EarlyCivilizations

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Information about EarlyCivilizations
Education

Published on February 13, 2008

Author: Rinald

Source: authorstream.com

Early River Valley Civilizations:  Early River Valley Civilizations Chapter 2 The First Civilizations:  The First Civilizations Arose about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. Emerged as small agricultural villages in the river valleys of the Ancient Near East. Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia The site of the first river valley civilizations. Located between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia means “land between the rivers”. Also known as the Fertile Crescent because of it’s shape and the richness of it’s soil. Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia The first people to settle in Mesopotamia were the Sumerians. The Sumerians created city-states. Each city and the surrounding land formed a city-state. Each city-state had it’s own government. Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia Ziggurat Sumerian city-states were built around ziggurats. It was like a city hall. Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia The Akkadians, under the rule of Sargon, defeated the city-states of Sumer and gained control of both northern and southern Mesopotamia. Sargon created the world’s first empire. It only lasted about 200 years. Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia The Amorites took over next. Established their capital at Babylon. Reached it’s peak under the reign of Hammurabi. Do you remember Hammurabi’s Code of Laws? Mesopotamia:  Mesopotamia Over the years new groups dominated the Fertile Crescent but the ideas of the Sumerians were passed on – this is called cultural diffusion. Egypt:  Egypt A similar pattern of development was taking place to the west, along the Nile River in Egypt. Q: Why is Lower Egypt above Upper Egypt? Lower Egypt (The delta region) Upper Egypt A: Upper Egypt is at a higher elevation. Egypt – Old Kingdom:  Egypt – Old Kingdom Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were originally 2 different kingdoms but eventually they were united into one kingdom by King Narmer. Egypt:  Egypt In Mesopotamia kings were thought to be representatives of the gods. To the Egyptians, kings WERE gods. These god-kings were called pharaohs. Egypt:  Egypt Egyptians believed that the pharaohs ruled even after they died so great pyramids were built for tombs. Egypt:  Egypt As time went on the power of the pharaohs weakened and the Old Kingdom ended. Strong pharaohs regained control about 140 years later and restored law and order. Called the Middle Kingdom. Egypt – Middle Kingdom:  Egypt – Middle Kingdom The Middle Kingdom: Improved trade and transportation. Built dikes for irrigation. Drained swamplands for extra farmland. Didn’t last long – about 400 years later it was taken over by the Hyksos – a group from the area of Palestine. Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations Located on the Indian subcontinent. A wall of the highest mountains in the world – the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges separate this region from the rest of the Asian continent. Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations Hindu Kush Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations Himalayas Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations These mountains helped protect the Indus Valley from invasion. The Indus Valley is an enormous plain formed by the Indus and the Ganges Rivers. Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations No one knows exactly when or how the Indus Valley civilizations began. Around the same time the Egyptians were building pyramids, people in the Indus Valley were laying bricks for India’s first cities. Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations One of the biggest achievements of the Indus Valley people was their sophisticated city planning. Cities were planned on a grid system. Featured a citadel – where important buildings could be found. Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations Used oven baked bricks to build. Had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems. Even the smallest houses at the edge of town were connected to the plumbing. How do we know this? Over 1,400 towns have been found! Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations We don’t know as much about the Indus Valley people because we haven’t been able to decipher their written language. Um, what? Indus River Civilizations:  Indus River Civilizations We know around 1750 BCE the quality of buildings declined and cities fell into disrepair – but why? In the 1970’s we discovered that tectonic plates may have moved causing earthquakes, floods, and possibly changing the course of the Indus river – thus destroying food supplies and cities. China:  China Natural barriers isolated China from the other dynasties. Two major rivers run through China: The Huang He (Yellow River) Chang Jiang (Yangtze) China:  China Around 2000 BCE the first dynasty arose, the Xia dynasty. The leader of the dynasty was apparently an engineer/mathematician who was able to establish flood control along the Huang He. He also developed irrigation systems. China:  China Next, the Shang Dynasty came to power. The Shang Dynasty is the first of the Chinese dynasties to leave a written record. They also built great palaces and tombs. China:  China The Shang dynasty built their homes with wood. They built walls around their cities for protection because they went to war often. The higher classes lived within the walls The lower classes lived outside the walls. China:  China The Zhou took over the Shang dynasty saying that the last Shang king had been so bad that the gods gave the Zhou rule. Mandate of Heaven. Natural disasters, war, and other disruptive acts might be cause for the current leaders to be ousted and replaced with a new dynasty. China:  China The Zhou dynasty established feudalism. China:  China The Zhou dynasty eventually weakened when the Zhou monarch was murdered by nomadic neighbors. The royal family fled and chaos ensued. So what do these 4 civilizations have in common?:  So what do these 4 civilizations have in common? Water! Mesopotamia – Tigris & Euphrates Rivers Egypt – Nile River Indus Valley – Indus and Ganges Rivers China – The Yellow & Yangtze Rivers What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Good places for agriculture: Crops, especially barley and wheat. Bread Domesticated animals (sheep, cows, goats) Meat, cheese, milk, leather, wool What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Planned economies Construction pyramids, ziggurats, cities, irrigation systems Farmers sold surplus food Community labor Central authority (soldiers) What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Theocracies They were all “God ruled” states. “God talks to us...not you! So eat dirt, scum-suckers!!” Priests function as an organized central government The king is regarded as a god or as a god’s agent What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Social Classes Priests (“We talk to god, you don’t.) Aristocrats/warriors (“We have weapons, you don’t.”) Common people (“I guess we work...?”) Slaves (“We’re screwed!!!”) What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Industry Pottery, textiles, woodworking Luxury items (things you don’t need) Development and improvement of metal Bronze What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Architecture pyramids, ziggurats, big cities What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Writing Perhaps the most important invention EVER What else do they have in common?:  What else do they have in common? Organization of Knowledge Learning becomes cumulative Perpetuates the level of achievement.

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