in defeat At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power For other symbols on this palette, see p. 25

To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive

Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name

God Horus holds the captive by a feather

Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt

To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side.

There are the decapitated warriors in defeat

At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power

For other symbols on this palette, see p. 25

History of Dynastic Egypt: Early Phases Divided into 33 dynasties of each pharaoh including Narmer/Menes Archaic Period (3100 BC): Consolidation of state Old Kingdom (2920-2134): Despotic pharaohs build pyramids and foster conspicuous funerary monuments The Sphinx with pyramid in background (upper left) Institutions, economic arrangements, and artistic traditions established Subject brings offering to gods (lower left)

Divided into 33 dynasties of each pharaoh including Narmer/Menes

Archaic Period (3100 BC): Consolidation of state

Old Kingdom (2920-2134):

Despotic pharaohs build pyramids and foster conspicuous funerary monuments

The Sphinx with pyramid in background (upper left)

Institutions, economic arrangements, and artistic traditions established

Subject brings offering to gods (lower left)

Sculptures of the Pharaohs: Seated Figures Khafre, son of Khufu Note formal regal posture Note fusion of body to throne Note clenched fist of right hand, downward placement of open left hand Horus, son of Osiris and Isis, is perched in back of the figure

Khafre, son of Khufu

Note formal regal posture

Note fusion of body to throne

Note clenched fist of right hand, downward placement of open left hand

Horus, son of Osiris and Isis, is perched in back of the figure

Sculptures of the Pharoahs: Stance This statue of Memkaure and wife Khamerernebty shows the formalism of Egyptian sculputure Note clenched fists, rigid stance, left foot forward, and beard and headdress of the Pharaoh Note supportive stance of wife; hand around waist and on arm

This statue of Memkaure and wife Khamerernebty shows the formalism of Egyptian sculputure

Note clenched fists, rigid stance, left foot forward, and beard and headdress of the Pharaoh

Note supportive stance of wife; hand around waist and on arm

History of Egypt: First Intermediate Period to Middle Kingdom First Intermediate Period (2134-2040): political disunity Middle Kingdom (2040-1650 BC) Thebes achieves dominance Priesthood of Amun (seen here with Mut, his consort, and son Khons

First Intermediate Period (2134-2040): political disunity

Middle Kingdom (2040-1650 BC)

Thebes achieves dominance

Priesthood of Amun (seen here with Mut, his consort, and son Khons

History of Egypt: Later Phases Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC ): Hyskos invasion and occupation of Nile Delta New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC): Great Imperial Period Pharaohs buried in Valley of Kings Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Seti I Akhenaten, heretic ruler

Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC ): Hyskos invasion and occupation of Nile Delta

New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC):

Great Imperial Period

Pharaohs buried in Valley of Kings

Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Seti I

Akhenaten, heretic ruler

History of Egypt: Terminal Periods Late Period (1072-332 BC): Gradual decline in pharaonic authority Persians rule (525-404 BC and 343-332 BC) Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC): Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt Ptolemy dynasties bring Greek culture to Egypt Roman Occupation (30 BC): Egypt becomes imperial province of Rome

Late Period (1072-332 BC):

Gradual decline in pharaonic authority

Persians rule (525-404 BC and 343-332 BC)

Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC):

Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt

Ptolemy dynasties bring Greek culture to Egypt

Roman Occupation (30 BC): Egypt becomes imperial province of Rome

Archaic Kingdom (3000-2575 BC) First known pharaoh: Horus Aha Consolidation in which pharaohs assumed role of divine kings Centralized authority over labor, food storage, and taxation Sponsored spectacular feasts/rituals Translated into large-scale, well-designed architecture of which the pyramids were examples Introduction of hieroglyphic writing One function: To propagate the pharaonic religion at the expense of local cults Scribes held enormous power, as the few who could read and write

First known pharaoh: Horus Aha

Consolidation in which pharaohs assumed role of divine kings

Centralized authority over labor, food storage, and taxation

Sponsored spectacular feasts/rituals

Translated into large-scale, well-designed architecture of which the pyramids were examples

