Published on March 9, 2014
Welcome to Pedagogy & Instructional Methodologies for Educational Technologies and Virtual Classrooms Christopher Jennings, Ed.D.
Virtual Environments • A real-time, synchronous environment that connects people in an animated virtual reality that is created by the residents, known as “avatars” • Is a free, collaborative, immersive environment with global participation • Second Life (similar to the HiPiHi environment) - the eye-in-hand logo, which many cultures embrace as a symbol of creation that springs from knowledge
A Viable Teaching Solution, or NOT? • Sloan-C 2007 Study based on 5 Pillars of Quality: – – – – – Student Satisfaction Faculty Satisfaction Learning Effectiveness Cost Effectiveness, and Access
Student Satisfaction Pros Students create objects Cons Steep learning curves (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Doing rather than receiving Assumptions about competence (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Constructivist learner outcomes Bandwidth (Fast Bandwidth is more available today…) Student-to-student interaction Time – effort (Same as it ever was….) Concerns Access (Solution – Campus Labs. Most new computers sold already meet technical requirements.) Technology in foreground (Not as much of a concern now…) Student orientation (NMC and others offer great orientations.) Adult learners - time/patience (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment)
Faculty Satisfaction Pros Personalized Cons Support (Open source – more support than ever and its growing!) Simulation of life situations Learning curves (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Student-centered Access Concerns Retention (No unusual attrition rate in course offered with SL so far at MSCD) Students are involved in design (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Students are involved in design (Solution – Campus Labs. Most new (Solution – Inclusion/Social computers sold already meet technical Learning Environment) requirements.) Social immersion Access Students are involved in design (Solution – Campus Labs. Most new (Solution – Inclusion/Social computers sold already meet technical Learning Environment) requirements.)
Learning Effectiveness Pros Collaborative projects Cons Access Concerns Good, but not for everyone (Solution – Campus Labs. Most new (True – must offer alternative computers sold already meet technical assignments/options) requirements.) Cost effective Support (Open source – more support than ever and its growing!) Use of common resources Not for younger students (Younger students expect this kind of technology used) Team-building Math could be a challenge (What math? Solution– Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Training (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Learning curves (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) System efficiency (Solution – Most new computers sold already meet technical requirements.)
Cost Effectiveness Pros Free user accounts Cons Scale (Roadrunner Island -Under $2,000 per year) Re-use of common tools Renting space (Roadrunner Island -Under $2,000 per year) Specific application Use of public sandboxes (N/A) Building privileges (N/A) Concerns Enough technical resources (Open source – more support than ever and its growing!) End-user workstations (Solution – Most new computers sold already meet technical requirements.) Enrollment (Younger students expect this kind of technology used)
Access Pros Ease for younger generation Cons Learning curves (Solution – Inclusion/Social Learning Environment) Standard platform Enterprise network security (N/A) Common resources Liability (griefers) (These people exist in classroom and online courses already!) Concerns Institutional liability (No different than campus or online course liability) Network/graphic latency (Solution – Most new computers sold already meet technical requirements.) Efficiency (That’s what this course is for…)
Adult Learning Methodologies Applied to Educational Technologies and Virtual Environments • Bloom’s Taxonomy – Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • Experiential Learning – Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations • Transformational Learning – a “disorienting dilemma” occurs in an adult learner’s life to cause her or him to reflect critically • Reflective Learning – the individual development of meaning through construction and sharing of ideas and other social artifacts • Social Learning/Inclusion – understanding of content through conversations about that content having grounded interactions with others
Bloom’s Taxonomy – Matching Technology to Objectives (pre-2009)
Bloom’s Taxonomy – 2009 in SecondLife • Rex Heer (Thursday Xu in SecondLife) of Iowa State University’s Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching • Relevant design of teaching and learning activities in virtual environments • http://slurl.com/secondlife/Teaching%204/19
Bloom’s Taxonomy (2009) in SecondLife
Cognitive Process Dimension 1.Remember: Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory. 2.Understand: Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication. 3.Apply: Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation. 4.Analyze: Break material into constituent parts and determine how parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose. 5.Evaluate: Make judgments based on criteria and standards. 6.Create: Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure.
