Published on March 6, 2014
EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Review
WEGENER SAID THAT ALL THE CONTINENTS WERE ONCE JOINED IN A SUPER CONTINENT THAT HE CALLED ________________________________________.
WEGENER SAID THAT ALL THE CONTINENTS WERE ONCE JOINED IN A SUPER CONTINENT THAT HE CALLED PANGEA.
THE OUTER LAYER OF THE EARTH IS CALLED THE ______________________.
THE OUTER LAYER OF THE EARTH IS CALLED THE CRUST, OR LITHOSPHERE.
THE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE EARTH IS CALLED THE _________________.
THE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE EARTH IS CALLED THE INNER CORE.
WEGENER’S THEORY OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT IS ALSO CALLED _____ _____.
WEGENER’S THEORY OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT IS ALSO CALLED PLATE TECTONICS.
_______________________ BOUNDARIES MOVE TOWARD EACH OTHER.
CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES MOVE TOWARD EACH OTHER.
___________ PLATE BOUNDARIES MOVE AWAY FROM EACH OTHER
DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES MOVE AWAY FROM EACH OTHER
____ ____________ PLATE BOUNDARIES SLIDE PAST EACH OTHER.
STRIKE SLIP PLATE BOUNDARIES SLIDE PAST EACH OTHER.
A STRIKE SLIP BOUNDARY IS ALSO CALLED A TRANSFORM BOUNDARY.
THE SAN ANDREAS FAULT IN CALIFORNIA IS A ___ BOUNDARY.
THE SAN ANDREAS FAULT IN CALIFORNIA IS A TRANSFORM OR STRIKE SLIP BOUNDARY
JET STREAMS ARE FAST FLOWING, NARROW AIR CURRENTS FOUND IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF SOME PLANETS, INCLUDING EARTH. THE MAIN JET STREAMS ARE LOCATED NEAR THE TROPOPAUSE, THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE TROPOSPHERE AND THE STRATOSPHERE.
EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES • The study of the earth • There are four main areas of Earth Science
EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES • Meteorology The study of the Atmosphere, weather, and climate • Astronomy The study of the Universe
EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES • Oceanography The study of the Oceans • Geology the study of earths systems, including earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides.
SOIL HORIZON soil horizon - a layer in a soil profile profile - a vertical section of the Earth's crust showing the different horizons or layers horizon - a specific layer or stratum of soil or subsoil in a vertical cross section of land
UNDERSTANDING EACH SOIL HORIZON
HUMUS • A brown or black organic substance consisting of partially or wholly decayed vegetable or animal matter that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain water.
SOIL PARTICLES Although humus is often mixed in with soil particles, it is not actually soil. Soil is non-organic: made of rock particles. Humus is decayed plant and animal matter, made up of organic fragments of things that once lived.
SOILS ARE MOVED AND DEPOSITED Wind, moving water, glaciers all physically move soil and rocks from one place to another. Erosion takes soil and rocks away. Deposition deposits soil and rocks in a new location.
WEATHERING Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota ((living things) and waters. The tree is growing in the rock. This is mechanical weathering, but caused by a living thing (biota).
TWO IMPORTANT CLASSIFICATIONS OF WEATHERING PROCESSES EXIST – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Freeze and thaw: water runs into cracks, and freezes. Ice expands, forcing the rock to crack. Acid rain in Venice, Italy, is eroding the marble statues that are outside.
MECHANICAL WEATHERING • Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking big rocks into little ones. This process usually happens near the surface of the planet. Temperature also affects the land. The cool nights and hot days always cause things to expand and contract. That movement can cause rocks to crack and break apart. Roots and plants also push into the rocks and break them apart. They act like wedges and push the rocks apart. Little animals also help by burrowing and digging through the ground.
CHEMICAL WEATHERING • Chemical weathering includes the effect of weathering on molecules and atoms. As with all chemistry, the greater the surface area of an object, the more chemical reactions can take place. For these chemical reactions to happen in nature, moisture, and heat must be present. Reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, and acidification can happen when all of the elements are together. Oxidation makes rocks softer. It is similar to an iron bar rusting. Since there is a lot of iron in many rocks, oxidation often happens. Hydrolysis usually causes rocks to expand and then mechanical weathering can begin. These chemical reactions are happening all of the time. When you see rocks next to each other that are different colors (often shades of red) then you know chemical reactions have taken place.
BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING • Biological weathering would include the effect of animals and plants on the landscape. This is more than roots digging in and wedging rocks. Biological weathering is the actual molecular breakdown of minerals. There are things called lichens (combinations of fungi and algae) which live on rocks. Lichens slowly eat away at the surface of rocks. The amount of biological activity that breaks down minerals depends on how much life is in that area. You might find more activities like lichens near oceans where the air is humid and cooler.
PLANTS AND ANIMALS DIG INTO THE GROUND.
THANK YOU Pictures from Bing Online Some material from http://www.geography4kids.com/files/l and_weathering.html
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