Introduction of hieroglyphic writing

One function: To propagate the pharaonic religion at the expense of local cults

Scribes held enormous power, as the few who could read and write

Hieroglyphic Writing Definition: Writing system in which Pictorial symbols are used to Convey particular sound, object, and/or idea Original known use: accounting Gunter Dreyer found the oldest evidence of Egyptian writing 200 small bone and ivory tags attached to containers holding linen and oil Attributed to a leader called Scorpion I Date: 5200 BP Location: Abydos, 250 miles below Cairo

Definition: Writing system in which

Pictorial symbols are used to

Convey particular sound, object, and/or idea

Original known use: accounting

Gunter Dreyer found the oldest evidence of Egyptian writing

200 small bone and ivory tags attached to containers holding linen and oil

Attributed to a leader called Scorpion I

Date: 5200 BP

Location: Abydos, 250 miles below Cairo

Hieroglyphic Writing Note that hieroglyphs would stand for a sound Still relied on pictographic writing

Note that hieroglyphs would stand for a sound

Still relied on pictographic writing

Complexity of Hieroglyphic Writing There is some indication that hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship than the were for economic transactions Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests

There is some indication that hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship

than the were for economic transactions

Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex

Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests

Old Kingdom (2575-2134) Further consolidation of empire Construction of Pyramids Zoser (Djoser): stepped pyramid at Saqqara Khufu (Cheops) of Giza: smooth-sided pyramid, largest in the world Lesser pyramids Khafre (Chephren) Menkaure (Mycerinus) Sphinx (likeness of Khafre) Complex covered 25 miles on the western side of the Nile

Further consolidation of empire

Construction of Pyramids

Zoser (Djoser): stepped pyramid at Saqqara

Khufu (Cheops) of Giza: smooth-sided pyramid, largest in the world

Lesser pyramids

Khafre (Chephren)

Menkaure (Mycerinus)

Sphinx (likeness of Khafre)

Complex covered 25 miles on the western side of the Nile

Pyramids: Analysis Pharaonic institution probably the most successful of cults Pharaohs were divine, capable of controlling Nile flood pattern of Nile, rise of sun, and other natural forces Source of law (no codified law) and top of a complex bureaucracy At death, said to dwell in the tomb while his double moved on to the other world Pyramids was the divine house of the ruler Never meant for any ritual purpose

Pharaonic institution probably the most successful of cults

Pharaohs were divine, capable of controlling Nile flood pattern of Nile, rise of sun, and other natural forces

Source of law (no codified law) and top of a complex bureaucracy

At death, said to dwell in the tomb while his double moved on to the other world

Pyramids was the divine house of the ruler

Never meant for any ritual purpose

Pyramids: Construction Function in all locations: to inspire awe among population Constructed during flood season Reinforced power by feeding the builders Egyptian pyramids were build in one continuous process of solid stone blocks Constructed, as in Mesoamerica, in a four-sided design Contained passageways and tombs, including a fake chamber Like all pyramids, involves Massive inputs of manpower Sophisticated planning and organization

Function in all locations: to inspire awe among population

Constructed during flood season

Reinforced power by feeding the builders

Egyptian pyramids were build in one continuous process of solid stone blocks

Constructed, as in Mesoamerica, in a four-sided design

Contained passageways and tombs, including a fake chamber

Like all pyramids, involves

Massive inputs of manpower

Sophisticated planning and organization

Other Pyramids Most New World pyramids were constructed in stages (as were Near Eastern ziggurats) Teotihuacan: Rubble covered with stone facades Base was as wide as Khufu’s pyramid Half as high Moche: Adobe bricks, roughly rectangular Cahokia: Earthen mounds Monk’s Mound is largest in North America After Cholula and Pyramid of the Sun

Most New World pyramids were constructed in stages (as were Near Eastern ziggurats)

Teotihuacan: Rubble covered with stone facades

Base was as wide as Khufu’s pyramid

Half as high

Moche: Adobe bricks, roughly rectangular

Cahokia: Earthen mounds

Monk’s Mound is largest in North America

After Cholula and Pyramid of the Sun

First Intermediate Period (2134-2040) The Old Kingdom underwent decline Long drought—probably damaged pharaonic divinity claims High cost of pyramid construction in labor and resources Dominance by warring regional kingdoms Provincial powers increased Smaller tombs constructed in various localities.

