Published on March 17, 2014
Daylight Peter Raynham FILP
Daylight: provides light for tasks
Daylight: attractive environment
Daylight: can go wrong
Sun Elevation and Azimuth
Average Daylight Availability
Median Daylight Availability • The amount of daylight that is available for half of the time. • For London 14,100 lux
General Requirements • DF – 2% start of daylight appearance • DF – 5% daylight provides nearly all of the light needed • Median Daylight Illuminance 300 lx
Windows • Contact with outside world • View in View out • Let daylight in • Thermal properties
Contact With Outside World
View In View Out
View In View Out
Let Daylight In
Energy Savings • Key factors – Daylight availability – Daylight penetration – Lighting control system – User satisfaction
Is Daylight Beneficial? • Study in a London School • Background • Key points • Findings
Background Küller, R.; Lindsten, C. (1992). Health and behaviour of children in classrooms with and without windows. J. Environ. Psychol. 12, 305-317 Showed: • Children in classrooms with daylight show different annual variation in levels of cortisol
Background Hershong, L., Wright, RL. and Okura, S. (2002). Daylighting impacts on human performance in school. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Showed: • significant effects of daylighting on the performance of school students
Background Govén, T., Laike, T., Pendse and B. Sjöberg, K. (2007). The background luminance and colour temperatures influence on alertness and mental health. CIE 26 Beijing Showed: • ambient light is of upmost importance
Key Points of the Study • 4 form entry primary school (~120 pupils per year) • Pupils age 7 to 8 • Test of impact of light (natural and electric) • Variety of pupil impact measures • Year long study
Study Dates Main Dates Supplemental Dates 8th October 2008 5th November 2008 9th December 2008 14th January 2009 10th February 2009 4th March 2009 25th March 2009 29th April 2009 20th May 2009 10th June 2009 Dates of data collection
Study Activities Times Operations 08:00-08:50 Preparations 08:50 The start of school day – Subjective sleep quality reports* 09:50 Subjective mood and sleepiness reports & Saliva samples* 10:15-10:30 Morning break 11:45 Subjective mood and sleepiness reports + Saliva samples 12:00-13:10 Lunch break 14:45 Subjective mood and sleepiness reports + Saliva samples 15:20 The end of School day Daily routine for the main collection days * Supplemental collection days
Pupils in the Study Pupil Numbers Classrooms Total C1 E1 E2 C2 The number of participating pupils 14/30 11/29 16/29 15/29 56/117 The number of participating male pupils 7/15 7/14 9/14 7/15 30/58 The number of participating female pupils 7/15 4/15 7/15 8/14 26/59 The number of pupils in the study
Overall Avarage Mood Scores 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 08 Oct. 09 Dec. 10 Feb. 25 Mar. 20 May. Date C1 C2 E1 E2
Overall Avarage Mood Scores 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 08 Oct. 09 Dec. 10 Feb. 25 Mar. 20 May. Date DF ~2% DF ~5%
C1 E1 E2 C2 Prog Jan Prog May0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Progress in Wrting
The analysis of the monthly trend of the cortisol levels at 09.50 revealed a significant difference between months contrast (F(1,22)=8,087, p=.009) and a significant difference between the rooms (F(1,22)=4,969, p=.036)
Findings Overview Analysis is being finalised a paper in LR&T should be published later this year General findings: • The pupils with more daylight did better than those with less • In the rooms with less daylight the higher level of electric light helped during the winter • In rooms with more daylight extra electric light made no difference
Conclusion • Daylight is a free resource • We should us it with care • It can save energy • It can provide a view • People like daylight • Daylight can improve performance
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