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ECOL223 4 12

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Information about ECOL223 4 12
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Published on August 9, 2007

Author: Richie

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  HUMAN BIRTH WEIGHT Variation in birth weight Sources of variation in birth weight Implications of variation in birth wieght Slide2:  Slide3:  Males: 3625 gms 7lbs 10oz Females: 3472 gms 7lbs 6oz Slide4:  Categorizing birth weight Before 1960s 1. Low Birth Weight or LBW less than 2500gms = Prematurity All other babies 2500 gms and over Focus was on low birth weight babies because of their increased mortality Slide5:  Slide6:  Problems with this classification: Not all small babies are premature Not all premature babies are small World Health Organization 1961 promoted use of 'preterm' rather than 'premature' Gestation: time from fertilization to delivery normally 38 weeks (266 days). Slide7:  Epidemiological studies revealed that full-term babies with low birth weight had higher mortality than full term-babies of normal weight. New terminology: Small for Gestational Age (SGA) (small babies who are not preterm, just below the 10 percentile for GA) Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) Slide8:  ▪Large for gestational age: Weight is above the 90th percentile at gestational age (LGA) andgt; 8lbs 3oz (4000gm) ▪Appropriate for gestational age: Normal birth weight (AGA) ▪Small for gestational age: Weight is below the 10th percentile at gestational age (SGA) andlt; 5lbs 7oz ( 2600gm) Slide9:  Slide10:  HUMAN BIRTH WEIGHT Variation in birth weight Sources of variation in birth weight Implications of variation in birth weight Slide11:  Influence of altitude on birth weight: Colorado Slide12:  Increase in birth weight with increased parity Slide13:  Singleton birth weight 7lbs 6oz (3356gm) Twin birth weight 5lbs 10oz (2585gm) Triplet birth weight 4lbs 4oz (1911gm) (LBW 5lb8oz (2494gm)) Plurality (Multiple births) Slide14:  Slide15:  Zygosity and placentation Zygosity: MZ or DZ Placentation: Features of the placenta Slide16:  Monozygotic twins with One amnion, one chorion Monozygotic twins with Two amnions, one chorion Dizygotic twins with two amnions, two chorions or Monozygotic twins with Two amnions, two chorions Higher andgt; Lower Slide17:  Sex of the twins Same sex: Higher concordance in birth weight Opposite sex: Higher discordance in birth weight Slide18:  DZ twins MM MF Female twins larger on average than FF twins FF Slide19:  Sex of the twins Same sex: Higher concordance in birth weight Opposite sex: Higher discordance in birth weight Higher prenatal mortality Associated with discordance for weight? Slide20:  Heritability of birth weight 74% Adjusted for sex and term Whites 3549 African American 3330 Hispanic 3452 Native American 3523 Slide21:  Effect of environment: First generation of immigrants Asian immigrant study Born in Asia: 2946g First generation UK: 3196g Slide22:  Gestational diabetes (GDM) in the mother increases The risk of a high birth weight baby (LGA) 2. The risk of GDM in subsequent pregnancies Slide23:  Factors that can influence birth weight: Altitude Sex Parity Multiple or single birth Genetics Maternal health (GDM) Maternal nutrition (excessive or insufficient weight gain) Slide24:  Slide25:  Slide26:  HUMAN BIRTH WEIGHT Variation in birth weight Sources of variation in birth weight Implications of variation in birth weight

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