Ecosan ,rainwater harvesting,water in Rural Karnataka,I

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Information about Ecosan ,rainwater harvesting,water in Rural Karnataka,I
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Published on March 8, 2014

Author: zenrainman

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Both access to water and the access to sanitation remains a challenge to a majority of househols in rural Karnataka, India With groundwater as a major source for over 90 % of the habitations primarily through deep borew-wells and the need for scarce energy to pump this water to cisterns , intermittent water supply is the order of the day The only way households can access water is by storing it STORAGE DETERMINES ACCESS. Rinwater harvesting is one way to augment supply especially in the rainy season The rainwater tank also doubles up as a storage system in the non -rainy season .
Sanitation is a big challenge since all of it is water borne and requires water for ablution purpose too. One way to overcome that is by using a source separating Ecosan system which requires very little water and also converts urine as a fertilizer.

ECO-SANITATION: From Waste to Resource Rainwater club, Bangalore, India Chitra Vishwanath, Bangalore, India

HOLISTIC ? • OVERALL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 50 BILLION $ • AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDY 350 BILLION $ • DEFENCE SPENDING 1 TRILLION $

SUBSIDY • EVERY COW IN EUROPE 2.50 $ / day • EVERY COW IN JAPAN 7.50 $ / day • NO. OF PEOPLE LIVING ON LESS THAN 2 $/DAY 3 BILLION James Wolfensohn

Relevance of Ecological Sanitation in India, Karnataka State as an example Total households- 6.9 million Households without toilets-5.4 million

Household -Sanitation Coverage No. of rural-BPL households District Total With latrine Without latrine No. of rural-APL households Total With Latrine Without latrine Total no. of households without latrine Kodagu 37494 16884 20610 59323 40352 18971 39581 Udupi 93828 49938 43890 86924 52638 34286 78176 101908 57604 44304 134669 99137 35532 79836 Shimoga 65508 19650 45858 152852 107050 45802 91660 Gadag 60276 5193 55083 57520 18000 39520 94603 Bangalore-U 74115 2223 71892 94330 66031 28299 100191 Chickmagalu r 54530 18773 120951 44895 Dharwad 56538 12942 43596 91677 15627 76050 119646 137735 27547 110188 35297 6500 28797 138985 81256 12568 68688 115564 28239 87325 156013 118931 14533 104398 79287 21798 57489 161887 Koppal 76303 7189 69114 106930 5115 101815 170929 Haveri 119025 3218 115807 88883 31008 57875 173682 79144 6014 73130 123753 14598 109155 182285 119227 14307 104920 164643 65857 98786 203706 Chitrdurga 94343 18943 75400 138364 7814 130550 205950 Davangere 114068 23260 90808 157977 29677 128300 219108 D.Kannada C.R.Nagar Bidar U.Kannada Bagalkote Bangalore-R 35757 76056 111813

Raichur 104887 5768 99119 133663 13036 120627 219746 Bellary 139000 38748 100252 146600 16643 129957 230209 Bijapur 133016 5844 127172 122457 13843 108614 235786 Mandya 119116 8934 110182 194844 46692 148152 258334 Mysore 126322 39518 86804 222938 36822 186116 272920 Tumkur 140956 56560 84396 285474 95639 189835 274231 Hassan 64451 4512 59939 240315 24032 216283 276222 Kolar 138298 30440 107858 243041 68357 174684 282542 Gulbarga 273396 3670 269726 182264 10000 172264 441990 Belgaum 150551 52741 97810 507476 16274 491202 589012 2874222 557521 2316701 4088016 995674 3092342 5409043 TOTAL

WASTE WATER IN KARNATAKA •Number of towns -215 towns Number of towns with basic primary sewage treatment – 23 •State Capital Bangalore- 50% of houses unsewered •Primary method - deep pits / septic tanks •Increasing nitrate pollution •Septic tank leachate collects into adjoining water bodies.

Ecological Sanitation: Rural Context

Without water is sanitation possible? Get water to households first OR The Eco-san argument Sanitation can precede water supply

In rural Karnataka • With intermittent water supply storage determines access

Rooftop rainwater harvesting a possibility

BATHROOMS • Privacy for bathing is more important than toilets. • Do we have a bathroom construction programme? • Listen to women and help them • Will a no subsidy initiative work where women are not empowered?

LEAP-FROG TECHNOLOGY Get to Eco-san

SAN TO ECOSAN

General view of ECOSAN toilet and collection of ALW for experiment Gents Toilet system Ladies Toilet system

Nutrient composition of Urine or ALW pH 8.59 Nitrogen (%) 1.2 Phosphorus (%) 0.26 Potassium (%) 0.75 Ca meq/l 9.5 Ca+Mg meq/l 3.8 Na meq/l 150.6

FIELD EXPERIMENT The store room on the farm used to store urine collected from school in Doddaballapura town. Maintenance •To avoid nitrogen lossSulphuric acid is added as additive •Chlorination is added to inactivate microorganisms. •Ozonization -Alternate method •Stored in cool room /shade place

Dr Sridevi of the GKVK University of Agricultural Sciences – Bangalore and her work on using urine as a fertilzer

Recommendation Chemical fertilizer –150:75:40 NPK kg/ha Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (urine)-756 liters. Dilution –uniform application

APPLICATION TECHNIQUE For uniform application-Rose can fused

Sowing

Performance of Absolute control Without application of fertilizer and Human urines

Performance of chemical fertilizer Chemical Fertilizer Performance of ALW(Human urine) Human urine

Performance of ALW applied plot General view of human urine applied plot and cob growth

Maize growth with urine – as good as artificial fertilizers

Ecological Sanitation: Urban Context

CURRENT DESIGNS – PIT LATRINE Disaster

TWIN LEACH PIT – ECOSAN Fails in hard rock high water table areas

Advantage of Ecological Sanitation • Toilet for the house • No water pollution for the village/city • Fertilizer for the fields • Win – win – win situation

Source separating ecosan pan

IMPLEMENTATIONS IN THE URBAN CONTEXT

Residence for Chitra and Vishwanath Total no. of occupants: 3 Total no. of eco-san users: 3

Waste composting in twin tin drums below rain water collection system Tippy-tap for washing hands with minimum water

New role

Grey Water Re-Use Grey Water Re-Cycle

Residence for Lata and Jaidip Total no. of occupants: 5 Total no. of eco-san users: 4

Site conditions • Site -15kms away from closest sewered zone • Context: arid agricultural zone •Site area: 15,000sq.ft

Residence for Prakash and Nishwath Total no. of occupants: 2 Total no. of eco-san users: 2

Site conditions • High water table •Site area: 6700 sq.ft.

Grey water Re-Use Grey water Treatment Re- Charge Well

With the urine as fertilizer grow rice on the roof

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