Published on February 28, 2014
ECOLOGY By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN
CYCLING OF CHEMICALS WTHIN ECOSYSTEMS Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen – principal elements in living things - Primarily held in the atmosphere in Water, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen Gas, and Oxygen gas
CYCLING OF CHEMICALS WTHIN ECOSYSTEMS Phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, and cobalt – inorganic elements in the ecosystem - Primarily held in rocks and enter the soil with weathering (breakdown of rocks)
CYCLING OF CHEMICALS WTHIN ECOSYSTEMS – the atmosphere and rocks are therefore referred to as the RESERVOIR of inorganic substances - The cycling of materials in ecosystems in usually described as beginning at the reservoir
CYCLING OF CHEMICALS WTHIN ECOSYSTEMS – within ecosystems, matter cycles from its reservoir in the environment, to the bodies of living organisms, and back to the environment
THE WATER CYCLE – heated by the sun, water evaporates into the atmosphere from bodies of water – as much as 90% of the water that reaches the atmosphere from land comes from plants as they release water vapor into the air through TRANSPIRATION
THE WATER CYCLE – atmospheric water CONDENSES in the clouds and eventually falls back to the earth as PRECIPITATION or RAIN – most precipitation fall directly to the ocean. Some fall on the land, flowing into surface bodies of water or into the soil to form bodies of water called GROUNDWATER.
THE WATER CYCLE – is based on carbon dioxide which makes up about 0.03% of the atmosphere and is found dissolved in the oceans – producers use carbon dioxide along with heat energy from the sun to build carbon compounds such as glucose during PHOTOSYNTHESIS
THE CARBON CYCLE – producers, and the consumers that eat them, break down these compounds during cellular RESPIRATION and use the energy release for metabolic processes of life – some of the carbon are used to produce other compounds, but most are released into the atmosphere as waste
THE CARBON CYCLE – closely linked to the OXYGEN CYCLE. As plants use C02 during photosynthesis, they produce oxygen which is released into the atmosphere for cellular respiration of organisms – some of the carbon are used to produce other compounds, but most are released into the atmosphere as waste
THE NITROGEN CYCLE – essential part of proteins within living things – Nitrogen makes up 78% of the atmosphere, but only a small amount in found in chemical compounds in the soil, water, and living organisms
THE NITROGEN CYCLE NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA -Very few bacteria that can convert nitrogen into a form that can be used for biological processes -Convert nitrogen gas into AMMONIA (NH3) -“NITROGEN FIXATION” = important process needed in synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, etc.
THE NITROGEN CYCLE – Nitrogen is then released back into the atmosphere by microorganisms capable of breaking down nitrogen compounds and the cycle continues
THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE – the reservoir of phosphorus is in the rocks and minerals rather than the atmosphere – it is scarcely found in certain kinds of rocks as an insoluble phosphate – Humans add phosphates into the soil for the growth of plants
THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE – plants take up the phosphates from the soil and is passed on to animals through the food chain – when the animals that plants die, decomposers the phosphorus into the making it available for eat the release soil and plants.
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