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Information about Echinoderms

Published on October 16, 2007

Author: chaetoceros



Student Power Point Presentation from JDHS Intro Biology Class. Juneau Alaska

QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeᆰ TIFF needed to see and decompresso a are (Uncompressed) picture. this Echinoderms Echino- means spiny Dermis means skin QuickTimeᆰ TIFF needed to see and decompressor a QuickTimeᆰ and a are (Uncompressed) picture. this TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Echinoderms QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso This phyla contains five classes are needed to see this picture.  Starfish (Asteroidea)  Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea)  Sea urchins, heart urchins and sanddollars (Echinoidea)  Holothurians or sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea)  Feather stars and sea lilies (Crinoidea)

Features and Characteristics  Internal skeleton  Five part radial symmetry in adults bilateral symmetry in larva  A water vascular system  Tube feet Tube feet Water vascular system Radial symmetry Internal skeleton QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF QuickTimeᆰ and a picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.are (Uncompressed) decompressor QuickTimeᆰ and a QuickTimeᆰ and a needed to see this TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. needed to see this picture. are

Internal Skeleton  Skeleton is made of bony plates called ossicels  Ossicels are made of calcium carbonate  A starfish can flex their arms, indicating that the skeleton has gaps and flexible plate junctures  Sea cucumbers have no real internal skeleton but have tiny remnant ossicles

QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Water vascular system  Internally closed, fluid-filled channel system  Used for for locomotion, waste transportation, feeding and respiration  System is composed of canals connecting numerous tube feet  Water enters madreporite then enters the circular ring canal  The water then is separated and flows down five radial canals which connect to the tube feet  The tube feet then act like suction cups allowing the echinoderm to move or hold on to pray

Symmetry Adult Asteroidea, five Asteroidea larva part radial symmetry bilateral symmetry. QuickTimeᆰ and a QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.

QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Feeding  Species such as starfish use tube feet to pry open the shell of a bivalve they then extend their stomach to the inside of the shell they then releases digestive enzymes and digests the prey in it shell. It then moves it stomach back to its mouth leaving an empty shell.  Herbivores like sea urchins scrap agley off of rocks using there five part jaw.  Sea lilies and basket stars are filter feeders that use their tub feet to capture plankton.  Sea cucumbers are detritus feeders which move along the ocean floor taking in sand and detrius. They then digest the material and pass out the sand grains like in the same method as earth worms.

Reproduction S om e a r e h e r m a p h r od it e s t h ou g h m os t a r e e t h e r m a le of fe m a le . Cy c le of s t a r fis h r e p r od u c t ion w S p e r m or e g g s p r od u c e d in t e s t e s or ov a r ie s . w A n im a ls s h e d t h e ir s p e r m a n d e g g s in t o w a t e r . w Ga m e t e s d e t e c t s s p e r m or e g g s in w a t e r a n d r e le a s e t h e ir ow n w F e r t iliz a t ion t a k e s p la c e in op e n w a t e r . w L a r v a w h ic h h a v e b ila t e r a l s y m m e t r y s w im t h e oc e a n a n d e v e n t u a lly s w im t o t h e b ot t om of t h e oc e a n a n d fu lly d e v e lop . w L a r v a m e t a m or p h os e in t o a d u lt s t h a t h a v e r a d ia l s y m m e t r y .


 Respiration- most species use thin-walled tissue of the tube feet, others use skin gills.  Excretion- Solid waste released through the anus. Nitrogen-containing cellular waste is released through the same areas that gas exchange takes place.  Response- Echinoderms have a primitive nervous system. They have a nerve ring around the mouth. They have 200 light sensitive cells grouped into eye spots at the tip of each arm.

 Movement- most use tube feet like suction cups to move and hold on to prey along with thin layer of muscle fibers attached to plated in the skeleton. Sea urchins have mobile spines. Tube feet

Asteroidea Known as starfish or sea stars • Occur in many different colors • QuickTimeᆰ and a Many species have more then five arms TIFF (Uncompressed) decompres • are needed to see this picture. Most are carnivorous • Prey on Bivalves • No specialized excretion organ • Excretion and gas exchange through thin-walled • body parts • Circumoral nerve ring, nerve extensions into arms • Eye spots at arm tips, long sensory tube feet • No Brian or heart

Ophiuroidea QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor  Known as brittle stars are needed to see this picture.  Have five arms  Live in tropical seas  Look like that common starfish but with longer more flexible arms  Protect themselves by shedding an arm when attacked  Filter and detritus feeders  Hind during the day and feed at night  Have separate sexes External view

Echinoidea Regular urchen Heart urchen Sand dollar

Echinoidea  Includes sea urchins and sand dollars  Found all over the world  They eat large amounts of algae CaCO3 core  Most come out only at night epidermis  Sea urchins are covered in sharp spines used for defense and locomotion  Live in burrows that they dig in the sand or nerve ring mud muscle tubercle collagen

Holothuroidea  Known as sea cucumbers  Have no arms  Mouth at one end and anus as the other  Mouth has a ring of tube feet around it.  Move in herds on the sea floor at great depths  Some can release a sticky substance when attacked that immobilizes predator QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Crinoidea  Includes Feather stars and sea lilies  Filter feeders  Have 50 or more long feathery arms  Not common today but fossils QuickTimeᆰ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor indicate that they were one very are needed to see this picture. common  They are sessile  Sea lilies live in the depths of the seas 100 meters or more.  Feather stars live on coral reefs

Echinoderms are important to are life: • Sea urchins control the distribution of algae. • Starfish are important carnivores that control the population of many other marine animals. • In some parts of the world sea urchen eggs are a delicacy. • Chemicals extracted from starfish and sea cucumbers are being studied as potential cancer and antiviral drugs. • Sea urchin embryos are subjects for testing the effects of drugs.

Work Cited w “Google images.” 2007. October 14, 2007 w Levine, Joseph, and Miller, Kenneth. “Echinoderms.” Biology. 1998 ed w “Wikipedia.” 2007. October 14, 2007

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