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Published on October 31, 2007

Author: Felipe

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What is FAO?:  What is FAO? The UN is a federation of specialised agencies all working to the same overall objectives FAO is one such specialised agency with its own independent Governing Bodies 180 Member Countries Mandatory contributions and voting rights A Biennial core budget of US$ 640 million Almost an equal amount of external funding HQs in Rome, Offices in over 80 countries Around 4000 staff World-Wide What does FAO do?:  What does FAO do? Collects, analyses, interprets and disseminates information on nutrition, food and agriculture Promotes and recommends national and international action in: scientific research in agriculture conservation of natural resources and the adoption of improved methods of production improvement of the processing, marketing and distribution of food and agricultural products adoption of international policies with respect to agricultural commodity arrangements Furnishes Technical Assistance and Advice A Neutral Forum for International Cooperation WWW.FAO.ORG:  WWW.FAO.ORG WWW.FAO.ORG is a huge knowledge-base 400,000 HTML files More than 36,000 Documents (PDF and DOC) More than 30,000 dynamic applications (JSP, ASP) About 360,000 images (GIF, JPG, BMP) 400 multimedia resources (AVI, MPG, MOV) Around 100 major databases (Oracle, SQL, ISIS) In English, French, Spanish, Arabic and Chinese! 48 Million hits (7 million 3 years ago) 2 Million Visits (323,000 visits 3 years ago) How we mange this enormous volume of data: Slide4:  Portal Architecture Diagram Standardisation in Information Collection and Dissemination Sometimes it really feels like this:  Sometimes it really feels like this Slide6:  “Invest in new technologies, but secure your knowledge-base first” And now Jim Weinheimer presents a possible framework for unified authority files, using FAO as a case study. Stephen Katz Chief, Information Dissemination Management Slide7:  A Framework for Unified Authority Files: a Case Study of Corporate Body Names in the FAO Catalogue James Weinheimer, Kafkas Caprazli FAO of the UN, Library and Documentation Systems Division, 00100 Rome, Italy Jim.Weinheimer@fao.org Kafkas.Caprazli@fao.org FAO of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division ECDL 2003 Trondheim, Norway 19 Aug 2003 Slide8:  How does someone know how to find a corporate body in a catalogue? No one can know except by looking in authority files. Why? Because of different rules, or differences in how items arrive to the collection Russian Catalogue Организация Объединенных Нации United Nations Use: Организация Объединенных Нации Consistency: One form of name for all items in the catalogue Organization point System of Cross-references from other forms add predictability, and therefore the headings are more findable Forms are not the same for all catalogs Slide9:  Организация Объединенных Нации Use: United Nations Russian Catalogue Организация Объединенных Нации Russian Catalogue Организация Объединенных Нации US Catalog United Nations How does someone know how to find a corporate body in a catalogue? No one can know except by looking in authority files. Why? Because of different rules, or differences in how items arrive to the collection Forms are not the same for all catalogs Consistency: One form of name for all items in the catalogue Organization point System of Cross-references from other forms add predictability, and therefore the headings are more findable Slide10:  What is important is that a single heading is used consistently within a collection, i.e. the authorized form. In this catalogue, items authored by the United Nations, UN, U.N., O.N.U., OON, Forente nasjoner, and so on will have the form Организация Объединенных Нации. The authority record will work in the following way. Someone will search for the other forms and find the cross-reference: Use: Организация Объединенных Нации and the user will be able to make the correct search, so long as a single form of the name is used in the catalogue. Russian Catalogue Организация Объединенных Нации United Nations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ UN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ U.N. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ O.N.U. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OON ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Forente nasjoner ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This demands skilled labor Slide11:  Multiple Catalogues, or Union Catalogues This method works well so long as the catalogue remains isolated. When catalogues start to interact, differences in culture, language, and tradition become obvious, all of which assures that the reliance on a single form becomes much more complicated. Use my form! Use my form! Use my form! Use my form! Use my form! All except one must change their forms! Slide12:  To change everything to a single form would take an incredible amount of work, but there is the additional problem of everyone having to agree on the same forms. Since there is little chance that the national libraries will all decide to use the same forms of names, there has been great interest in uniting different authority files. The two main attempts are from IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations) and the US Library of Congress. Slide13:  In this proposal, an international authority (IFLA) would assign a definitive International Standard Authority Data Number (ISADN) for each form. Each authority record would be required to have this number on its record. 