Published on January 11, 2008
SA Context History: SA Context History 1948 SA Nationalist Government 1930’s economic depression and Anglo Boer Wars Apartheid policies: land ownership; pass laws, job reservation, group areas act, and separate development, Act of “immortality”. Christian national Education for Whites and Bantu Education for Blacks Impact of Apartheid on Schools: Impact of Apartheid on Schools Separate schools – no racial integration, differing resources Black schooling for subjugation & compliance– White schooling for access to economic power Black educators poorly trained, and learners had to learn in Afrikaans or English from Gr. 5 Lead to Soweto 1976 Riots 1970 Differentiate education system and self governing homelands by 1980 17 departments in 4 provinces: DET urban Black schools House of delegates (Asian) & House of Representatives (Coloured) schools Propaganda in white schools CNE & youth service/preparedness Corporal Punishment in all schools, critical thinking was not encouraged Disparities of services Slide3: Educators purveyors of knowledge, morals and authority Difference was a threat Educational psychology was conservative- using testing to support authority and eliminate deviance Strict syllabi & authoritarian system – rote learning encouraged Inspections, encouraged conformity and passivity in teaching 1948 career guidance teachers in white schools – 1981 school guidance posts introduced in Black schools but viewed with distrust – response to 1976 riots & moral guidance. Special Education needs: Separated, more provision for White schools, people with disabilities separated, judges as different. Conflict in schools Schools site for opposition to Apartheid 1980’s boycott schools for resistance – Witnessed a lot of violence Teachers feared youth IN 2003, of every 1 000 learners in the education system:: IN 2003, of every 1 000 learners in the education system: 857 were in ordinary public schools 52 were in public HE institutions 30 were in publicFET institutions 22 were in ordinary independent schools 19 were in ABET centres 15 were in ECD sites 6 were in ELSEN (special) schools Education in South Africa: Education in South Africa Profound transformation Address inequalities of past 1994 democratic government : Rights discourse vs charity discourse: right to basic quality education for all; equality of opportunity, and redress of past educational inequalities, the right of choice, and the rights of parents. Task: Task Brainstorm rules – yellow Reflect on cultural issues that may affect your class You are Ina Cronje’s advisory board. Given the inequalities of the past what recommendations would you make regarding the present education system and the role of psychologists within that system? Policies and legislations: Policies and legislations White Paper on Education and Training (1995); South African Schools Act (1996); Report of the National Commission on Special Needs in Education and Training (NCSNET) and the National Committee on Education Support Services (NCESS), (1997); Education White Paper 5: Special Education: Building an inclusive education and training system, (2000). Curriculum 2005 (1997) inclusive education and outcomes based education & abolishment of Corporal Punishment. paradigm shift(framework for understanding & interpreting world): paradigm shift (framework for understanding & interpreting world) from conceptualising "learners with special needs" to "barriers to learning and participation” Medical model- problem within individual to systemic model - barriers difficulties: difficulties Still addressing imbalances in resources & service provision: rural vs. urban, race & gender divide ‘previously disadvantages still disadvantaged Accountability Educator stress: constant transition, change in rules & regulations, departure from traditional values, inadequate training, overcrowding, lack of classroom management strategies The South African context results in challenges to psychological wellbeing: trauma, HIV, poverty, disparity of wealth, unemployment, etc. Modernity: constant change, increase stress& depression Inclusive education: Inclusive education single, integrated system, responds to the diverse needs of the learner population. Section 9(3) of Constitution reads: "The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth." The South African Schools Act 1996: "Subject to this Act, the governing body of a public school must promote the best interests of the school and strive to ensure its development through the provision of quality education for all learners at the school". (Section 20:1 (a), p. 14) Barriers to learning: Barriers to learning (i) Barriers experienced within the broader community context in which learners live – (violence, trauma) HIV(ii) Barriers related to school functioning including infrastructural and process obstacles created by individuals, peers, educators, facilities and policy within the school environment (lack of books, resources, municiple resources) (iii) Barriers related to family/home circumstances (caring for sick, loss, no money for fees/uniform) and (iv) Barriers related to the individual learners personal functioning and development (attention/learning difficulties) Barriers in community: Barriers in community (i) communities as being characterised by extreme poverty, (ii) feeling that their safety and security is frequently compromised due to the high rates of crime and violence, and (iii) learners’ awareness and experience of various forms of social stigma and discrimination related to gender and poverty. In addition, although (iv) HIV/AIDS is experienced on an individual level, there were several issues related to the disease which potentially created barriers to education at this community level. Barriers in school context: Barriers in school context related to (i) lack of educational resources ii) poor school infrastructure (iii) poor infrastructure within the broader community which directly impacts on school functioning; (iv) educational policy that was being incorrectly applied within the sampled schools; (v) safety and security within the school environment; (vi) factors related to the educators; (vii) various forms of learner misconduct; and (viii) factors that related to school attendance and motivation. Barriers experienced in the home and family context: Barriers experienced in the home and family context The barriers to education experienced by learners within the home and family contexts vary across different geographical regions, but again there were dominant themes (i) poverty being the most pervasive and destructive barrier (ii) having to perform duties at home, (iii) the impact of illness and multiple family deaths, and (iv) parenting styles and discipline procedures Barriers experienced at the individual level: Barriers experienced at the individual level include (i) behaviour in relation to educational activities and participation in the class; (ii) absenteeism; (iii) pregnancy, and (iv) the effects of poverty. Changing roles: Changing roles Group vs. individual Promoting resilience & strength based model Preventative vs. curative Community intervention Training (& train trainer) Consultation System as client Difficulty of assessment in multicultural and lingual society – meaning/understanding Learner support:: Learner support: Teacher support teams in schools Resource schools PGSES Links between services & school, community & parents Educator support groups IEP’s Multidisciplinary teams Nodes of support – resilience – prjects in school OBE: OBE Design set of learning outcomes- values, skills, knowledge What is essential for all students to be able to accomplish at end of learning experience Outcomes: observable actions & performances Technological changes – rapid change, therefore need to teach transferable skills rather than content Life related tasks, relevant content, collaborative work, project work, application of learning Active learners & meaningful learning Slide23: National qualifications framework (NQF) levels (SAQA) SA Qualifications Authority Learning areas: Language literacy & communication, Mathematical literacy, mathematics and mathematical science, Human & social sciences, Natural sciences, technology, arts & culture, economics &management, life orientation Slide24: Barriers related for HIV Divide into pairs: Fact sheet: research: paragraph re difficulty, differential diagnosis, checklist, recommendations Due 10 May Learning difficulty, attention deficit disorder, low intellectual capacity, epilepsy, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, reading difficulty, giftedness, behavioural difficulty, cerebral palsy. Physical impairment, visual or hearing impairment.