Eating and anxiety disorders

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Information about Eating and anxiety disorders
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Published on March 21, 2014

Author: Amithtk

Source: slideshare.net

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This is an in dept look about disorders from a psychological standpoint. The disorders talked in this are eating and anxiety disorders. They are looked at from a Biological, Cognitive, and Socio-Cultural standpoints which are the 3 key areas of research in psychology.

Eating and Anxiety Disorders Reshma Mandava, Amith Kumar, and James Bellows IBDP Psychology Mid Term Project

Introduction Psychological disorders are viewed as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional, psychiatrists label it disordered. Biological influences, Psychological influences, and Social-cultural influences are what cause psychological disorders.

Research shows that memory has a powerful affect on the state of hunger; as the time before we last ate gets longer, we start getting hungry again. This can be shown through the Paul Rozin study of 1998 which tested amnesia patients that would eat a full meal every 20 minutes since they had no recollection of eating just a while ago. Both our environment and our chemistry dictates our tastes in food as shown in the Beauchamp study of 1987. However, the need to eat salty and sugary food is universal. Psychology of Hunger

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa starts when an individual suspends his/her diet and starts to eat overtly. Individuals that have this disorder eat heavily for several periods of time. Then, they trail this by vomiting, exercising, or dieting excessively in order to compensate for their previous temptations. This disease has been actively shown in women in their teens or early twenties. These individuals are constantly worried about gaining weight and usually lose their interests in other activities. For this reason, they have episodes of severe depression and anxiety, usually after or during binges. Unlike anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa has weight inconstancies that are within the normal range. Therefore, it is more easily hidden and harder to Background Information

- Binge eating - Vomiting(intentionally) - Exercising excessively - Mood swings - Weight fluctuations - Low self- esteem - Exclusion from social activities Conditions

Kendler et. al.(1991)- a twin study based to test the risk factors and biological influence on Bulimia. Sample: 2163 pairs of twins, one of the twins have bulimia. Process: The same twins were observed several times and the study tested whether the other twin was likely to develop the disease given if they were Monozygotic or Dizygotic twins. Results: The accordance between Monozygotic twins was 23% compared 9% of the Dizygotic twins. Biological

Evaluation: Through the data, the study was able to show that 55% heritability rate. This leaves other factors 45% chance. Also, there was no control group for this study and all the subjects were women which are certainly some limitations to consider when assessing the reliability of the data provided by the study. Biological(continued)

Bruch(1962)- he discovered that many of his patients were under the assumption that they were overweight even if this was not the case. This showed to Bruch that these patients were viewing themselves through an emotional judgement rather than through their senses. Fallon and Rozin(1985)- this study asked 475 undergraduate students to look at 9 pictures which ranged from obese to thin and rate their body type, their ideal body type, and ideal body shape that they would be attracted to. Results: Women said that they were heavier than the body type that they would be attracted to and that their ideal body type was much heavier than the one they have. This was not the case for men, proving that women have/feel more pressure to stay thin and fit. Cognitive

Fairburn(1997)- hinted that people had low self-esteem and distorted their own body image. This study claimed that this was due to society’s constant burden to produce women of the “right” size. It is also stated that these patients believe that being thin is a way of managing self-worth. Cognitive(continued)

In the west, the body image of a woman has changed considerably. Wardle and Marsland(1990)- this study showed that judgement and evaluation of others comes from their body shape. An obese or overweight will be under more prejudice than ones that are thinner. Levine et. al.(1994)- 385 middle school girls were given a survey about their diet, bodies in correspondence to parent’s and peer’s opinions about body image. Most of the girls stated that they obtain the idea of a thin body from magazines, their parents, and their peers. The study showed that weight concerns are raised by magazines and teasing from family and friends. Socio-Cultural

Jaeger et al.(2002)- aimed to find the correlation between low self-esteem and Bulimia. Sample: 1,751 students from nursing school of all cultures Process: Like the previous study, the students were asked to look at 9 body images and were asked question about body satisfaction, self-esteem, and diets. Results: Mediterranean countries had the highest rate of body dissatisfaction followed by European countries. Western countries, overall, had the most body dissatisfaction. It also showed that individuals were affected by body images in the media. Some limitations to the study was that it didn’t include men and the study tested culture which cannot have a control variable. Socio-Cultural(continued)

- Admitting to having this disease - Seek help - Stay away from any triggers that might cause binging or purging. - See a professional(therapy) Treatment

Severe Depression

• Everyone has experienced depression at some point of their life but most don’t experience major depression • Major depression affects your entire way of life from the way you sleep to your interactions with the people around you • It doesn’t go away very quickly either and in some cases it can last years and become a person’s way of life • This is dangerous and can cause suicide as well as harm those around you • It also shapes your outlook on life which shapes how we think about ourselves and the people around us Background

• Thoughts have a negative tone • Difficulties with memory and decision-making • Lack of motivation • Constantly irritable and/or sad • Loss of interest in sex • Eat less • cry more • Withdrawal • neglect of personal hygiene • Trouble getting out of bed • Feeling run down • More succeptable to illness • Thoughts of suicide Symptoms

• People with major depression have abnormal numbers of neurotransmitters in their brain • receptors for serotonin are insensitive or lack the correct number • Those with major depression show less metabolic activity in their frontal cortex o PET scans are used to see differences in the brains of those with major depression and those without Biological

• Depression is common in reaction to strong negative events in a person’s life such as financial problems, divorce, or the death of a loved one. • Those with major depression maintain these negative views of the world, of themselves, and of the future for long periods of time. o They tend to jump to a negative conclusion about small problems and events • They also believe that they maintain little to no control over their lives and the world around them which can either help or hurt a person with depression • Pessimistic Psychological Influences

• Those without depression are much more optimistic even to the point where their thinking is irrational • Those with major depression have a much more rational look on things and because of this they see what little control over their world they have • Events in the world around them can also cause them to become more depressed such as war, poverty, or being bullied. • Bullying can cause depression in everyone but especially in young people. Sociocultural

1. Anti-depressants • SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) o Taken once a day o Side-effects include headache, nausea, different sleep patterns, anxiety and reduced sexual performance o Safe of overdose • MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) o Side-effects include liver damage, blood pressure reduction, and weight gain o When used while eating some foods such as cheese or chocolate it can cause a spike in blood pressure Treatment

ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy) • current is passed through the brain causing a convulsive seizure • patient immediately feels less of a sense of despair when waking up • Unilateral treatment o safer but has less of an effect o current passed through one side of the brain • Bilateral Treatment o More dangerous o Current passes through both sides of the brain o More effective • Best effect when given in series of 3-15 treatments Treatment Continued

Cognitive-behavioral • To identify bad thinking and change these thoughts through logic • Tries to bring rational thinking to the patient o Evidence examination  is it really your fault? o Reverse  Give advice to someone in your position o Define  “Bad” Treatment Continued

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