015 $a NCL/BNC 0011-A-0719 0XX __ |a NCL/BNC 0011-A-0719 Slide14:  In the MARC proposal, each library would add references to all other authorized forms within the system. Record Number Heading Other Record Numbers Other Headings Slide15:  Other Record Numbers In the MARC proposal, each library would add references to all other authorized forms within the system. 001 ea55555 008/10 (Cataloging rules): c (AACR2) 008/11 (Subject system/thesaurus rules): a (LCSH) 040 $b (Language of cataloging): eng (English) 100 0# $a Cleopatra, $c Queen of Egypt, $d d. 30 B.C. 400 0# $a Cleopatre, $c Queen of Egypt, $d d. 30 B.C. 700 04 $a Cleopatre $b VII $c (reine d'Egypte ; $d 0069-0030 av. J.-C.) $0 fa44444 700 04 $a Kleopatra, $c Agypten, Konigin, $b VII $d av69-v30 $0 ga33333 700 04 $a <Heading for Cleopatra in Arabic, formulated according to appropriate convention> $0 aa66666 700 06 $a Cleopatre $b VII $c reine d'Egypte, $d 30 av. J.-C.$0 cfa77777 AACR2/NAF Record Number Heading 001 fa44444 040 $e (Cataloging rules): ncafnor 040 $f (Subject system/thesaurus rules): ram (RAMEAU) 040 $b (Language of cataloging): fre (French) 100 0# $a Cleopatre $b VII $c (reine d'Egypte ; $d 0069-0030 av. J.-C.) 400 0# $a Cleopatra $b VII $c (reine d'Egypte ; $d 0069-0030 av. J.-C.) 400 0# $a <Arabic name romanized according to French convention> $b VII $c (reine d'Egypte ; $d 0069-0030 av. J.-C.) 700 00 $a Cleopatra, $c Queen of Egypt, $d d. 30 B.C. $0 ea55555 700 04 $a Kleopatra, $c Agypten, Konigin, $b VII $d av69-v30 $0 ga33333 700 04 $a <Heading for Cleopatra in Arabic, formulated according to appropriate convention> $0 aa66666 700 06 $a Cleopatre $b VII $c reine d'Egypte, $d 30 av. J.-C.$0 cfa77777 French/RAMEAU Slide16:  There are practical problems with both methods. The IFLA proposal presupposes a large organizational structure for assigning ISADNs. Will it be an automatically assigned number, or will it have to go through a process of review? What happens to the millions of headings already in authority files? What happens with record maintenance? Slide17:  French Italian AACR2 Russian Dutch Spanish German The Library of Congress proposal envisions a tremendous amount of labor as each record in each authority file must have the record numbers and forms of names from the related records in each authority file. In the system below, each record must have and maintain six related record numbers and forms of name in each authority record. Slide18:  French Italian AACR2 Russian Dutch Spanish German What would happen if a new authority set had to be added? Everyone would have to add the additional headings and record numbers to their own records. New System Slide19:  Even if the systems were implemented, it is still unclear how either one would be used in practice. Besides, at FAO, we want to be able to utilize different cross references, e.g. from the LCNAF, and incorporate them with our forms. Neither system would seem to allow that. How does someone searching here: Organizatsiia obedinennykh natsii Find this reference here? Slide20:  110 ^a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 410 ^a FAO 410 ^a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 410 ^a Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación 410 ^a Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture 410 ^a Forenede nationers organisation for ernæring og landbrug 410 ^a Organisatie voor Voedsel en Landbouw 410 ^a Organizatsiia Ob´´edinennykh Natsii po voprosam prodovol´stviia i sel´skogo khoziaistva 410 ^a United Nations. ^b Organizatsiia po voprosam prodovol´stviia i sel´skogo khoziaistva 410 ^a Potravinová a zemedelská organisace Spojených národ°u 410 ^a United Nations. ^b Potravinová a zemedelská organisace 410 ^a Yuen Singnyang Nongop Kigu 410 ^a Kukche Yonhap Singnyang Nongop Kigu 410 ^a F.A.O. 410 ^a Kokuren Shokury¯o N¯ogy¯o Kik¯o 410 ^a Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'alimentazione e l'agricoltura 410 ^a Lien ho kuo liang shih chi nung yeh tsu chih 410 ^a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation 410 ^a Samyukta R¯ashtra Sangha k¯a Kh¯adya va K°rshi Sangathana 410 ^a Office and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations 410 ^a Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations 410 ^a Food and Agricultural Organization 410 ^a Tô ch´u´c lu´o´ng nông Liên Hiêp Qu´ôc 410 ^a Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 410 ^a Tô ch´u´c lu´o´ng thu´c nông nghiêp cua Liên Hiêp Qu´ôc 410 ^a Kokusai Reng¯o Shokury¯o N¯ogy¯o Kikan 410 ^a Tô ch´u´c nông nghiêp và lu´o´ng thu´c cua Liên Ho´p Qu´ôc Library of Congress Authority File Record Heading References G R E A T R E S O U R C E S Slide21:  FAO’s Forms of Names G R E A T R E S O U R C E S FAO’s forms of names are based on the rules of the AGRIS/CARIS network, an international information system for the agricultural sciences and technology. According to the cataloguing rules used in this system, the name for FAO is: FAO, Rome (Italy) Also, there is currently no system of cross-references in the catalogue at FAO. We would like to take advantage of the efforts of others before us, but we don’t want to be forced to change every form of name in our catalogue. Slide22:  110 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 110 ^σ FAONAF ^λ all ^a FAO, Rome (Italy) 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Forenede nationers organisation for ernæring og landbrug 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Organisatie voor Voedsel en Landbouw 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Organizatsiia Ob´´edinennykh Natsii po voprosam prodovol´stviia