Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace

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Information about Economy, Politics & Culture in Cyberspace
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Published on January 6, 2009

Author: requin

Source: slideshare.net

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Network economy-ICT and economic change-knowledge economy-Cyberspace & Network culture: virtuality & information speed, digital visual culture, virtual self, posthuman, virtual communities, cybercultures, infowar, e-topias, cyber cities, net-art, cyber performances etc.

Economy, Politics & Culture in CyberSpace Dr. Özgür Uçkan January 2009

net world net-world

GLOBAL GAME

net-speed net speed

new rules of the game Economic Transformation Technological Revolution g New Global Economy New Rules of the Game Fast Slow Linked Isolated Continuous Learning Static % 100 Trustable < % 100 Trustable New Opportunities New Challenges Source: World Bank

knowledge economy “(Basic economic resource) is knowledge and will be knowledge…” Peter F Drucker Post Capitalist Society F. Drucker, Post-Capitalist “An economy that makes effective use of knowledge for its f it economic and social development. This i d i ld l t Thi includes tapping foreign knowledge as well as adapting and creating knowledge for its specific pg g g p needs.” Knowledge for Development, WBI

pillars of the knowledge economy 1. Economic incentive and institutional regime that provides incentives for the efficient use of existing and new knowledge and the flourishing of entrepreneurship 2. Educated, creative and skilled p p , people 3. Dynamic information infrastructure 4. Effective national innovation system 5. and a fifth and “missing” pillar: (Knowledge) C lt (K l d ) Culture

dynamic information infrastructure Building a dynamic information infrastructure, and a competitive and innovative information sector of the economy,economy, that fosters a variety of efficient and competitive information and th t f t i t f ffi i t d titi i f ti d communications services and tools available to all sectors of society. This includes not only high-end information and high- communication technologies (ICTs) such as the Internet and mobile telephony but also other elements of an information-rich society information- such as radio, television and other media, computers and other devices for storing processing and using information and a range storing, information, of communication services.“ Final Report of the Knowledge Economy Forum - Paris, February 19-22, 2002 19-

ICT impact • Strong impact on productivity and economic growth • Gl b li ti of business Globalization f b i • Networking of information technology • New products, services and process • Transparency Accountability, Participation: Transparency, Accountability eGovernance

global Internet use snapshot Source: Internet Works, www.iwks.com

Pew internet survey, December 2006 • 17% of world population use Internet • 91% of Internet surfers use e-mail • 91% use search engines • 67% read news online • 66% visit government web sites • 39% read blogs Photo: Kimi Iwasaki http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimix/149816828/

Internet industry: strategic partnerships

Internet industry partnerships

Source: OECD

fuel for the new economy: immaterial investments 1985-1998 1998 10% 10% 10,0% 9% 9,0% 8,0% 7,0% 6,0% 5,0% 3,3% 4,0% 2,9% 2,7% 2 7% 3,0% 2,0% 1,0% 0,0% USA France F EU Source: D. Foray, OECD After 1998, investing to knowledge in developed countries (education, Research&Development, software, (education Research&Development software human resources etc ) increase etc.) increase. These investments supply the fuel for the new economy.

intellectual vs. tangible assets Source: 1000ventures.com

THREAT

global bandwidth 0.4 04 USA / Canada 56 Gbps Asia / Europe Pacific Latin Africa America 0.1 Gbps Note:Gbps= Note:Gbps= Gigabits (1 000 Mb) per second (1’000 second. Source: ITU adapted from TeleGeography .

Internet Density Map, Carnegie Mellon University

INTERACTIVITY & CONVERGENCE

Full Internet Map

Nervous system network

Yeast protein interaction network

Internet backbone network

position of individual toward media Old Media New Media Role Spectator User Behavior Passive Active Function Consumer Producer Location Physical Space Everywhere (home, office, etc.) (Network) Kaynak: New Paradigm Learning Corporation, 1997 y g g p ,

Convergence Definition: Convergence has been made possible by digitalization which allows different types of content (audio, video, text) to be stored in the same format and delivered through a wide variety of technologies (computers, mobile phones, televisions, etc). There are therefore two b oad The e a e the efo e t o broad definitions of convergence: con e gence • technological and • media or content. Technological convergence refers to the trend for some set of technologies initially having distinct functionalities to evolve to having those that overlap; it occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them – eg your computer as purveyor of voice as well as text and graphics; cell f phones that provide text and graphics as well as voice. Convergence in the media refers to the removal of entry barriers across the IT, telecoms, media and consumer electronics industries, IT telecoms industries creating one large ‘converged’ industry.

