advertisement

EDMT14

43 %
57 %
advertisement
Information about EDMT14
Education

Published on February 27, 2008

Author: Javier

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

多媒体用户界面的设计 :  多媒体用户界面的设计 多媒体用户界面主要强调媒体的表现(pre-sensation),有以下几点需要考虑: 1.决定要通信的合适信息 2.表现信息的关键特性 3.确定通信的目的 4.为信息表现选择合适的媒体 5.同步不同媒体,并在一个表现片段中进行协同 6.为表现的信息提供交互手段 General Design Issues:  General Design Issues The main emphasis in the design of multimedia presentation .There are several issues which must be considered: 1. To determine the appropriate information communicate. 2.To represent the essential characteristics of the information. 3.To represent the communicative intent. 4.To chose the proper media for information presentation. 6.To provide interactive exploration of the information presented 结构考虑:  结构考虑 一个有效的表现设计过程不仅考虑串行的动作流,还考虑并行和交互的动作[SF91]。这就意味着在多媒体表现系统的不同部件之间进行额外的信息交流和反馈,另外,在系统设计时,还必须考虑对话的目标的重点、用户上下文、当前任务、媒体选择等问题。 Architectural Issues:  Architectural Issues An effective presentation design process should not only involve sequential flow of Actions, but also parallel and interactive actions [ SF91 ]. This means that there is a requirement for extensive feedback going on between the components making decisions about media and modalities. Additionally, the design includes a number of higher-level concerns, such as goals and focus of the dialogue, the user’s context and current task, and media selection to represent this information in a way that corresponds to these concerns 表现的信息特征:  表现的信息特征 一组完备的信息特征使用使得知识定义和多媒体信息的表现娈得容易,这是由于它允许在信息与表现技术之间建立合适的关系 Information Characteristics for Presentation:  Information Characteristics for Presentation A complete set of information characteristics makes knowledge definition and representation easier because it allows for appropriate mapping between information and presentation techniques. 表现功能:  表现功能 表现功能用于显示对象,将表现功能与表现形式、表现网络以及它所携带的住处相分离是很重要的。从不同视角看待表现功能有多种方法,如有有方法将表现功能看做是一组信息查询函数[RM91],有的方法认为它是媒体无关表现目标的一种层次表达。 Presentation Function:  Presentation Function Presentation function is a program which displays an object (e.g., printf for display of a character) It is important to specify the presentation function independent from presentation form, style or the information it conveys. Several approaches consider the presentation function from different points of view. For example, one approach views the presentation function as a set of information - seeking goals [ RM91 ], another approach considers it as a hierarchical representation of media-independent presentation goals derived from a plan-based theory of communication. 表现设计知识 :  表现设计知识 内容选择是用户获取住处的关键,然而内容又受以下因素的影响:表现时间长短与复杂度、信息质量、显示硬件的限制、表现完整性与连贯性的约束。 媒体选择部分决定了上面谈到的住处特征。对于表现技术的选择,可以使用权用一定的规则。在选择使用媒体种类时,应尽量使用足以表现信息的媒体,例如在介绍上网球课时,图形和视频要比单纯的文本有效得多。另一方面,也没有必要把用户收到的E-Mail都以声音的形式播放,原因是邮件接收者仅关心重要的信息 Slide10:  在具体的媒体播放过程中,要对多种媒体进行协调(coordination)和同步。同步也可以把它看成是一个合成过程,这时需要下列机制: ⑴ 编码技术(图形性性,句子形式,声音属性); ⑵ 代表事实的表现对象(在一个图表中协调节器点的时空关系); ⑶ 多个视区(多个窗口) Presentation Design Knowledge :  Presentation Design Knowledge Content selection is the key to convey the information to the user. However, we are not free in the selection of the it because content can be influenced by constraints imposed by the size and complexity of the presentation, the quantity of information, limitations of the display hardware, and the need for presentation completeness and coherence. Slide12:  Media selection determines partly the information characteristics described earlier . For selecting presentation techniques, rules can be used. Media must be chosen to be “adequate”. For example, to present a course on how to play tennis, graphics and video are more suitable than text only. On the other hand, it may not be of great help to receive all electronic mail as audio data only because the receiver has very few opportunities to scan over the content. Slide13:  Coordination can be viewed as a process of composition. Coordination needs mechanisms such as: (1) encoding techniques ( e.g., among graphical attributes, sentence forms, audio attributes, or between media); (2) presentation objects that represent facts (e.g., coordination of the spatial and temporal arrangement of points in a chart); (3) multiple displays (e.g., windows) 有效的人机交互:  有效的人机交互 有关多媒体界面的一个最重要总是是界面 的高次人机交互性。 ⑴ 上下文相关性; ⑵ 除了表现屏幕上的住处外应与其他源相链接; ⑶ 相对于其他人机界面对界面进行评价; ⑷ 交互能力; ⑸ 用户界面与应用的分离性; Effective Human-Computer Interaction :  Effective Human-Computer Interaction One of the most important issues regarding multimedia interfaces is effective human-computer interaction of the interface. (1) context; (2) linkage to the world beyond the presentation display; (3) evaluation of the interface with respect to other human-computer interfaces (4) interactive capabilities (5) separability of the user interface from the application. 基于视频和音频的扩充:  基于视频和音频的扩充 连续流视频的音频在多媒体中扮演了重要的角色,连续媒体表现中应考虑的主要问题是时间的,因此,时间成为用户界面的一个表现维度。图14.3在用户界面上表现多媒体信息时考虑了时间因素。 为了保持连续性、通常把多个静态元素的表现组成一个连续序列。如果是音频、那么数据的连续性可通过模拟信号的重构来完成。 Slide17:  y x Text t Spreadsheet Figure 14.3: Multimedia at the user interface with the presentation dimension “time”. Extension through Video and Audio:  Extension through Video and Audio Continuous stream audio and video pay a significant role in multimedia. The main issue during the presentation of continuous media streams is the continuity in time. Hence, time as a new presentation dimension in a user interface. Figure 14.3 shows multimedia at the user interface taking time into account. Slide19:  An illusion of a continuity by the user is created through the presentation of a sequence of static elements In the case of audio, the continuity of data is achieved through reconstruction of an analog signal. 用户界面中的视频:  用户界面中的视频 每秒至少15帧的视频信号就可以给人一种连续活动图片的感觉,在用户界面上, 视频通过一系统连续播放的分离图像来实现。因此,视频的处理方法跟单个静止图像的处理相类似,一个具有视频功能的用户界面例子是软 件包xv(由Pennsylvania大学GRASP实验室的 John Bradley开发,其运行界面如图14.4所示)。 Video at the User Interface:  Video at the User Interface A continuous sequence of, at least, 15 individual images per second gives a rough perception of a continuous motion picture . At the user interface , video is implemented through a continuous sequence of individual images. Hence, video can be manipulated at this interface similar to manipulation of individual still images. An example of a user interface for manipulating images is the software package xv, (developed by John Bradley of the GRASP Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. Shown in Figure 14.4 ). 显示活动图片的硬件:  显示活动图片的硬件 现在,活动图片的显示和处理可以由专用硬件来完成,通常是通过视频卡不定期完成。早一点的例子有IBM-M-Motion和Action Media Ⅱ(Intel/IBM)卡、Parallax卡、sun和Raster Ops卡,这些卡现在已成了多媒体系统一个组成部分 Slide24:  集成在窗口系统中的大多数活动视频单元采用色键方法,这样应用系统就可经按特定颜色来产生视频窗口,传统上这个颜色蓝色(源于TV中的一种视频技术)。通常窗口系统将视频窗口当作单色图形窗口来使用,但在设备层上,有一个开关决定标准图形与活动视频的切换。这个开关通常将标准图形输送到屏幕上,如果检测到活动视频,视频窗口就将摄像机出来的信号直接显示出来。在使用具有通信功能多媒体系统中,摄像机可以从远处控制。视频数据可以人摄像机通过计算机网络传送到视频窗口后显示 Hardware for Visualization of Motion Pictures:  Hardware for Visualization of Motion Pictures Special hardware for visualization of motion pictures is available today, mostly through additional video cards. Early examples of such additional hardware are IBM-M-Motion and ActionMedia 2 (Intel/IBM) cards, and the Parallax, Sun and RasterOps cards. Today, these cards have become an integral part of the multimedia system. Slide26:  Most motion video components integrated in a window system use the chromakey methods where an application generates a video window with a certain color. Traditionally, this color is a certain blue (coming from a video technique used in the TV). The window system handles, in general, the video window as a monochrome pixel graphic window, but on the device level, there is a switch which allows for the selection of the display between the standard graphics and Slide27:  motion video. This switch usually brings the standard graphics to the screen .If the hardware switch detects motion video , such a video window presents the video signal taken directly from a camera. Using a communication - capable multimedia system , this camera can be controlled remotely . The video data may be transmitted from the camera into a computer network and then displayed. 用户界面中的声音:  用户界面中的声音 声音可以成为用户界面的一个元素,对应用系统进行控制。因此,很有必要进行语音分析。 语音分析可分为依赖于讲话者和不依赖讲话者两种,前者可以在相对较低错误率前提下使用2.5万个不同词汇。在声音分析之前,系统必须经过特定讲话的训练。而不依赖讲话者的系统仅能识别很少一部分词汇,系统不需要经过特定讲话者的训练。 Slide29:  在声音输出时,使用两个或更多的信道传输声音的空间维度信息,以使之列逼真。一个典型例子是立体声技术。在使用立体声技术时,把空间位置信息赋给声音源。 Slide30:  下面举例说明:假定有一个四人参加的宙频会议,每个人有一个固定位置。