Published on March 17, 2009
Auditory Impairment Dr. Jacqui Cyrus Instructional Technology School of Education
Survey/Quiz Please take this short quiz at the beginning of the presentation and again at the end. http://www.surveygizmo.com/s/114297/ed-443-auditory-impairment
Objectives Students will: – Explain definitions – Know the historical contexts – List and explain the major causes of hearing loss – Discuss the concept of Deaf culture – List the major assistive technologies specifically designed for people with hearing impairments – Highlight some support groups or organizations – Cite some online resources
Definitions Hearing impaired – Someone who is hard of hearing or who has poor hearing – Most would prefer to be called Deaf, Hard of Hearing or deaf when the need arises to refer to their hearing status, but not as a primary way to identify them as people (where/when their hearing status is not significant).
Definitions – cont’d • deaf – In this uncapitalized form, the word quot;deafquot; simply means unable to hear. • Deaf – Some deaf people also consider themselves quot;Deafquot; with a capital quot;Dquot;, which does imply a lot about their language and culture.
Deaf and deaf • Deaf – Many Deaf people (note the capital quot;Dquot;) may prefer to be called Deaf instead of deaf, and are quite happy being Deaf and use sign language as a primary language • deaf – Some deaf people, who were quot;born deafquot; have rejected Deaf Culture and done everything possible to survive in a quot;hearing worldquot; using ‘speech reading’ or other non-signing communication.
Historical Contexts • Pedro Ponce de Leon (1520-1584): first teacher (Spanish monk) to teachdeaf students to read, write and speak • Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet studied in England and France; started first special school for the deaf in the U.S.
Historical Contexts – cont’d • Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc (deaf and well-known French educator of the deaf) started the first American school for deaf students in Hartford, CN.
IDEA Definition • Deafness: – Hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. • Hard of Hearing: – Impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness.
Types of Hearing Loss • Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound is not conducted properly through the outer ear, middle ear, or both. It is generally a mild to moderate impairment, because sound can still be detected by the inner ear. More severe impairments can occur, particularly in Otosclerosis. Generally, with pure conductive hearing loss, the quality of hearing (speech discrimination) is good, as long as the sound is amplified loud enough to be easily heard.
Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive hearing loss has a variety of causes: – Ear canal obstruction – Middle ear abnormalities: – Tympanic membrane – Ossicles
Inner Ear Hearing Loss Inner ear abnormalities: – Superior canal dehiscence syndrome Other: – Otosclerosis: hardening of the stapes
Sensorineural Hearing Loss A sensorineural hearing loss is due to insensitivity of the inner ear, the cochlea, or to impairment of function in the auditory nervous system. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, to the point of total deafness.
Environmental Causes Long-term exposure to environmental noise Populations of people living near airports or freeways are exposed to levels of noise typically in the 65 to 75 dB(A) range. If lifestyles include significant outdoor or open window conditions, these exposures over time can degrade hearing.
Genetic Hearing Loss • Hearing loss can be inherited. Both dominant genes and recessive genes exist which can cause mild to profound impairment. If a family has a dominant gene for deafness it will persist across generations because it will manifest itself in the offspring even if it is inherited from only one parent. If a family had genetic hearing impairment caused by a recessive gene it will not always be apparent as it will have to be passed onto offspring from both parents.
Incidence • Nationally – Deafness and hard of Hearing is a low incidence disability for children affecting about 0.14% of all students • Locally – 38% (60) students
Diseases or Illnesses • Auditory nerve damage – Measles may result in auditory nerve damage – Meningitis may damage the auditory nerve or the cochlea • Mumps may result in profound sensorineural hearing loss(90 Decibel|dB or more), unilateral (one ear) or bilateral (both ears). • Adenoids that do not disappear by adolescence may continue to grow and may obstruct the Eustachian tube, causing conductive hearing impairment and nasal infections that can spread to the middle ear.
Diseases or Illnesses • Chlamydia may cause hearing loss in newborns to whom the disease has been passed at birth. • Premature birth results in sensorineural hearing loss approximately 5% of the time. • Syphilis is commonly transmitted from pregnant women to their fetuses, and about a third of the infected children will eventually become deaf.
Behavioral Instances • Fetal alcohol syndrome is reported to cause hearing loss in up to 64% of infants born to alcoholic mothers, from the ototoxic effect on the developing fetus plus malnutrition during pregnancy from the excess alcohol intake. • AIDS and AIDS-related complex|ARC patients frequently experience auditory system anomalies.
Behavioral Issues – cont’d • Medications – Diuretics, aspirin, pain killers • Physical trauma – damage either to the ear itself or to the brain centers – head injury
Quantification of Hearing Loss • Mild: – for adults: between 25 and 40 dB – for children: between 20 and 40 dB • Moderate: between 41 and 55 dB • Moderately severe: between 56 and 70 dB • Severe: between 71 and 90 dB • Profound: 90 dB or greater
Age of Onset of Deafness • The age at which the hearing impairment develops is crucial to spoken language acquisition. Post-lingual hearing impairments are far more common than pre-lingual impairments. • If the hearing loss occurs at a young age, interference with the acquisition of spoken language and social skills may occur.
Participant Input • Share one resource that you think is great for teachers learning about deafness.
Concluding Remarks • Question for further conversation: – If other students with disabilities are also deaf, should students who are ONLY separated be separated?
Resources • D-PAN – Waiting for the World to Change • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKnF9CCYQPQ • Teaching With Technology – Pay Attention • http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewk ey=40c570a322f1b0b65909
References • Mendiola, M. (2008) – http://www.slideshare.net/mendiolamae/deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-presentation • Manglona, F. (2008)
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