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EarlyChristianity

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Information about EarlyChristianity
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Published on November 1, 2007

Author: Wen12

Source: authorstream.com

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Codex Sinaiticus (Gospel of John):  Codex Sinaiticus (Gospel of John) Early Christianity:  Early Christianity Although later centuries have cultivated the belief in one book with a single purpose, the fact remains that what WE call the Bible is a diverse composition that was created gradually over a period of hundreds of years, and was not crystallized into a canon until the 5th century. Thus the influence of early Christian authors upon the canon, and also the formation of Christianity as a faith was far greater than they are usually given credit for. Apostolic and Apologetic Fathers:  Apostolic and Apologetic Fathers Apostolic Fathers: Clement of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp of Smyrna Apologists Justin Martyr Athenagoras Tatian Greek Fathers:  Greek Fathers Irenaeus Clement of Alexandria Origen Athanasius John Chrysostom Basil Gregory Nazianzenus Gregory of Nyssa Latin Fathers:  Latin Fathers Tertullian Gregory the Great Augustine of Hippo, Ambrose of Milan Jerome Christian writings in Latin begin in the 3rd century. The first two centuries Christian writings are limited to Greek, and this is why much of important terminology, not included in the New Testament, is Greek in origin. Lactantius:  Lactantius 240-320 Education:  Education North African Student of Arnobius (early rhetorician/Apologist: Ad Nationes)M Taught rhetoric in Nicomedia under Diocletian. Later tutor of Crispus, son of Constantine Works:  Works De Opificio Dei Written under Diocletian’s persecution: an apologetic work Divinae Institutiones (and Epitome for his brother) Outlines the siliness of pagan beliefs, as opposed to Christian truth De Ira Dei (agaisnt Stoics and Epicureans) De Mortibus Persecutorum A rhetorical composition, apologetic in nature, was taken for history in later time. De Ave Phoenice (the story of the bird Phoenix) Tertullian (155-230):  Tertullian (155-230) North African Little is known about his life. He became a priest and followed a number of sects, like Montanism Apologist and ‘historian’ of the early Church His works cover the entire range: Tertullian: Works:  Tertullian: Works 31 extant and fragments of others Divided into two groups: Apologetic and Polemical (e.g. Apologeticus, De testimonio animae, Adv. Judaeos, Adv. Marcionem) Practical and Disciplinary (e.g. De monogamia, Ad uxorem, De virginibus velandis, De cultu feminarum, De patientia, De pudicitia) Content:  Content Tertullian was practical and materialistic. He outlines cruel and abominable practices of pagans in order to contrast it with the purity of a Christian lifestyle. The soul is created for each person, and has some form of corporeity, and this is how it can be tortured in hell. He advocates austere discipline and exhibits misogyny. Very influential in matters such as the Antichrist, the 1000 years kingdom of Heaven, Rome as the decadent Babylon. Justin (100-165):  Justin (100-165) Known as Apologist and Martyr Born in Nablus (Palestine), he studied philosophy Suffered martyrdom in Rome under Marcus Aurelius Works:  Works Authentic: Apologia Apologia Secunda Dialogus cum Tryphone Pseudepigrapha A much larger body of works is attributed to him by later scholars, e.g. Eusebius and Photius, most problematic, e.g. Cohortatio ad Graecos De Monarchia De Resurrectione Content:  Content Justin was influenced by Greek philosophy, and formed many important concepts of later Christianity on the basis of Plato, the Stoics, the Peripatetics and the Pythagoreans. Christology and the teaching of Logos very important Believed in prophesies and the ‘Millenium’ Believed that the Antichrist will come shortly before the second coming of Christ. Clement of Alexandria (c.150-215):  Clement of Alexandria (c.150-215) Probably of Greek origin, very likely Athenian. Headed the Catechetical School of Alexandria During the persecutions he travelled trying to escape. Works:  Works Protrepticus Paedagogus Stromata He had a strong philosophical background and tried to turn Christianity into a consistent philosophical system in the model of pagan Greek systems. Knowledge (gnosis) is important for Christian faith. He was an ecclectic, and approved of the moral precepts of Platonism and the Stoics. John Chrysostom:  John Chrysostom Born in Antioch, studied with Libanios. Libanios taught him rhetoric and cultivated his love for Greek literature. He became Archbishop of Constantinople He was ascetic and spent two years standing with minimal sleep (which damaged his health) Works:  Works Many works survive: Homilies (speeches) He had a practical understanding of Christianity and for that reason great appeal Instructions for Priests/the Catechumens He tried to keep Christianity plain and away from the trappings of office and the mainstream, in vain. He was in conflict with several powerful figures He abhorred the pagan way of life which many Christians of his time lived. Augustine (354 –430):  Augustine (354 –430) North African (Hippo) He studied Rhetoric and went to Rome and Milan to practice. After a fairly wild youth, under the influence of Ambrose of Milan he became a devout Christian. He died during the siege of Hippo by the Vandals Works:  Works Approximately 100 titles: tremendous influence De Civitate Dei Confessiones Extensively introduded Platonism into Christianity and was influenced by Plotinus and Porphyry. He is the founder of many important doctrines, some of which have caused controversy (e.g. the original sin). He introduced the theory of the timelessness of God, and the differentiation between witchcraft and miracle.

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