East Asia Under Challenge chapter 22

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Information about East Asia Under Challenge chapter 22
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Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Lilly

Source: authorstream.com

East Asia Under Challenge:  East Asia Under Challenge Chapter 22 Causes of decline:  Causes of decline Humiliated and harassed by Western powers Qing dynasty collapsed Intense external pressure on Chinese society by West Corruption Peasant unrest Incompetence Rapid population growth The Opium War:  The Opium War Guangzhou (Canton) restricted area, only place for trade British don’t like this agreement Imported more than the exported Opium trade instead of paying Highly addictive drug Chinese government had made Opium illegal on moral grounds Chinese government blockaded Ghaungzhou British responded with force The Opium War:  The Opium War Chinese destroyed Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 agreed to open five coastal ports Limit import taxes for British Hong Kong to British Europeans not subject to Chinese law Extraterritoriality Tried pitting foreign countries against eachother Tai Ping Rebellion:  Tai Ping Rebellion Peasant revolt 1850-1864 Hong Xiuquan-Christian Convert Younger brother of Jesus Mission to destroy Qing dynasty Social reforms Land to peasants Chinese Communist Revolution More rights, no foot binding 1853 seized Nanjing and massacred 25,000 1864 Chinese recaptured Nanjing 20 million people died Couldn’t deal effectively Efforts at Reform:  Efforts at Reform Government troops relied on warlords Collected taxes Warlords continued to collect taxes for their own use Self strengthening-western technology, keep Confucian values and institutions The Advance of Imperialism:  The Advance of Imperialism North and Northeast Russia took advantage of Qing dynasty’s weakness Spheres of influence-exclusive rights China war with Japan, Korea 2 German missionaries were murdered by Chinese rioters Made demands in Shandong Peninsula Internal Crisis:  Internal Crisis Guang Xu massive reform 100 days of Reform Modernize government reforms Conservatives opposed Emperor’s aunt Empress Dowager Ci Xi opposed Imprisoned the emperor and ended his reforms Opening the Door to China:  Opening the Door to China John Hay from US ensured equal access to the Chinese markets Open Door Policy Did not end spheres of influence Reduce restrictions on foreign imports Reduce imperialist hysteria Boxer Rebellion:  Boxer Rebellion Boxer secret organization Society of Harmonious Fists Shadowboxing Destroy the foreigner Slaughtered foreign missionaries Allied army attacked Beijing Indemnity-payment for damages Fall of Qing:  Fall of Qing Empress Dowager Ci Xi embraced change Civil service exam-educational exam Legislative assemblies at local/provincial level merchants/, professionals and gentry-elite Peasants aren’t helped Sun Yat-Sen formed Revive China Society Qing dynasty decaying Follow Western countries Fall of Qing:  Fall of Qing 3 stage takeover Military takeover Transitional phase Constitutional democracy 1905 Tokyo convention Benefited from rising discontent Revolution of 1911:  Revolution of 1911 1908 Empress Dowager Ci Xi died Henry Pu Yi last emperor Uprising in central China General Yuan Shigai, old order controlled army Abandoned imperial army to help rebels Serve as president Middle class supported An Era of Civil War:  An Era of Civil War Sun Yat-Sen accepted General Yuan Shigai as president Lacked military force Traditional manner Hated by reformers Used murder and terror Guomindang(Nationalist) party Died in 1916 Civil war, mass destruction Chinese Society in transition:  Chinese Society in transition Growth in markets New crops Westerners introduced modern means of transportation and communications Created an export market Integrated the Chinese market into 19th century world economy New ways of thinking Local industry largely destroyed New ventures and commercial centers China’s Changing Culture:  China’s Changing Culture Big change in agricultural life from the past Radical reformers wanted to eliminate traditions Western books, paintings, music and ideas Literature influenced by western novels An End to Isolation Japan:  An End to Isolation Japan West approached Japan for trade American fleet under Matthew Perry in Edo Bay Millard Fillmore sent a letter, better treatment of his sailors Shogunate officials recommend political concessions Treaty of Kanagawa-return of shipwrecked sailors, open two ports to west and establish of a US consulate in Japan Resistance to the New Order:  Resistance to the New Order Open relations unpopular Samurai warriors Sat-Cho alliance forced shogun to end relations with west Kyoto palace attacked Emperor kept control Meiji Restoration:  Meiji Restoration Sat-Cho leaders mistrusted the west Mutsuhito young emperor Enlightened Rule Controlled under shogunate Tokyo the new capital Transfer of Japanese Politics:  Transfer of Japanese Politics New leaders moved to abolish old order Undercut the power of the daimyo Territories called prefectures Reformers set out to create modern system Ito Hirobumi-studied political systems of the west 2 main factions Liberals and progressives Representative authority Leader a figure head New constitution 2 houses Meiji Economics:  Meiji Economics New system of land ownership Daimyo lands go to the peasants New land tax Promoting industry Subsidies Weapons, shipbuilding and sake Private ownership of businesses Modern Social Structure and Women’s rights:  Modern Social Structure and Women’s rights Military reforms Compulsory military service 3 years Universal education Secondary schools and universities Western inspiration Community and hierarchy Social classes Three obedience's for women Special privileges for aristocracy abolished Dancing cabinet Baseball imported Exploited coal mines Old values still taught Joining the Imperialist Nations:  Joining the Imperialist Nations Expansion Ryukyu Islands Japan took over Korea-independent Taiwan Liaodong Peninsula-gave back Fought with Russia for Korea TR settled war US distrusts Japan, Japan distrusts US Culture in an Era of Transition:  Culture in an Era of Transition Western technology Literature imitated Novel Realism Modern skills Artistic techniques Fine Arts schools established for traditional students

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