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Educational policy

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Information about Educational policy

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: lucylee79

Source: slideshare.net

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Educational Policy And inequality

Educational Policy  Plans and strategies for education introduced by the government  Acts of Parliament  Recommendations

Schooling before the 19th Century  There was no national system of education  Only a tiny minority of the children received any schooling.  Opportunities for a formal education were restricted mainly to Private fee-paying schools, and some Charity/Church schools

The 1870 Education Act Provided state-run elementary schools for 5- 11 year olds Maximum fees of nine pence a week The Forster Act

The 1880 Elementary Education Act Made school compulsory up to the age of 10

Education became free By 1899 it was compulsory up to the age of 12

Butler Education Act Education system continued to evolve slowly over early 20th Century Next Major reform occurred in 1944

Butler Education Act  The second world war had caused people to want a better future  Education was seen as a way to achieve this  Radically restructured education, creating a formal state funded secondary sector

Butler Act 1944  Aimed to create a meritocratic system  It was believed that a child’s ability was fixed by the age of 11 and could be accurately measured with a special type of IQ test  The result of the 11+ test would then determine which type of school the child attended

Tripartite System Grammar Schools Secondary Technical Schools Secondary Modern Schools

Tripartite System  Rather than creating meritocracy it reproduced class inequality  It also reproduced gender inequality  The tripartite system also legitimated inequality through the idea that ability is inborn (innate)

Comprehensivisation During the 50s and 60s discontent grew with the tripartite system A new comprehensive system was introduced from 1965 onwards Labour government policy

Comprehensivisation  Comprehensive education abolished the 11+ test and the three types of secondary school  Comprehensive schools aimed to educate all children regardless of ability  Therefore abolish inequality

Comprehensivisation  Admission to a comprehensive school was based on catchment area rather than IQ test  In 2005 -9 out of 10 children attend some form of comprehensive school  Only 164 grammar schools remain

Comprehensivisation  While comprehensives did reduce the class gap in achievement…  The system reproduced inequality through Streaming Labelling

Myth of meritocracy  Comprehensives legitimated inequality  By creating the idea of equal opportunity  If you fail it is your own fault  And yet we have seen the class, gender and ethnicity all impact how well students do

• In 1979 the Conservative party won the election and Margaret Thatcher became prime minister • They wanted an education system that would • Meet the needs of industry • Raise standards

New Vocationalism  Until the 70s, vocational training was seen as the responsibility of employers  A rise in youth unemployment began to change this  It was thought schools were not providing kids with the skills they required

New Vocationalism  New vocationalism is the direct government intervention in youth training  1983 – YTS Youth Training Schemes  1986 – NVQs were developed for a range of qualifications

Criticisms of New Vocationalism  Serves the needs of capitalism rather than young people  Cohen (1984) – teaches attitudes and values needed or subordinate workforce. Lowers aspirations  Finn (1987) – cheap labour for employers, undermines trade unions, keeps employment statistics down.

The Education Reform Act Introduced by the Conservative government MARKETISATION

Define Marketisation (2 marks)

Parentocracy  Miriam David 1993  Rule by parents  Marketisation shifts power away from the producers and to the consumers

Education Reform Act  Market forces - Competition  Introduction of National Curriculum  Introduction of inspection – OFSTED  Testing – League tables  Vocationalism – job based study

National Curriculum  A standard set of subjects and content to be studied by all children in state schools  Ensures basic skills are taught consistently  Makes school leavers more employable  Common basis for measuring progress and school performance

Testing and League tables  SATS test were introduced to monitor progress  These also allowed school performance to be checked  League Tables of exam results were published to give parents information about schools so they can make informed choices

Ofsted  Ofsted was set up to inspect schools and report on their performance  Ofsted reports are published publicly so parents can access them to aid their choices

Reproduction of inequality  Stephen Ball (1994)  Geoff Whitty (1998)  Both argue that marketisation reproduces inequality

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