Earth and beyond

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Information about Earth and beyond

Published on March 30, 2013

Author: LKOTZE



Earth and Beyond Module of Andries Oliviers' Natural Science Grade 8 Textbook.

The atmosphere
The phases of the Moon

Earth and BeyondAndries p 43

The atmosphereAndries p 43

Composition is different to other planets – thats why we can survive.  Thin layer of gases surrounding Earth. Stretches 10 000 km Densit igh y as He t above Earths surface. 80 km = approx. 100% of the atmosphereAndries p 43

Gas Chemical Percentage mixture formula of the atmosphere The last 1%: Nitrogen N2 78% CO 2 SO2 Oxygen O2 Needed 21% for Hydrogen breathing Water Argon Ar inert 0.9% Methane etc.Andries p 43

Source of O2 Protects us against UV raysFunctions Keep – ozone absorbs temperatures the rays steady between    andAndries p 43

func Life as we know it –tion water vapour Gases for photosynthesis and respirationProtective Shield – filters UV and allow infrared for heat, prevents meteors Blanket – regulates temperatureAndries p 43

Greengases CO H O 2 Also absorbs 2 Circulates heat heat energy around Cause heat  Forms through Green effect precipitation Cause heat through Green effect Both contribute to the Green effect Andries p 43

Greeneffect Andries p 44

and  warmingGreeneffect  = High % of GHG in the CO  atmosphere over a long period Fuel 2 consumption Deforestation increase  depends on % of GHG Andries p 45

and  warmingGreeneffect Soil vapour   increase from 16 to 21 decrease Increase Drought in evaporation Floods DO Desertification More  ½m+  Millions of people = Sea levels Andries p 45 homeless increase

and  warmingGreeneffect Reforestation Dont clear the ground Renewable for  &c energy  Efficient energy use Andries p 45

Climate State of sunshine, temperature, wind and rain at a specific time.Andries p 45 Weather

Climate Normal weather conditions for an area.Andries p 45 Climate

  Climate Air pressure Determine weather and climate conditionsAndries p 45

Climatezones Andries p 45 46

Andries p 45 46

Andries p 45 46

Andries p 45 46

Planet earth And spaceAndries p 50

A source ofAndries p 50

Andries p 50

Everything else @/ in our s.s. * Providing orbits around it. The center of our solar systemAndries p 50

Andries p 50

Andries p 50 8 Pluto is NOT a planet.

PlutoAndries p 50

MercuryKept in fixed orbits – gravitationalpull of the sun. Venus Earth Different sizes. Mars Jupiterplanets Do not emit / – reflect Saturn suns rays. UranusAndries p 50 Neptune

Fixed orbit around each planet.Satellites Fixed time to complete an orbit. Also called a moonAndries p 50

Andries p 50

Movement of theAndries p 51 

Day and nightAndries p 51

Many faces of the moonAndries p 51

Because the moon moves around the earth, the shape of what we can see changesAndries p 51

Andries p 51

Decreasing sickle moon 4 1 3 2Andries p 52

Eclipse of the moonAndries p 52

Umbra (the earths shadow) Andries p 53

Eclipse of the sunAndries p 53

Umbra (the moons shadow) 400x further 400x smaller Penumbra  (partial shade)Andries p 53

Andries p 53

Space η observation withAndries p 53

ηrefractor Consist of two lenses on each endAndries p 53 of a tube.

η Light is collected andmirror focused onto a mirror close toAndries p 53 the eye pieces

ηSALT A E O F A L U R R E S I T C G C O A H N E PAndries p 53 E

ηSALT A E O F A L U R R E S I T C G C O A H N E PAndries p 53 E

ηSALT Found in Sutherland (N.C.), because of the very little air andAndries p 53 light pollution.

Textbook: Andries Olivier, Grade 8 workbook, 2012Images: attempt has been made to acknowledge allsources, if an images source could not be found, it wasacknowledged as such.Slide 1 – cairoo software Slide 2 – Google plusSlide 8 – source unknown Slide 9 a – sciencephotolibrarySlide 9 b – Slide 15 – CAIROO softwareSlide 16 – CAIROO software Slide 17 – cairoo softwareSlide 18 – CAIROO software Slide 19 – tumblr

Slide 20 – worldofteaching.comSlide 21 – Lily Kotze Slide 23 – worldofteaching.comSlide 25 – shirt.woot! Slide 28 – Lily KotzeSlide 30 – unknown source Slide 31 – worldofteaching.comSlide 33 – Slide 34 – worldofteaching.comSlide 39 – Lily Kotze

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