i sel´skogo khoziaistva 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a United Nations. ^b Organizatsiia po voprosam prodovol´stviia i sel´skogo khoziaistva 410 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Potravinová a zemedelská organisace Spojených národ°u ... How to do this: Creation of the Unified Authority File Record Form used at FAO Form used in AACR2 catalogues Slide23:  Public Displays Search: Organizacija Ujedinjenih Nacija za ishranu i poljoprivredu Use: FAONAF (All): FAO, Rome (Italy) [Search the FAO Catalogue] Other preferred forms: LCNAF (All): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Search associated catalogues] FAO Catalog Search: FAO, Rome (Italy) Use: LCNAF (All): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Search associated catalogues] Other preferred forms: FAONAF (All): FAO, Rome (Italy) [Search the FAO Catalogue] AACR2 Catalog 110 ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 110 ^σ FAONAF ^λ all ^a FAO, Rome (Italy) Customizable for each catalog. Easy searching. Slide24:  Including Additional Authority Files 110 2_ ^σ FAONAF ^λ all ^a FAO, Rome (Italy) 110 2_ ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 110 2_ ^σ RAMEAU ^λ all ^a Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture 110 2_ ^σ GKD ^λ all ^a Food and Agriculture Organization UAF Record Search: Organizacija Ujedinjenih Nacija za ishranu i poljoprivredu Use: FAONAF (All): FAO, Rome (Italy) [Search the FAO Catalogue] Other preferred forms: LCNAF (All): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Search associated catalogues] RAMEAU (All): Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture [Search associated catalogues] GKD (All): Food and Agriculture Organization [Search associated catalogues] Public Display for FAO patrons can go on indefinitely Slide25:  Productivity Benefits Currently, each time FAO library staff find an item catalogued in OCLC Worldcat, they must search the local authority file for every heading and change each heading in each record. When the Unified Authority File record is created, they need to do this only once. LC Record 245 00 ^a Somalia : ^b a country study / ^c Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ; edited by Helen Chapin Metz. 250 __ ^a 4th ed. 260 __ ^a Washington, D.C. : ^b The Division : ^b For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., ^c 1993. 300 __ ^a xxxvii, 282 p. ; ^b ill., maps ^c 24 cm. 710 2_ ^a Library of Congress. ^b Federal Research Division. 29 Metz, H.C.^b(ed.) 31 ^eLibrary of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). Federal Research Div. 34 ^eSomalia: a country study 51 4. ed. 52 Washington, DC (USA) 54 1993 56 ^a282 p.^billus. FAO Record Slide26:  Productivity Benefits Unified Authority File Record 110 2_ ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Library of Congress. ^b Federal Research Division. CHANGE TO: 110 2_ ^σ FAONAF ^λ all ^a Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). Federal Research Div. AACR2 Record FAO Record True sharing of records could take place without a loss of standards or quality Currently, each time FAO library staff find an item catalogued in OCLC Worldcat, they must search the local authority file for every heading and change each heading in each record. Once the Unified Authority File record is created, they need to do this only once. Slide27:  Productivity Benefits 110 2_ ^σ FAONAF ^λ all ^a Library of Congress, Washington, DC (USA). Federal Research Div. CHANGE TO: 110 2_ ^σ LCNAF ^λ all ^a Library of Congress. ^b Federal Research Division. FAO Record AACR2 Record True sharing of records could take place without a loss of standards or quality Unified Authority File Record Currently, each time FAO library staff find an item catalogued in OCLC Worldcat, they must search the local authority file for every heading and change each heading in each record. Once the Unified Authority File record is created, they need to do this only once. Slide28:  Other Bibliographic Entities This presentation provides only an overview of the basic uses of the Unified Authority File as applied to corporate bodies. With a few additions, the same structure could be used for all types of authorized forms, such as personal and geographic names, and even subjects. Some bibliographic entities are more complex than corporate bodies, e.g. personal names have different cataloguing treatments in different rules, when names change or there are pseudonyms, and especially subjects, with multiple and divers relationships between them. Difficult conceptual problems would then dominate, e.g. the Library of Congress Subject Heading: Forest thinning is the same as the AGROVOC descriptors: THINNING ; FORESTRY OPERATIONS None of these terms exist in the others’ thesauri. Can this be accomplished too? Along with far more complex relationships? We think yes, but a discussion of this is for another paper. Slide29:  Unified Authority File Form used in Russian Catalogue (Search Associated Catalogues) Form used in AACR2 Catalogue (Search Associated Catalogues) Form used in non-AACR2 Catalogue (Search Associated Catalogues) Form used Norwegian Catalogue (Search Associated Catalogues) Form used in French Catalogue (Search Associated Catalogues) Unified Authority File No one needs to change their forms All we have to do match forms and share Generations before us have collected a vast amount of information that is of critical importance for resource discovery and sharing. By building on their efforts, our generation now has the task of bringing this information together.

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