# Effective prob. solving technique

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Information about Effective prob. solving technique

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: jhan786

Source: slideshare.net

1 EffectiveEffective Problem SolvingProblem Solving TechniqueTechnique Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance By:By: Mohd. ShahjahanMohd. Shahjahan

Anything thatAnything that Deviates from theDeviates from the Standard or TargetStandard or Target What is a “Problem”What is a “Problem” Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance An unfulfilled customer’s need A Gap between Actual & Desired condition Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

Negative Variance “Problem” Performance T I M E Look at Problem Diagrammatically Positive Variance “Opportunity” Diagram of a Problem Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

Performance Time Negative Variance Problem Look at Problem Diagrammatically X When actual performance started to deviate, Something happened at the time ‘X’ which caused the problem to occur Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

What skills are necessary when solving a problem?  KnowledgeKnowledge  ExperienceExperience  Communication SkillsCommunication Skills  Grouping SkillsGrouping Skills  MotivationMotivation Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

How to solve Problems? Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance A problem WELL DEFINEDWELL DEFINED is a problem half solved Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

Benefit of Structured Problem Solving  Remove time lost in debate  Identify weak points in processes  Discover systemic causes  Explain with reasons why an incident occurred  Gives a factual representation of the incident  Compare what actually happened against what should have happened  To ensure Problems don’t Re-occurTo ensure Problems don’t Re-occur Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

8 Steps Problem Solving Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Step 1 Identify/Select Problem Step 2 Understand Present Situation Step 3 Identify Root Cause Step 4 Plan Improvement Step 5 Execute Improvement Step 6 Confirm Result Step 7 Standardize Improvement Step 8 Future Plan Introduction to Effective Problem Solving Technique

The key to a good problem definition is ensuring that you deal with the real problemdeal with the real problem, not its symptoms.not its symptoms. True problem must be understood before action is taken. Problems are often masked forProblems are often masked for a variety of reasonsa variety of reasons Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem

Handy question of ‘What’‘What’ When attempting to solve a problem. Questioning Tool Box What is wrong? What did you do about it? What was the result? What happened next? What was their reaction? What are the symptoms? What are their effects? What did you notice first? The list give you a clue how to go about using them Analyzing the Problem Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

Any Improvement or Projects, has to be aligned to Customer Satisfaction and or Business Needs. 1. Management Driven 2.Customer Driven 3.Data Driven The Typical Tools used to Identify or Select the Right Problem Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

1. Improve Operation Cost 2. Improve Delivery / Project Completion 3. Improve Service 4. Grab more business Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem 1. Management Driven Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Customer Complaint 6 9 5 7 7 8 Customer Complaint Trend from Jan - Jun Goal = 1 Case/Month Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem 2. Customer Driven (ex: Not meeting Quality) Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance ExampleExample

3. Data Driven Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun RM K 52.0 50.0 55.0 67.0 89.0 91.0 Cost Increasing trend Step 1 - Identify & Select Problem Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance ExampleExample

1 – Identify / Select Problem 2 – Understand Present Situation3 – Identify Root Cause 4 – Plan Improvement P L A N 5 – Execute ImprovementDO 6 – Confirm ResultCHECK 7 – Standardize Improvement 8 – Future Plan ACT Introduction To PDCA Cycle Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance PP DD CC AA

Understand the overall process involved and collect data on the specific problem identified. What contributes to “Highest Occurrences” problem and quantify it. Understand Present Situation Step 2 – Understand Current Situation Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Recommended Tools:  Pareto Diagram  Bar Chart

Metal Bender Breakdown Frequency Prolem Frequency Indexer Jammed 42 Form Angle Out 23 Ejector Error 18 Hydraulic Pressure Drop 11 Machine Hang 8 Total 102 Step 2 – Understand Current Situation Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Understand Present Situation ExampleExample

Calculate the Cumulative Percentage and Construct 80/20 Pareto Chart 10 0 20 40 30 100 80 50 60 40 20 Indexer Jammed Form Angle Out Hyd. Press. Drop M/c Hang Ejector Error Indexer Jammed Pareto Diagram of Metal Bender Top 5 Problem Step 2 – Understand Current Situation Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Understand Present Situation ExampleExample

Goal setting - How to set a Goal?  Specific – Clear & Definite  Measurable – Quantifiable  Achievable – Realistically do-able within the time & resources  Relevant – Align Company KRA, Business Goal, Customer Focus  Timeline- Clear & Specific deadlines Set SMART Goal Example : Eliminate Indexer Jammed frequency from 42 Occurrence to 0 Occurrence, by Dec 2013 Step 2 – Understand Current Situation Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

Brainstorming Brainstorming Is a technique for generating a list of ideas about an issue. Fishbone Diagram Fishbone Diagram graphic tool used to explore and display opinion about sources of variation in a process Step 2 – Understand Current Situation Problem solving ToolsProblem solving Tools Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Pareto Chart Pareto Chart Helps to focus on problems that will have the greatest impact if solved.

