Ee w03.1 m_ 1. the system (transmission) part 1

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Information about Ee w03.1 m_ 1. the system (transmission) part 1

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: slvstr

Source: slideshare.net

Lecture 1

Energy Economics Intro

• The unbundling regime for electricity utilities in the EU: A case of legislative and regulatory capture? • Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer are vertically integrated: Implications for the partial deregulation of EU electricity markets – (Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity) • Legal unbundling and auctions in vertically integrated (utilities) markets

http://fsr.eui.eu/Home.aspx

Experimental papers

Energy Economics Intro

1. Electricity markets 2. Fossil fuels: Oil, Gas & Coal 3. Climate Policy

Interest-driven Extrapolation / Speculation Highest standards research Core science Policy papers Oil price predictions Propaganda Misleading Plainly wrong/ Rotten lies Literature indication

I-D E/S HS 0.01 TWy/year . Solar energy production end 2012

• Syllabus

One short presentation on a topic within the field of energy economics. • Length 10-15 minutes long. • For example: – Challenges or chances for energy companies, energy regulators or energy traders – The electrical system (capacity, production, consumption) and its challenges (eg lack of transmission, abundance of intermittent renewables, falling short of fulfilling the 20-20-20 target, etc) for region or country X – Outlook for (and maybe historical development of) generating technology Y (in region or country X). – … many other topics… A short feedback presentation. • Length: 2-4 minutes long • singles out – 1 or 2 points that were very good, astute and clear – 2 points that could be improved upon.

The electrical system 1 Transmission

Literature for today Shively Ch.1, 2, 5, 6, 7. I-D E/S HS I-D E/S HS MIT: Appendix B

Transmission Principles of Transmission, applied to the EU transmission network 1. Line limits 2. Principles of dispatch 3. Role of frequency in ac lines and stability requirements 4. Transmission shortage, the internal market and the 2050 carbon targets

Power plants

Distributors

Transmission

Power Plants Transmission Industrial consumers Distributors Residential consumers: Households Other countries

2. Transmission lines

September 28th , 2003 Huge blackout cripples Italy!

Rome’s “white night”

Rome’s “white night”110 trains stopped Thousands of people stuck

Huge blackout cripples Italy!

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 “Cross-border transmission lines” “Interconnectors” Tree flashover!

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover!

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:0103:01-03.16

03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures TSO= Transmission System Operator

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by -300 MW 03:25 Tree flashover!

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:25 Tree flashover!

03:26 All interconnectors are automatically disconnected

1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity 4. Transmission shortage in the EU

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Tree flashover! Transmission lines limits

flashover Transmission lines limits

High voltage

High voltage Dramatically lowers losses to resistance 1 KV-> 10KV Loss falls to 1% Factor 100 Transmission lines limits

1 KV-> 100KV Loss falls to 0.01% Factor 10.000 Transmission lines limits

Transmission lines limits Sagging of the line High load

Clearance: Trees below transmission lines must be kept short enough

• Limit of a line varies… – The line itself - Maximum allowed sagging – Air temperature & wind - For example, Increase in temperature from 30C to 40C can lower the limit with 10%

VIDEO “1. Tree Flashover 10.03.09 (hq)”

Line flashover 3 risk factors for line flashover Factor 1: High voltage Factor 2: High load Factor 3: proximity to other objects (trees)

1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:01 Dispatch

2 node network

? A B Injection: 100MW Injection: 20MW Withdrawal: 50MW Withdrawal: 70MW Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch

Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Dispatch

Net Withdrawal: 50MW Physical flow: 50MW A B Net Injection: 50MW ∆ -10MW 40MW ∆-10MW 40MW ∆ -10MW 40MW Dispatch

Physical flow: 40MW A B Net Injection: 40MW Net Withdrawal: 40MW Electricity cannot just be “send” somewhere Any flow is the RESULT of the injection and withdrawals Dispatch

40MW A B 40MW Limit: 50MW Limit: 50MW Net Withdraw: 80MW Net Injection: 80MW Mettlen-Lavorgo Sils-Soazza Italy Switzerland

A B 40MW Net Withdraw: 80MW Net Injection: 80MW Mettlen-Lavorgo Sils-Soazza Italy Switzerland

A B 40MW80MW Limit: 50MW Net Withdraw: 80MW Net Injection: 80MW Mettlen-Lavorgo Sils-Soazza Italy Switzerland

A B Limit: 50MW Limit: 50MW Apply N-1 security standards 25MW 25MW Net Withdrawal: 50MW Net Injection: 50MW Mettlen-Lavorgo Sils-Soazza Italy Switzerland

Net Withdrawal: 50MW Net Injection: 50MW 25MW A B 25MW Limit: 50MW Limit: 50MW 40MW 40MW Both lines can have 80MW (15 minuts) Decrease in withdrawal of 30MW available (within 15 min) Decrease in injection of 30MW is possible (within 15 min) 80MW 80MW Fulfills N-1 security standards

A B 25MW Limit: 50MW 40MW Both lines can have 80MW (15 minuts) Net Withdrawal: 80MW Net Injection: 80MW Fulfills N-1 security standards Decrease in withdrawal of 30MW available (within 15 min) Decrease in injection of 30MW is possible (within 15 min)

A B 25MW Limit: 50MW 80MW Both lines can have 80MW (15 minuts) Net Withdrawal: 80MW Net Injection: 80MW50MW 50MW 50MW Fulfills N-1 security standards Decrease in withdrawal of 30MW available (within 15 min) Decrease in injection of 30MW is possible (within 15 min)

03:11 The Swiss TSO operator asks the Italian TSO for countermeasures Dispatch is done by national TSOs

Mettlen- Lavorgo Sils-Soazza 03:21 Italy reduces import by -300 MW 03:25 Dispatch

1. Transmission lines limits 2. Dispatch 3. Frequency and synchronicity

Frequency and Synchronicity Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)

Frequency and Synchronicity Alternating Current (AC) 50 Hertz

Does a lamp in your house receive zero energy 100 times a second and is thus blinking? Frequency and Synchronicity

•VID • Wednesday 1_ light bulb.divx

Alternating Current lines (AC)

Frequency and Synchronicity Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC)

Easy & cheap transformation

Direct Current lines (DC or HVDC)

50 Herz is the frequency in Europe Frequency and Synchronicity

A shortage of generation makes the frequency fall Slight shortage Frequency and Synchronicity

A surplus of generation makes the frequency rise Slight surplus Frequency and Synchronicity

Lost of a nuclear unit (1300 MW) within the UCTE system

• http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.h tm Frequency and Synchronicity

• http://www.dynamicdemand.co.uk/grid.h tm Frequency and Synchronicity

Russian frequency

All generators are synchronized UCTE = Continental Synchronous Area

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