Why does convergence matter? Around the world, countries are competing for leadership in the global knowledge economy. Success in this race will depend upon how g y p p quickly countries can leverage the opportunities for innovation, investment and economic growth presented by convergence. Convergence between the telecoms, IT, consumer electronics, broadcasting and creative content sectors is now starting to have a real impact in the globe. It has the potential to deliver an unparalleled degree of choice, flexibility fl ibilit and convenience to users (b th consumers and d i t (both d businesses) in terms of the way in which they access and exploit information, communication and new media content, services and applications. Convergence has the potential both to create and to destroy value. Deloitte predicts that worldwide, it will lead to $1 trillion shift in valuations and revenues in the converging sectors by 2010. As such, such it represents both a disruptive threat and a huge opportunity for companies of any nation, across a wide and fast moving global sector...

ICT & collision of industries Source: New Paradigm Learning Corporation, 1996

“City of Bits”: urban information systems

Cyber Architecture M-House, Red Sky Vacation Retreats Michael Jantzen Internet Observatory

underground living ‘the taisei company's’ ambitious plan for subterranean living imaginatively titled li titl d alice city f it from Alice in Ali i Wonderland offers a utopia that is almost as fantastical as the book.

“OfftheRoad_5spead” “Offth R d 5 d” Lars Spuybroek, TROD Venedik Bienali 7. Mimarlık Bienali 2000

TV.com

::the electronic journal:: ::the travel mate:: e ae ae

wearable computers

wearable computers

wearable computer fashion show at MIT

CYBERCULTURE SCENE

1950s: sybernetic, computer...

“Beat Generation”

computer counter-culture 8888888b. 888 Y88b 888 888 # #### #### #### ##### ##### ## # # ##### 888 888 # # # ## ## ## # # # ## # # 888 888 # #### # # ## ## ## ### # # 888 888 # ## # # ##### # # ###### # # # # 888 .d88P # # ## ## ## # # ## # # ## # 8888888P # #### #### #### # # ##### # ## ## .d88888b. d88P Y88b 888 888 ##### ##### #### #### # ##### # #### # # 888 888 # ## ## ## # # ## # ## # 888 888 # ## ## # #### # # # # ### # 888 888 ##### ##### # # ## # ## ## ## Y88b. .d88P # # # ## ## # ## # # ## Y88888P # # #### #### # # # #### # # ISSUE #0 888888 Nov/98 88b Thanks to; 888 #### # # ##### # # ## # rOTTEN 888 # ## ## # ## # # # # ethercat 888 # ## ## ### ## ## Gateways 888 # ## # ##### # # # ###### # “Computing 4 The People” Digital Avatar 88P # ## # # # # ## # ## Kleptic 888 #### #### # ## ## # ###### .d88P d88P .d88P 'The people's choice for Net Terrorism' 888P

computer counter-culture “The fact is that a few of us saw what “We are still enthusiastic about the was happening and we wrestled the Net, Net the way Walt Whitman was about power of LSD away from CIA, and trains and the telegraph. He thought now the power of computers away they would unite us, make us all a from IBM, just as we rescued community. He couldn’t predict the psychology away from the doctors and trains would go to concentration analysts.” camps.” Timothy Leary Andrei Codresku

William Gibson Philip K. Dick / Ridley Scott Bruce Sterling Neil Stephenson

CYBERSPACE / VIRTUAL REALITY

cyberspace “ Program a map to display frequency data exchange exchange, every thousand megabytes a single pixel on a very large screen. Manhattan and Atlanta burn solid white. Then they start to pulse, the rate of traffic threatening to overload your simulation. Your map is about to go nova. Cool it down. Up your scale. Each pixel a million megabytes. At a hundred million megabytes p gy gy per second, you begin to make out certain blocks in midtown Manhattan, outlines of hundred-year-old parks ringing the old core of Atlanta.” William Gibson, Harper Collins, 1993 (1984), p. 57

cyberspace “A new universe, a parallel universe created and sustained by the world’s computers and communication lines A world in which the global traffic lines. of knowledge, secrets, measurements, indicators, entertainment, and alter-human agency takes on form: sights, sounds, presence never seen on the surface of g, ,p the earth blossoming in a vast electronic night.” Michael Benedikt, Cyberspace: First Steps, 1991