Recommended Tools 1. Brainstorming 2. Fishbone Diagram 3. Why-Why Analysis How to identify the Root Causes of the Problem 1. Identify and gather helpful facts on the causes of the problem 2. Confirm opinion on root causes with data, whenever possible Step 3 – Identify Root Caused Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

Causes & Effect Analysis for Indexer Jammed Indexer not assemble correctly Stopper Low Hardness Belt Low Quality Bearing jammed Index Motor Out Stopper Ware off Motor Belt Broken Step 3 – Identify Root Caused Indexer Jammed Man Method Machine Material Did not perform servicing Wrongly assemble Wrong mounting screw used Screw not tighten properly Mounting screw loose ExampleExample

a) Plan the change process. Ask questions starting with: • What? • Who? • When? • Where? • How? Step 4 – Plan Improvement Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance b) Do contingency planning when dealing with new and risky plan

Brainstorm on the Workable solutions to curb the problem Root Caused Containment Action Category : Machine Replace Ware Off Stopper Long Term ActionStopper Ware Off Fabricate new Stopper with different hardness for long lasting Step 4 – Plan Improvement • Consider: How to eliminate the root causes • Use creativity techniques to generate large number of ideas Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance ExampleExample

Work out solution for potential risks Root Caused Containment Action Responsible Target Disadvantage Potential Solution Category : Machine Replace Ware Off Stopper Ronie WW 10 Potentially will Ware Off Long Term Action Responsible Target Disadvantage Potential SolutionStopper Ware Off Fabricate new Stopper with different hardness for long lasting Ronie WW 16 Nil, higher hardness will last long Nil Perform Periodic check on stopper Step 4 – Plan Improvement Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance Evaluate Improvement Actions - Disadvantages/ Risk factors ExampleExample

Impact & Effort Analysis (Prioritize based on action that give Highest Impact with least Effort) EFFORT High Low HighLow IMPACT #1 #2 #3 #4 Prioritize Action Step 5 – Execute Improvement Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance High Impact Low Effort Change to Harden Stopper ExampleExample

Assign task to team members with target completion timeline. Set Timeline Step 5 – Execute Improvement Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance ExampleExample

 Confirm and establish the methods of monitoring the solution. e.g. : manual data collection / audits  Does the solutions have the intended effect? Any undesired consequences? Review / Evaluate the Effectiveness of Improvement Actions Recommended ToolsRecommended Tools 1.1. Bar ChartBar Chart 2.2. Trend ChartTrend Chart 3.3. Pareto DiagramPareto Diagram Step 6 – Confirm Result Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

Construct the Pareto Chart:Construct the Pareto Chart: ““Before” & “After”Before” & “After” BEFORE 10 0 20 40 30 100 80 50 60 40 20 Indexer Jammed Form Angle Out Hyd. Press. Drop M/c Han g Ejector Error 10 0 20 40 30 100 80 50 60 40 20 Indexer Jammed Form Angle Out Hyd. Press. Drop M/c Hang Ejector Error AFTER Step 6 – Confirm Result Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance ExampleExample

1. Documentation (Specification / SOP) Document the system and simplify it so that all users will understand. 2. Proliferation (Best practices are deployed) (at own area, other departments / sites) Reason : - Standardization can help maintain the results and effects of improvement activities being executed. - Develop a training model for standardization (Train existing and new employees) - Audits are necessary to ensure conformance. Two Important Steps at Standardizing Improvement Step 7 – Standardize Improvement Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

1. Work on the same problem to improve further ( Continual Improvement with higher goal setting ) Repeat the problem solving process 2. Work on the next highest problem 3. Work on a completely new project based on Department / Business needs/ Customer requirement. Team has 3 Options at this Step Step 8 – Future Plan Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

End of Presentation……… Terima Kasih Knowledge is, turning high potential into high performance

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