Published on March 19, 2014
Against: All learning at the vocational education level can and should have a measurable outcome. Key argument: Not all learning can be measured. iVET 2013-2014 Basics of Education Sciences, Session 2 Team Pink: Virpi Pietiläinen, Jay Thompson, Minna Tuhkanen and Aleksandra Paravina 13.03.2014
Objective of the presentation • Idealism has influenced education as it gives emphasis to theory before practice. • Theoretical subjects are valued more than practical ones. • Logical and analytic thinking has had an importance through education. • Assessement is a subjective process.
Task Assess three paintings by giving points on a scale 0-10, based on the following criteria: 1. Creativity ( Is the subject unique? ) 2. Skill ( Is the painting in proportion? Are the images well balanced? Brush strokes, are the lines messy or paint blotchy? 3. Colours ( Do the colours compliment or contrast each other? Does it work well with the painting? ) http://reflectionsonstudy.blogspot.fi/p/edu-sci.html
Philosophy of education We started our research with historical view on the development of philosophy of education and the ideas that led to the development of ‘liberal education’ which promotes social development, humanism and other qualities which are not necessarily quantifiable. + = ?
Idealism- belief in the objective truth of ideas • Plato, the 3rd century BC thinker. • Humans are chained to the world of senses and true knowledge can be achieved only by overcoming prejudice and ignorance after rigorous mental and ideological training.
Liberal Education • Aristotle 3rd century BC Greek pilosopher, is also important for the development of Liberal Education • The idea of the liberal education was not to develop the mind alone but to create a ‘free citizen’ through the study of arts and literature as well.
Development of scientific reasoning • important Aristotle’s rules involve : • concept formation • deductive reasoning( from the general case to the particular case by logical inference). Logical and analytic thinking has led to the development of empiricism and romanticism.
Cartesian dualism - duality between mind and body • Rene Descartes was a French philosopher (17th Century) who was influenced by Plato’s idealism • Descartes proposed a method of ‘systematic doubt’ in which everything in the universe had to be questioned until he came to something he could not doubt. -‘Cogito ergo sum’ – ‘I think, therefore I am.’
Motivation for learning • Theory of needs by Maslow's hierarchy. • This theory was developed through Cartesian, Darwinian and Freudian thought. • The value of this theory in teaching could be in recognition that higher-level motivational factors can depend of lower once. • Although some criticism of the theory is based on the fact that self – actualization is not a clear concept and that the height of the human achievement should be related more to altruism and community.
Competency based learning Competency-based qualifications systems are attractive to businesses and vocational institutes as they can promote : • accountability • transparency • measurable aspect. • Governments can use competency tools for creating a competitive workforce. The competency based systems are useful if the skills that are measured are psychomotor and easily measured. This is much harder and problematic for more complex and integrated competences.
Dewey: Artistic expression • The main thing of art is experience • Experience connects art to a larger experience of life • The way art is experienced is very subjective issue - > It can't be measured well.
Communication • Aspects of communication that are difficult to measure are e.g. social needs, conversation, self-expression and building and maintaining relations. • Dewey saw also communication as art: It’s the way how we make our shared experience meaningful. - > This is very difficult thing to measure.
Sources (philosophy of education section) Jordan, A. C., Orison S. A., 2008, Approaches to Learning : A Guide for Teachers, Berkshire, GBR , Open University Press Barrow, R.,White, P., 1993, Beyond Liberal Education : Essays in Honour of Paul H. Hirst, London, Routledge Cody, A., 2012, Rog Lucido: Student Learning Can Only be Described, Not Measured. Retrieved from: http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/living-in-dialogue/2012/02/rog_lucido_ we_cannot_measure_s.html
Sources (Dewey section) 1) http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learni ng%20Theories 2) http://deweycenter.siu.edu/pdf/Dewey_Bio.pdf 3) John Dewey: Taide kokemuksena -kirjaesittely. Filosofinen aikakauslehti - filosofinen kirjasarja. http://netn.fi/kirjat/john-dewey-taide- kokemuksena-0 4) Crick, Nathan (2005) John Dewey on the Art of Communication. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/7314/
Bandura’s View • Bandura’s definition of self-efficacy: one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations. • According to Banduras theory, students would have to change their previous behavior to something they have observed. This is difficult to measure because in most cases it's not possible to measure student behavior before they have observed others. • In vocational school it is difficult to measure how the student has absorbed knowledge of his/her theoretical studies and working practices. • In Banduras theory it's advised to compare student performance with the goals set for that student, rather than comparing one student against another or comparing one student to the rest of the class. • Examples: – Chef – Basic Nurse – Customer service-related occupations
Montessori’s View: Why should teachers not give grades? • Grades (as with other external rewards) have minimal long-term effect on the student’s achievements or efforts. • When teachers give numerical grades, they end up evaluating students against others in the same class or “against an arbitrary external standard and set of expectations.” • Instead of solving and investigating solutions themselves, this grading “leads children to look to teachers for the right answers” (Alfie Kohn) • Learning becomes shallow: the student’s goal is simply high marks/grades, which they attain by: 1) memorizing answers for a test 2) receiving a grade, and then 3) quickly forgetting the learning
So, what’s Montessori’s alternative to grading? • The goal is to nurture the motivation that comes from within the student, fostering his/her innate desire to learn. • Self-motivated learners become self-sufficient, without external reinforcement. • Montessori’s method has teachers closely observing each student’s progress so it is known when they are ready to advance. Regular conferences allow parents to see their child’s work and hear the teacher’s assessment.
More on Montessori’s Approach… • Regarding learning outcomes: “why and how students arrive at what they know is just as important as what they know.” • “No grades, no tests” (video): https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded& v=GcgN0lEh5IA (view from beginning to time mark2:38)
In conclusion there are many types of learning that cannot truly be measured .. • Creativity • Attitude • Empathy • Professional identity • Social Skills • Self-confidence • Sense of community • Happiness • Play • And more
Sources (Bandura, Skills and Montessori sections) http://www.avoin.helsinki.fi/oppimateriaalit/sosiaalipsykologia/bandura.htm http://amshq.org/Montessori-Education/FAQs.aspx http://www.montessori.org.uk/news/media_centre/press_release/what_is_montessori_education http://www.montessori.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=301:montessori-and- letter-grades-philosophically-incompatible-practice&catid=16:articles-introducing-montessori-education http://www.barrenjoeymontessori.com.au/downloads/MAF-A-montessori-perspective-on-testing.pdf http://www.2020insight.net/docs4/peopleskills.pdf
Paintings assessment task sources: Painting 1, Marc Chagall http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-nukOvJ2uu6Y/UOXWxkVw5nI/AAAAAAAABrI/1b78JMotuc4/s1600/chagall00 3.jpg Painitng 2, Nico Aalto http://nico-aalto.tumblr.com/image/73978352751 Painting 3, Kieron Williamson http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturepicturegalleries/10185839/10-year-old-mini-Monet-nears-1. 5-million-career-earnings.html?frame=2620088