cyberspace “Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts… A graphical representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity Lines of light ranged in the complexity. non-space of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding...” (William Gibson, Neuromancer, 1984, p. 51)

cyberspace “Cyberspace is the ‘place’ where a telephone conversation appears to occur. Not inside your actual phone... Not inside the other person’s phone… The place between the phones. The indefinite place out there, where the two of you, two human beings, actually meet and communicate Although it is not communicate… exactly ‘real’, ‘cyberspace’ is a genuine place. Things happen there that have very genuine consequences. This ‘place’ is not ‘real’, but it is serious, it is earnest ” place real serious earnest. (Bruce Sterling, “The Hacker Crackdown, 1992, p. xi-xii)

cyberspace “It is the Broadway, the Champs Élyseés of the Metaverse. It i th b illi tl lit boulevard… Th Mt is the brilliantly b l d The dimensions of the Street are fixed by a protocol, hammered out by the computer graphics ninja overlords of the Association for Computing Machinery’s Machinery s Global Multimedia Group… Like any place in Reality, the Street is subject to development. Developers can build their own small streets feeding off the main one. They can build buildings, parks, signs, as well as things that do not exist is Reality, such as vast hovering overhead light shows and special neighborhoods g p g where the rules of three-dimensional spacetime are ignored. Put a sign or a building on the street and the hundred million richest, hippest, best-connected people on the earth will see it every day of their lives..” (Neil Stephenson, “Snow Crash, 1992, p. 24-25)

virtual reality “Artificially stimulated perception” – Marjan Kindersley “Virtual Reality won’t merely replace TV. It will eat it alive” – Arthur C. Clark. “This will represent the greatest event in human evolution. For the first time, mankind will be able to deny reality and substitute its own preferred version.” – J.G. Ballard “A VR is a computer world that tricks the sense or mind. A virtual glove might give you the feel of holding your hand in water or mud or honey. A VR cybersuit might make you f l as if you swam th b it i ht k feel through water or mud h t d or honey. VR grew out of cockpit simulators used to train pilots and may shape the home and office multimedia systems of the future. The idea of advanced VR systems as future substitutes for sex and drugs and classroom training is the stock and trade of modern science fiction or ‘cyberpunk’ writing.” – Bart Kosko “Used today in architecture, engineering and design, tomorrow in mass- market entertainment, surrogate travel, virtual surgery and cybersex, by the next century ‘VR’ will have transformed our lives.” – Howard Rheingold

Lawnmoverman2 Dark City

Videodrome

Matrix Johny The Mnemonic

Cube

VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES

a brief history of virtual communities •1975 – MSGGROUP Mailing List •1992 – “HTTP://” and “URL” HTTP://” URL” •1979 – SF-Lovers Mailing List •1992 – “Cypherpunk” (Crypto cultural group) •1980 – MUD (Multi User Dungeon) •1992 – Project Gutenberg •1981 – “Usenet” term used on ARPAnet •1993 – Wired Magazine •1982 – “Newsgroup” term used on ARPAnet •1993 – “Surf” term used for wander on the Net •1985 – Chain e-mails •1993 – AOL.com gives access to the newsgroups •1986 – The Well ( Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) •1993 – HTML •1986 – “Netiquette” 1986 Netiquette •1993 – “Netizen” 1993 Netizen •1988 – “@ ! Party” (Internet and Usenet party) •1993 – “Cybersex” term used for the first time •1989 – IRC (Internet Relay Chat) •1994 – Epic (Electronic Privacy Information Center) •1990 – EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) •1994 – “SPAM” •1991 – “CyberSpace” term applied to the Internet. •1994 – Yahoo! •1991 – TIN (Newsreader) •1995 – CDA (Communication Desency Act / S.314) •1992 – WWW •1995 – “Chat Room”

a brief history of virtual communities •1995 – Lycos •1995 – DejaNews •1996 – Compuserve.Com •1996 – WebTV •1996 – ICQ (I Seek You) •1998 – Google •1999 – Melissa Virus •1999 – Napster 1999 •1999 – FreeNet (Ian Clark) •2000 – Gnutella •2000 – Love Bug Virus •2001 – Yahoo! bought E-groups •2002-now- mobility & broadband – smartmobs…