参与者L的活动视频在屏幕的左上角显示时,他的声音就只在左声道中有。参与者M在中间,R在右边。在这个例子中,会议激活讲话声了响的参与者的视频窗口,以5秒为持续期不定期检测声音响度,这样,较短但较响的声音就难以被听到了。在被激活的视频窗口中视频以25帧/秒的速度显示由于技术原因,活动视频仅在一个视频窗口中显示,在其他参与者的视频窗口中,只显示它们活动最后一幅图像。如果视频变成活动,那么就显示它们。 Audio at the User Interface:  Audio at the User Interface Audio can be implemented at the user interface for application control. Thus, speech analysis is necessary. Speech analysis is either speaker-dependent or speaker-independent. Speaker-dependent solutions allow the input of approximately 25,000 different words with a relatively low error rate. Here, an intensive learning phase to train the speech analysis system for speaker-specific characteristics is necessary prior to the speech analysis phase. A speaker-independent system can recognize only a limited set of words and no training phase is needed. Slide32:  During audio output, the additional presentation dimension of space can be introduced using two or more separate channels to give a more natural distribution of sound. The best-known example of this technique is stereo . Further developments include the mono-subwoofer channel and quadraphony. In the case of stereo, spatial positions are assigned to audio sources. Slide33:  For example, during a conference with four participants, a fixed place is assigned to each participant . The motion video of participants L is displayed in the upper left corner of the screen. The corresponding sound of this participant is transmitted only through the left speaker. Participant M is visually and acoustically located in the middle. Participant R is positioned to the right . In this example, the conference system always activates the video window with the loudest-speaking participant. The recognition of the loudest acoustic signal can be measured over a duration of five seconds. Therefore, short, unwanted and loud signals can be compensated for . In the active video window , the video is displayed with 25 frames per second. Motion video is displayed only in one video window at one time because of technical reasons. In the video windows of the other (quieter) participants, the last image of the motion video sequence , when they were active, is displayed. 首要原则:用户友好性:  首要原则:用户友好性 对于一个好的用户界面来说,用户友好性是是一个主要性性,下面举例来说明。将集成了多媒体功能的电话服务与ISDN电话服务进行比较。现在的电话机有很多按键,代表不同功能,要操作它并不容易,用户有可能忘记很多功能。然而,如果有一个集成了多媒体裁功能的电话,那么,当前ISDN电话的很多毛病就可被克服。 Slide35:  用户友好性意味着什么?又如何达到?有些用户对这两个总是很不清楚。用户友好的图形界面要求考虑因素,在用户界中简单加入声音和视频并不能解决所有总是在这一节中,介绍多种通用多媒体用户界面设计策略。 User-friendliness as the Primary Goal:  User-friendliness as the Primary Goal User-friendliness is the main property of a good user interface. As an example, compare a multimedia-integrated telephone service with an ISDN telephone service. Today’s telephones consist of a large number of touch keys, each sometimes representing three different functions. It is not an easy task to operate such a telephone. Indeed, given sporadic user the user may forget many of these functions, However, with a multimedia-integrated telephone, some of the disadvantages of the current ISDN telephone user interface can be eliminated through use of multimedia data. Slide37:  What this user-friendliness means and how this property is achieved are not always clear. The design of a user - friendly graphical interface requires the consideration of many conditions. The addition of audio and video to the user interface does not simplify this process . In this section, a number of generally applicable criteria for multimedia user interfaces is presented. 方便的学习指令 :  方便的学习指令 应用指令必须简单易学 Easy to Learn Instructions:  Easy to Learn Instructions Application instructions must be easy-to-learn. 上下文敏感的帮助功能:  上下文敏感的帮助功能 超媒体技术的上与文敏感的帮助功能很有用,它针对应用的状态,显示不同的帮助信息。 Context-sensitive Help Functions:  Context-sensitive Help Functions A context-sensitive help function using hypermedia techniques is very helpful, accordion to the state of the application, different help-texts are displayed. 易记指令:  易记指令 一个用户友好的界面必须使用用户容易记住指令,可以将用户已知信息相关联来使用权得指令好记。 Easy to Remember Instructions:  Easy to Remember Instructions A user-friendly interface must also have the property that the user easily remembers the application instruction rules. Easily remember instructions might be supported by the intuitive association to what the user already knows. 