The Old Kingdom underwent decline

Long drought—probably damaged pharaonic divinity claims

High cost of pyramid construction in labor and resources

Dominance by warring regional kingdoms

Provincial powers increased

Smaller tombs constructed in various localities.

Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BC) Thebes of Upper Egypt rises Pharaohs Made fewer claims to divinity More approachable than past pharaohs Less despotic Increased efficiency Expanded irrigation systems Stockpiled granaries Other Changes Expanded overseas trade Secured Egypt’s borders Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes

Thebes of Upper Egypt rises

Pharaohs

Made fewer claims to divinity

More approachable than past pharaohs

Less despotic

Increased efficiency

Expanded irrigation systems

Stockpiled granaries

Other Changes

Expanded overseas trade

Secured Egypt’s borders

Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes

Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC) Succession disputes erupted Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs Upper Egypt under Hyksos Hyksos introduced new technology Bronze Horse-drawn chariots New weapons

Succession disputes erupted

Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt

Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs

Upper Egypt under Hyksos

Hyksos introduced new technology

Bronze

Horse-drawn chariots

New weapons

New Kingdom (1530-1075 BC) Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state Imperial power lay between the Asians to the north and Africans to the south Thebes again capital Amun again worshipped as sun god Temple built at Karnak, west bank of Nile (left) Valley of Kings arose at that site

Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state

Imperial power lay between the Asians to the north and Africans to the south

Thebes again capital

Amun again worshipped as sun god

Temple built at Karnak, west bank of Nile (left)

Valley of Kings arose at that site

Pharaohs After Ahmose New Kingdom after Ahmose Akhenaten: the “heretic” who worshipped the sun disk Aten’ Aten was the sole god: precedent of monotheism Tutankhamun: “boy king” who lasted 10 years—tomb of “King Tut”; advisors restored old order Ramses II engaged in military expansion; lost in Syria to Hittites

New Kingdom after Ahmose

Akhenaten: the “heretic” who worshipped the sun disk Aten’

Aten was the sole god: precedent of monotheism

Tutankhamun: “boy king” who lasted 10 years—tomb of “King Tut”; advisors restored old order

Ramses II engaged in military expansion; lost in Syria to Hittites

Late Period (1070 BC-30 BC) A period of political weakness Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8 th Century BC Invasions by Assyrians and Persians Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors Roman conquest in 30 BC

A period of political weakness

Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8 th Century BC

Invasions by Assyrians and Persians

Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors

Roman conquest in 30 BC

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Subsistence Base Subsistence base Both based on irrigation Both relied on staples such as wheat and barley Egypt had steadier water supply than Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates were subjected to drought

Subsistence base

Both based on irrigation

Both relied on staples such as wheat and barley

Egypt had steadier water supply than Mesopotamia

Tigris and Euphrates were subjected to drought

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Government and Law Mesopotamia: Priest kings represented the gods; they were not divine beings themselves Codified Law, solidified by Hammurabi’s time Egypt Divine Pharaohs Law derived from Pharaohs Precedent was based on their personal decision

Mesopotamia:

Priest kings represented the gods; they were not divine beings themselves

Codified Law, solidified by Hammurabi’s time

Egypt

Divine Pharaohs

Law derived from Pharaohs

Precedent was based on their personal decision

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Writing Mesopotamia: Ideographic cuneiform These consisted of wedges The symbols were not phonetic Egypt: Pictographic hieroglyphics Some of the pictographs represented consonants and vowels of spoken language

Mesopotamia: Ideographic cuneiform

These consisted of wedges

The symbols were not phonetic

Egypt: Pictographic hieroglyphics

Some of the pictographs represented consonants and vowels of spoken language

Architectural Megastructures Near East: Multifunctional ziggurats Ritual but also administrative centers Egypt: Funerary pyramids Sole purpose: to house the pharaoh

Near East: Multifunctional ziggurats

Ritual but also administrative centers

Egypt: Funerary pyramids

Sole purpose: to house the pharaoh

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