“The words community and communication have the same root. Wherever you put a The communications network, you put a community as well. And whenever you take away that network – confiscate it, outlaw it, crash it, raise its price beyond affordability- then you hurt that community.” B. Strerling, The Hacker Crackdown

online games

Social Networks

and after after… • Web 2.0 Web3.0, 4.0, etc. • MARC MARCML (or Memo MemoML) • Search engine Semantic Web • Descritives FRBR (Functional Requirements for ( q Bibliographic Records - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FRBRoo ), Ontologies • User accounts Avatars • 217 millions users on neopet > Myspace; • Habbo users > Facebook; • There are more videos on CyWorld than YouTube; • “Target” is always “younger”… Source : FredCavazza : http://www.fredcavazza.net/2007/11/07/l%e2%80%99invasion- des-nouvelles-plateformes-sociales/

virtual communities “When you think of a title for a book, you are forced to think of something short and evocative, like well, ‘The Virtual Community,’ even th Vi t l C it ’ though a more accurate title h t titl might be: ‘People who use computers to communicate, form friendships that sometimes form the basis of communities, but you have to be careful to , y not mistake the tool for the task and think that just writing words on a screen is the same thing as real community.’”” Howard Rheingold

2002 2009 2002-2009-…. Mobility … what’s next what s next…. ? Smart mobs emerge when communication and computing technologies amplify human talents for cooperation. The impacts of smart mob technology already appear to be both beneficial and destructive, used by some of its earliest adopters to support democracy and by others to coordinate terrorist attacks. The technologies that are beginning to make smart mobs possible are mobile communication devices and pervasive computing - inexpensive microprocessors embedded in everyday objects and environments. Already, governments have fallen, youth subcultures have blossomed from Asia to Scandinavia, new industries have been born and older industries have launched furious counterattacks counterattacks. Street demonstrators in the 1999 anti-WTO protests used dynamically updated websites, cell-phones, and swarming tactics in the battle of Seattle. A million Filipinos toppled President Estrada through public demonstrations organized through salvos of text messages. The people who make up smart mobs cooperate in ways never before possible because they carry devices that possess both communication and computing capabilities. Their mobile devices connect them with other information devices in the environment as well as with other people's pp telephones. Dirt-cheap microprocessors embedded in everything f from box tops to shoes are beginning to permeate furniture, buildings, neighborhoods, products with invisible intercommunicating smartifacts. When they connect the tangible objects and places of our daily lives with the Internet, handheld communication media mutate into wearable remote control devices for the physical world. Howard Rheingold, SmartMobs / The Next Social Revolution, Perseus Publishing, 2002

VRML chat

virtual agora “The most recent incarnation of the agora is neither The the shopping mall nor the closed electronic environment, but may just be the Internet itself. The agora does not necessarily provide a sense of place, rather it provides a sense of passage, t th id f translation and l ti d personal freedom. If the Internet can achieve the right balance of interaction, leisure and commerce it may in time develop into a g p genuine community space. While it yp continues to mirror the malls, theme parks and office buildings of the Cartesian world it will never become the mythical ‘place of meeting’ described by Homer in the Iliad ” Iliad. Michael Ostwald, “Virtual Urban Futures”, in The Cyberculture Readers, ed. By David Bell-Barbara M. Kennedy, 2000, p. 673

VIRTUAL BODY / POSTHUMAN

prosthesis

prosthesis

posthuman

Stelarc

Stelarc

Stelarc

Stelarc

Stelarc

Source: http://www.me.berkeley.edu/hel/bleex.htm Bionic legs give soldiers a boost: The exoskeleton allows people to carry heavy loads. US researchers have developed strap-on robotic legs to allow people to carry heavy loads over long distances.

From the movie “matrix matrix revolutions”

VIRTUAL LANGUAGES: html-dhtml-shtml-xml-vrml-java-flash-php-cgi etc... NETART

http://www.digicult.org

www.ctheory.net

VIRTUAL POWER / VIRTUAL OPPOSITION

virtual power – virtual war

virtual power / virtual citizen

virtual opposition / network guerillas

virtual opposition / network guerillas

virtual opposition / network guerillas Dennis Ritchie Kevin Mitnick Ken Thompson Analyser Richard Stallman Kevin Poulsen John Draper Mark Abene

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