有效的指令:  有效的指令 逻辑相关的功能应该以类似的方式一起表达; 图形和视频要比文本输入/出有效得多,它们使用权得用户很快理解,比如人可经用姓名+照片来表达; 在不同应用系统中必须能够交换不同媒体,比如,传真/图文电视和邮件系统应能共用一本地址簿。 动作应能快速激活,比如电话服务中,用户就能很快地选择被叫者,并且应有多种可选方式,例如用户可以输入被叫方的名字或电话号码,也可以从电子电话簿中选出地址。 Effective Instructions :  Effective Instructions Logically connected functions should be presented together and similarly. Graphical symbols or short video clips are more effective than textual input and output. They trigger faster recognition. For example, the notions trash and short cut can be replaced by symbols; people can be identified by their pictures, as well as by their names. Different media should be able to be exchanged among different applications. For example, the same address book is used for facsimile, telex, teletex and mailing applications. Actions should be activated quickly. For example, in a telephone service the selection of a callee must be very fast. It is possible with the input of the callee’s last name or his/her telephone number. This is an alternative to opening the electronic telephone book ( list ), scrolling the list and then double-clicking 美学因素:  美学因素 在用户界面的设计中,还必须考虑美学因素。例如在颜色合成、字体、分辨率和窗口形式的选择上都要考虑到美观,原因是它们决定了用户对应用系统的第一印象。 对于不同种类用户和语言最好使用同一个应用程度。这就要求将文字、图形与实际程序相分离。 Aesthetics:  Aesthetics With respect to aesthetics, the color combination, character sets, resolution and form of the window need to be considered. They determine a user’s first and lasting impressions. It is desirable to develop only one application for different users and languages. This is achieved by separating the text, graphics and actual program. 有效地实现支撑:  有效地实现支撑 为了有效地实现用户友好的图形人机界面,必须考虑用户的要求,这个因素影响实现的代价。 Effective Implementation Support :  Effective Implementation Support To achieve effective implementation of a user-friendly human-computer graphical interface, the user’s requirements must be considered. This influences the cost of the implementation. 入口元素:  入口元素 ⑴ 菜单中的入口项 ⑵ 图形界面上的入口项 Entry Elements:  Entry Elements Entries in a menu Entries on a graphical interface 功能项的定位:  功能项的定位 不同的功能项必须按一定的规则排列。可以按 ⑵逻辑组的方式,安排功能项。 ⑴字符顺序; Meaningful Location of Functions:  Meaningful Location of Functions Individual functions must be placed together in a meaningful fashion. This occurs through (1) alphabetic ordering or. (2) logical grouping 表现:  表现 用户界面上的映像可有下列变种: 全文本 缩略文本 图标(图形) 活动视频 Presentation :  Presentation The presentation, i.e., the optical image at the user interface, can have the following variants: Full text Abbreviated text Icons, i.e., motion video 对话框:  对话框 不同的对话框应用类似的构造,这个设计原则同样适用于:⑴ OK和Abort按键;⑵ 加入到系统中的窗口;⑶ 在同一窗口系统中的不同应用系统。相近语义的入口功能应在一个对话框中。 Slide57:  在同一时刻可打开几个对话框?入口怎样成为可见?如何用一个附加对话框来表达新的要求?这些问题都很重要。例如,窗口中的Abort对话框不能与位于该窗口下面的窗口中的Save对话框位置相同。 Dialogue Boxes:  Dialogue Boxes Different dialogue boxes should have a similar construction. This requirement applies to the design of: (1) the buttons OK and Abort; (2) joined windows; and, (3) other applications in the same window system. Semantically similar entry functions can be located in one dialogue box. Slide59:  It is important to decide how many dialogue boxes should be opened at the same time, how the entry should be visible and how a new requirement can be expressed through an additional box. For example, the Abort button in a window should never be positioned in the same location as the Save button of the underlying window.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

15 Dance Tunes Vol.1 - CiLiBaBa

... [EDMT14... 190.4 MB; VA - Dance Attack Vol.1 (2011) - Dance [www.tor... 196.1 MB; VA - Urban Dance Tunes Vol.1 (EDM Tools [EDMT14... 190.4 MB ...
Read more

1991 VA-Golden Dance Classics Vol 1-4CD-FLAC - CiLiBaBa

... (EDM Tools [EDMT14... 190.4 MB; VA - Verano Dance 96 Vol. 1 [1996] (mp3 320) 155.7 MB; VA - EUROMANIA - Dance Club vol. 1 - 2016 110.6 MB ...
Read more

VA - Uplifting Trance Tunes Vol 6 (RBCOMP075) WEB 2011-wAx ...

... [EDMT14... 190.4 MB; VA - Uplifting Trance Tunes Vol 6 (Reality Bite... 593.2 MB; VA - A State Of Trance 2011 Vol 1 (UNMIXED)-(AR... 182.9 MB ...
Read more

VA - Urban Dance Vol. 8 (2014) [320]-[Skytwohigh] - CiLiBaBa

VA - Urban Dance Vol. 8 (2014) [320]-[Skytwohigh] magnet links and files to download.
Read more