Knowledge Dimension a. Factual Knowledge: The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. b. Conceptual Knowledge: The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. c. Procedural Knowledge: How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. d. Metacognitive Knowledge: Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one's own cognition.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 1a. Remembering - Factual — List primary and secondary colors. • 1b. Remembering - Conceptual — Recognize airport security breaches. • 1c. Remembering - Procedural — Recall how to conduct a chemistry experiment. • 1d. Remembering - Metacognitive — Identify strategies for retaining a foreign language.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 2a. Understanding - Factual — Summarize features of a new product/invention. • 2b. Understanding - Conceptual — Classify airport security codes. • 2c. Understanding - Procedural — Clarify assembly instructions - demonstrate. • 2d. Understanding - Metacognitive — Predict one's response to culture shock.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 3a. Applying - Factual — Respond to frequently asked questions. • 3b. Applying - Conceptual — Provide advice to novices. • 3c. Applying - Procedural — Carry out pH tests of water samples. • 3d. Applying - Metacognitive — Use techniques that match one's strengths.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 4a. Analyzing - Factual — Select the most complete list of instructions. • 4b. Analyzing - Conceptual — Differentiate high and low culture. • 4c. Analyzing - Procedural — Integrate compliance with new regulations. • 4d. Analyzing - Metacognitive — Deconstruct one's biases.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 5a. Evaluating - Factual — Check for consistency among sources - validity. • 5b. Evaluating - Conceptual — Determine relevance of results. • 5c. Evaluating - Procedural — Judge efficiency of sampling techniques. • 5d. Evaluating - Metacognitive — Reflect on one's progress.
Intersection of the Cognitive Process and the Knowledge Dimensions • 6a. Creating - Factual — Generate a log of daily activities (OurStory.com). • 6b. Creating - Conceptual — Assemble a team of experts. • 6c. Creating - Procedural — Design an efficient project workflow. • 6d. Creating - Metacognitive — Create a learning portfolio.
Experiential Learning • Group or Individual experiences a concrete activity • Observation and Reflection – brainstorming, investigate the links between behavior and actions • Formation of abstract concepts and generalizations • Select alternatives, test hypotheses and redefine the situation and concrete activity
Experiential Learning in Second Life Present a Challenge/Concrete Activity Community – Test Hypothesis, Select Alternatives, and Redefine Observation and Reflection Collaboration – Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations
Transformational Learning • The “mental filing cabinet” concept • End results are classified and defined by the learner • The learner explores options for new behaviors and builds competence in new roles • A plan of action is developed, and the learner acquires knowledge and skills for implementing the plan
Transformational Learning in SecondLife • a “disorienting dilemma” occurs in an adult learner’s life to cause her or him to reflect critically (Merizow) • the individual’s conception of him/herself and worldview is inexorably changed • Instruction can be designed, yet learning can not be designed…experienced and transformed by the learner…
Transformational Learning in SecondLife (Con’t) • fostering transformative learning in the classroom on establishing meaningful, genuine relationships with students • Becoming bicultural is a transformational learning process…allows the individual to analyze his/her own behavior in a way that was not possible before…
Reflective Learning • Present in many online courses that use the technology of discussion forums, portfolios, and chat rooms as tools for learners to document reflections. • Recapture their experience, think about it, evaluate it, and return to experience • An outcome of both Experiential and Transformational Learning
Reflective Learning in SecondLife • a focus on collaborative discourse • the individual development of meaning through construction and sharing of ideas and other social artifacts • critical self-reflection • connected online dialogue • Constructivism • Digital Storytelling (OurStory.com)
Social Learning/Inclusion • Social Learning: understanding of content through conversations about that content having grounded interactions with others • Creating a learning atmosphere in which learners and teachers feel respected and connected to one another poses its challenges in online learning environments Wlodkowski, R. J. (1999). Enhancing adult motivation to learn. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
SecondLife Inclusion Strategies Inclusion Strategies LMS Introduction Technical Abilities s/ : Expectations = Share Knowledge ? ? You were new to Teacher/Learn er Communication: this once too! ? ? Deepened Understanding of Inclusion: Web 2.0 SecondLife How is the technology used for learning ? ? Don’t forget your First Life! ? ? How do learners commonly use the technology? ? Experts become instructors. ? ? What are the best Which Learning Methods? technologies work best for each learner? ? ? ? ? Let the learners introduce you to something new. ? ?
Resources • MSCD Second Life Site: http://www.mscd.edu/secondlife/ • Getting Students Started: http://www.mscd.edu/secondlife/train00.sht • Prepare to Teach: http://www.mscd.edu/secondlife/train04. shtml
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