Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile

50 %
50 %
Information about Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile

Published on July 9, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Later Kingdoms of Egypt. Pyramids

Egypt, Part 3 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online

Archaic Kingdom (3000-2575 BC) First known pharaoh: Horus Aha Consolidation in which pharaohs assumed role of divine kings Centralized authority over labor, food storage, and taxation Sponsored spectacular feasts/rituals Translated into large-scale, well-designed architecture of which the pyramids were examples Introduction of hieroglyphic writing One function: To propagate the pharaonic religion at the expense of local cults Scribes held enormous power, as the few who could read and write

First known pharaoh: Horus Aha

Consolidation in which pharaohs assumed role of divine kings

Centralized authority over labor, food storage, and taxation

Sponsored spectacular feasts/rituals

Translated into large-scale, well-designed architecture of which the pyramids were examples

Introduction of hieroglyphic writing

One function: To propagate the pharaonic religion at the expense of local cults

Scribes held enormous power, as the few who could read and write

Hieroglyphic Writing Definition: Writing system in which Pictorial symbols are used to Convey particular sound, object, and/or idea Original known use: accounting Gunter Dreyer found the oldest evidence of Egyptian writing 200 small bone and ivory tags attached to containers holding linen and oil Attributed to a leader called Scorpion I Date: 5200 BP Location: Abydos, 250 miles below Cairo

Definition: Writing system in which

Pictorial symbols are used to

Convey particular sound, object, and/or idea

Original known use: accounting

Gunter Dreyer found the oldest evidence of Egyptian writing

200 small bone and ivory tags attached to containers holding linen and oil

Attributed to a leader called Scorpion I

Date: 5200 BP

Location: Abydos, 250 miles below Cairo

Hieroglyphic Writing Note that hieroglyphs would stand for a sound Still relied on pictographic writing

Note that hieroglyphs would stand for a sound

Still relied on pictographic writing

Complexity of Hieroglyphic Writing There is some indication that hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship than the were for economic transactions Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests

There is some indication that hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship

than the were for economic transactions

Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex

Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests

Old Kingdom (2575-2134) Further consolidation of empire Construction of Pyramids Zoser (Djoser): stepped pyramid at Saqqara Khufu (Cheops) of Giza: smooth-sided pyramid, largest in the world Lesser pyramids Khafre (Chephren) Menkaure (Mycerinus) Sphinx (likeness of Khafre) Complex covered 25 miles on the western side of the Nile

Further consolidation of empire

Construction of Pyramids

Zoser (Djoser): stepped pyramid at Saqqara

Khufu (Cheops) of Giza: smooth-sided pyramid, largest in the world

Lesser pyramids

Khafre (Chephren)

Menkaure (Mycerinus)

Sphinx (likeness of Khafre)

Complex covered 25 miles on the western side of the Nile

Pyramids: Analysis Pharaonic institution probably the most successful of cults Pharaohs were divine, capable of controlling Nile flood pattern of Nile, rise of sun, and other natural forces Source of law (no codified law) and top of a complex bureaucracy At death, said to dwell in the tomb while his double moved on to the other world Pyramids was the divine house of the ruler Never meant for any ritual purpose

Pharaonic institution probably the most successful of cults

Pharaohs were divine, capable of controlling Nile flood pattern of Nile, rise of sun, and other natural forces

Source of law (no codified law) and top of a complex bureaucracy

At death, said to dwell in the tomb while his double moved on to the other world

Pyramids was the divine house of the ruler

Never meant for any ritual purpose

Pyramids: Construction Function in all locations: to inspire awe among population Constructed during flood season Reinforced power by feeding the builders Egyptian pyramids were build in one continuous process of solid stone blocks Constructed, as in Mesoamerica, in a four-sided design Contained passageways and tombs, including a fake chamber Like all pyramids, involves Massive inputs of manpower Sophisticated planning and organization

Function in all locations: to inspire awe among population

Constructed during flood season

Reinforced power by feeding the builders

Egyptian pyramids were build in one continuous process of solid stone blocks

Constructed, as in Mesoamerica, in a four-sided design

Contained passageways and tombs, including a fake chamber

Like all pyramids, involves

Massive inputs of manpower

Sophisticated planning and organization

Other Pyramids Most New World pyramids were constructed in stages (as were Near Eastern ziggurats) Teotihuacan: Rubble covered with stone facades Base was as wide as Khufu’s pyramid Half as high Moche: Adobe bricks, roughly rectangular Cahokia: Earthen mounds Monk’s Mound is largest in North America After Cholula and Pyramid of the Sun

Most New World pyramids were constructed in stages (as were Near Eastern ziggurats)

Teotihuacan: Rubble covered with stone facades

Base was as wide as Khufu’s pyramid

Half as high

Moche: Adobe bricks, roughly rectangular

Cahokia: Earthen mounds

Monk’s Mound is largest in North America

After Cholula and Pyramid of the Sun

First Intermediate Period (2134-2040) The Old Kingdom underwent decline Long drought—probably damaged pharaonic divinity claims High cost of pyramid construction in labor and resources Dominance by warring regional kingdoms Provincial powers increased Smaller tombs constructed in various localities.

The Old Kingdom underwent decline

Long drought—probably damaged pharaonic divinity claims

High cost of pyramid construction in labor and resources

Dominance by warring regional kingdoms

Provincial powers increased

Smaller tombs constructed in various localities.

Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BC) Thebes of Upper Egypt rises Pharaohs Made fewer claims to divinity More approachable than past pharaohs Less despotic Increased efficiency Expanded irrigation systems Stockpiled granaries Other Changes Expanded overseas trade Secured Egypt’s borders Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes

Thebes of Upper Egypt rises

Pharaohs

Made fewer claims to divinity

More approachable than past pharaohs

Less despotic

Increased efficiency

Expanded irrigation systems

Stockpiled granaries

Other Changes

Expanded overseas trade

Secured Egypt’s borders

Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes

Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC) Succession disputes erupted Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs Upper Egypt under Hyksos Hyksos introduced new technology Bronze Horse-drawn chariots New weapons

Succession disputes erupted

Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt

Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs

Upper Egypt under Hyksos

Hyksos introduced new technology

Bronze

Horse-drawn chariots

New weapons

New Kingdom (1530-1075 BC) Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state Imperial power lay between the Asians to the north and Africans to the south Thebes again capital Amun again worshipped as sun god Temple built at Karnak, west bank of Nile Valley of Kings arose at that site

Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state

Imperial power lay between the Asians to the north and Africans to the south

Thebes again capital

Amun again worshipped as sun god

Temple built at Karnak, west bank of Nile

Valley of Kings arose at that site

Pharaohs After Ahmose New Kingdom after Ahmose Akhenaten: the “heretic” who worshipped the sun disk Aten’ Aten was the sole god: precedent of monotheism Tutankhamun: “boy king” who lasted 10 years—tomb of “King Tut”; advisors restored old order Ramses II engaged in military expansion; lost in Syria to Hittites

New Kingdom after Ahmose

Akhenaten: the “heretic” who worshipped the sun disk Aten’

Aten was the sole god: precedent of monotheism

Tutankhamun: “boy king” who lasted 10 years—tomb of “King Tut”; advisors restored old order

Ramses II engaged in military expansion; lost in Syria to Hittites

Late Period (1070 BC-30 BC) A period of political weakness Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8 th Century BC Invasions by Assyrians and Persians Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors Roman conquest in 30 BC

A period of political weakness

Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8 th Century BC

Invasions by Assyrians and Persians

Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors

Roman conquest in 30 BC

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Subsistence Base Subsistence base Both based on irrigation Both relied on staples such as wheat and barley Egypt had steadier water supply than Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates were subjected to drought

Subsistence base

Both based on irrigation

Both relied on staples such as wheat and barley

Egypt had steadier water supply than Mesopotamia

Tigris and Euphrates were subjected to drought

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Government and Law Mesopotamia: Priest kings represented the gods; they were not divine beings themselves Codified Law, solidified by Hammurabi’s time Egypt Divine Pharaohs Law derived from Pharaohs Precedent was based on their personal decision

Mesopotamia:

Priest kings represented the gods; they were not divine beings themselves

Codified Law, solidified by Hammurabi’s time

Egypt

Divine Pharaohs

Law derived from Pharaohs

Precedent was based on their personal decision

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Writing Mesopotamia: Ideographic cuneiform These consisted of wedges The symbols were not phonetic Egypt: Pictographic hieroglyphics Some of the pictographs represented consonants and vowels of spoken language

Mesopotamia: Ideographic cuneiform

These consisted of wedges

The symbols were not phonetic

Egypt: Pictographic hieroglyphics

Some of the pictographs represented consonants and vowels of spoken language

Egypt and Mesopotamia: Architectural Megastructures Near East: Multifunctional ziggurats Ritual but also administrative centers Egypt: Funerary pyramids Sole purpose: to house the pharaoh

Near East: Multifunctional ziggurats

Ritual but also administrative centers

Egypt: Funerary pyramids

Sole purpose: to house the pharaoh

Conclusion Egypt was one of the most stable kingdoms in the world There were few wars in its history The regularity of the Nile in water supply and seasonal flood was the ecological factor The society was equally stable, being isolated and yet well endowed with water, fertile soil, and resources such as workable stone and precious metals. Mesopotamia, provides a stark contrast with Egypt

Egypt was one of the most stable kingdoms in the world

There were few wars in its history

The regularity of the Nile in water supply and seasonal flood was the ecological factor

The society was equally stable, being isolated and yet well endowed with water, fertile soil, and resources such as workable stone and precious metals.

Mesopotamia, provides a stark contrast with Egypt

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Egypt: Kingdom Along the Nile (Revised) - Education

Share Egypt: Kingdom Along the Nile ... Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile. ... Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1.
Read more

EGYPT - THE LAND OF THE NILE - Angelfire

It is the land of the Nile. ... along the Nile River polarized ... of the New Kingdom in Egypt. The first and greatest part of this period was ...
Read more

Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile - Clark County School District

Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile ... People settled and established farming villages along the Nile. ... During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia.
Read more

History of ancient Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3.4 Middle Kingdom; 3.5 Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos; ... Along the Nile, ... A History of Ancient Egypt: ...
Read more

ANCIENT KINGDOMS OF THE NILE - Angelfire

Ancient Kingdoms of the nile ... 3. The Egyptians made their home along 750 miles of the ... In 1798 a French army invaded Egypt. The ...
Read more

Ancient Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until ... their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile. ... over the northern part of Egypt, ...
Read more

Kingdom on the Nile - UCHS World Studies

Kingdom on the Nile ... To the south of Egypt, Nubia had developed along the Nile. ... During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia.
Read more

Chapter 3 Ancient Egypt - Welcome to OLM School

Chapter 3 Ancient Egypt The Geography of Ancient Egypt Lesson 1 Nile River Valley Valley along the Nile ... Lower Egypt The northern part of Egypt ...
Read more