Earthquake – Natural Disaster

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Information about Earthquake – Natural Disaster

Published on August 27, 2010

Author: gokulstrikes


Earthquake – Natural Disaster : Earthquake – Natural Disaster What is Earthquake? : What is Earthquake? Release of energy waves called seismic waves in the crust of earth, leads to the creation of a natural disaster called earthquake. In other words, Earth surface is resting on many solidified pieces of lava… gigantic rocks... called plates...When these rocks… called plates… move / rub / hit against one another… that piece of earth vibrates violently… we call it ‘earthquake’… Is it Predictable? : Is it Predictable? It is unpredictable and arrives without notice or without announcing it's vigor and strength. Scientists are constantly in search of this unknown. Earthquakes can be recorded using an instrument called as seismometer. Richter scale is used to represent magnitude and intensity of earthquakes. Types -> Tectonic, Volcanic, and Explosion : Types -> Tectonic, Volcanic, and Explosion Causes & Reasons? : Causes & Reasons? Reasons could be many; pinpointing is always after the event. They may be caused by various activities at the earth's surface such as ebb and the flow of the tides, the rush of traffic in the city streets, the tumbling of streams over high falls, magma tic outbursts from within the interior of the earth or explosion of high power nuclear or atomic bomb and so and so forth ….continued Causes & Reasons? : Causes & Reasons? If seen broadly we can say that earthquakes are caused due to two major reasons. The first reason is the eruption of volcanoes, which are sudden, and as is known volcanoes are seat of inner disturbance and can effect the plates which is the second cause of earthquakes. Earthquakes are caused due to disturbance in the movement of plates, which again can be caused due to various reasons like under crust waves or cracks in the plates. Effects… : Effects… Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude, the distance from the epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. Other Effects- Tsunami : Other Effects- Tsunami Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water. In the open ocean the distance between wave crests can surpass 100 kilometers (62 miles), and the wave periods can vary from five minutes to one hour. Such tsunamis travel 600-800 kilometers per hour (373-497 miles per hour), depending on water depth. Other Effects- Floods : Other Effects- Floods A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land. Floods occur usually when the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeds the total capacity of the formation, and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. However, floods may be secondary effects of earthquakes, if dams are damaged. Earthquakes may cause landslips to dam rivers, which then collapse and cause floods Three Distinct Precaution Factors : Three Distinct Precaution Factors Before an earthquake During an earthquake After an earthquake Before an earthquake : Before an earthquake Potential earthquake hazards in the home and workplace should be removed and corrected. Top-heavy furniture and objects, such as book cases and storage cabinets, should be fastened to the wall and the largest and heaviest objects placed on lower shelves. Supplies of food and water, flashlight, a first-aid kit and a battery-operated radio should be set aside for use in emergencies. Before an earthquake : Before an earthquake One or more family members should have a working knowledge of first-aid measures because medical facilities nearly are always overloaded during an emergency or disaster, or may, themselves, be damaged beyond use. All family members should know what to do to avoid injury and panic. They should know how to turn off the electricity, water and gas. They should know the locations of the main switch valves. This is particularly important for teenagers who are likely to be alone with smaller children. During an earthquake : During an earthquake The most important thing to do during an earthquake is to remain CALM. If you can do so then you are less likely to be injured. Also, those around you will have a greater tendency to be clam if you are calm. Make no moves or take no action without thinking about the possible consequences. Any irrational movement may be an injurious one. During an earthquake : During an earthquake If you are inside stay there. Stand in a doorway or crouch under a desk or table, away from windows or glass fixtures. If you are outside, stay there. Stay away from objects such as light poles, buildings, trees and telephone and electric wires, which could fall and injure you. If you are in an automobile, drive away from underpasses/overpasses, and stop in the safest place possible and stay there. After an earthquake : After an earthquake After an earthquake the most important thing to do is to check for injuries in your family and in the neighbourhood. Seriously injured persons should not be moved unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. First-aid should be administered, but only by someone who is qualified or has a working knowledge of first-aid. Do not use the telephone except in extreme emergency. After an earthquake : After an earthquake Evacuate the building as soon as the shaking stops. Carefully inspect the exterior of the building for cracks in walls, shifted posts and pillars. If you see anything other than minor cracks do no re-enter the building until it has been inspected for safety by a professional. Do not use the telephone except in extreme emergency. Turn off appropriate utilities. Do not use matches, lighters or open flame, appliances or electrical switches until you are sure that there are no gas leaks. After an earthquake : After an earthquake Check for safety-hazards - gas, water sewage breaks; downed power lines and electrical short circuits, damaged and weakened buildings and foundations, fires and fire hazards. Turn off appropriate utilities. Do not use matches, lighters or open flame, appliances or electrical switches until you are sure that there are no gas leaks. If electrical power is off for any length of time use the foods in your refrigerator and freezer before they spoil. Canned and dry foods should be saved for last. After an earthquake : After an earthquake Wear shoes and protective clothing, for example, hard hats and gloves, to avoid injuries while clearing debris. Keep battery-operated radios and listen for emergency bulletins. Co-operate with all public safety and relief organizations. Do not go into damaged areas unless authorized by appropriate personnel. Be prepared for additional earthquake shocks. Professional Organizations for Earthquakes : Professional Organizations for Earthquakes American Geophysical Union (AGU) Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Seismological Society of America (SSA) Western States Seismic Policy Council (WSSPC) ………………research continuing School of Management Studies : School of Management Studies

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