Published on March 5, 2014
RENEWABLE RESOURCE CASE STUDIES: LESSONS LEARNED AND SUCCESS STORIES Or “What I learned on summer vacation...”
Presentation Summary Drivers – EO 13423 and EO 13514 Solar Energy Tucson ANGB Net - Zero Case Study Buckley AFB – Solar Field Installation Waste to Energy Feasibility Case Study – Kadena AB, Japan Geothermal Energy Ground Source Heat Pump Case Study from: – Vance AFB – Altus AFB – Sheppard AFB – Cavalier AS – Cannon AFB – FE Warren AFB – Minot AFB Other Potentials for Renewable Energy Upcoming Research Potentials 2 2
The Spirit of Adventure Established guidelines and criteria EO13423, EISA 2007, EPACT 2005, Command Memos, AF Doctrine End Goals 30% reduction in Consumption 1.5% increase per year in renewable energy (25% by 2025) 15% increase in high performance buildings 30% reduction in water consumption 100% of new facilities to be net zero by 2030 20% reduction of petroleum use by 2015 Decisions to be made Control of the Program Drawing the Box around your Program Working with others Create a baseline – “Wow, that’s a large undertaking.” 3 3
I have just met you, and I love you…. Brand New As of 4 October 2009 Executive Order 13514 – Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Increase Energy Efficiency Reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Conserve Water Does not Supersede 13423, but refines and adds to it Set GHG Goals – Per Agency – 28% for Federal Government (Scope 1 and 2) by 2020 (Based on 2008 Baseline) – ??% for DoD (AF) – Scope 1 – Direct GHG emissions from sources that are owned/controlled by the agency – Scope 2 – Direct GHG emissions from the purchase of electricity, heat, or steam – Scope 3 – GHG emissions from supply chains, employee travel, and commuting Reduce drinking water use intensity by 26% by 2020 (based on 2007 baseline) Reduce other water use by 20% by 2020 (2010 baseline) Divert 50% of non-hazardous and C&D waste from landfills by 2015 Make plans, beginning 2020, all federal buildings are "net-zero" by 2030 Ensure 15% of existing buildings are LEED by 2015 (New and Existing) 4 4
Mayhaps you desire - Squirrel! Definitions in the EO13514 Absolute greenhouse gas emissions - total greenhouse gas emissions without normalization for activity levels and includes any allowable consideration of sequestration Greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride Renewable energy - energy produced by solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing hydroelectric project Excluded vehicles and equipment - any vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or non-road equipment owned or operated by an agency of the Federal Government that is used in: Combat support, combat service support, tactical or relief operations, or training for such operations; Federal law enforcement (including protective service and investigation) Emergency response (including fire and rescue) spaceflight vehicles (including associated ground-support equipment) United States - the fifty States, and associated territorial waters and airspace Zero-net-energy building - a building that is designed, constructed, and operated to require a greatly reduced quantity of energy to operate, meet the balance of energy needs from sources of energy that do not produce greenhouse gases, and therefore result in no net emissions of greenhouse gases and be economically viable 5 5
Adventure is Out There How GHG Emissions impact Renewable Energy Solar – Supply Chain – Disposal Wind - Manufacture Biomass – Release of GHG Biogas – Release of GHG Ocean – Water Vapor – Ocean Gases Geothermal – Underground gases Waste to Energy – Release of GHG Hydrokinetic – Water vapor – River gases Proven Technologies vs Return on Source 6 6
I’ve altered him…He can protect you now Solar Energy – Net-Zero Case Study Tucson Air Nation Guard Base (ANGB) – Tucson, AZ – Home of 162nd Fighter Wing – Adjacent to Tucson International Airport Scope of Work Determine existing renewable energy resource capacity Determine potential for non-renewable energy reduction Determine potential for net-zero application Determine On-base and Off-base options for renewable energy Determine operational impacts (if any) Determine Funding Opportunities/Sources Determine if current infrastructure could support net-zero Determine if base could go “carbon neutral” Conducted Energy Audit – Determined potential for non-renewable energy reduction to be 39%. 7 7
Let’s do this…Let’s Put a Pin in It Kinds of “Net-Zero” As defined by EO 13514 (Carbon Neutral) Designed, constructed, and operated to require a greatly reduced quantity of energy to operate, meet the balance of energy needs from sources of energy that do not produce greenhouse gases, and therefore result in no net emissions of greenhouse gases and be economically viable Based on Usage Mass Balance Equation – Energy in = Energy Out Based on Demand “Energy Island” Example – Base needs approximately (on average) of 4MW of continuous load - Equivalent to 35,000,000kWh of energy in a year (let’s say it includes heating BTUs) – Generate 35,000,000 kWh of energy anytime during the year (Usage) – Generate more to offset commuters, flight operations, etc, etc… (C-N) – Generate 8MW of energy (70bWh), to handle peak demand loads (summers in AZ, must have AC), sell excess to grid, store, or waste… (Demand) 8 8
This is absolutely Ridonkulous Different Types of Photovoltaic Systems Surprise: Arizona has a lot of Sun! Photovoltaic Potential for Energy Generation Thin-Film PV - 15% Building-Integrated Roofing PV – 10-15% Crystalline Panels Monocrystalline silicon – 25% Multi-crystalline silicon – 20% Advanced Technologies (Robins AFB – New technology – 38%) Thermal Wall and Thin-Film PV Water/Glycol/Evacuated Air Thermal Water Heating Day Lighting (Passive and Active) Other Solar – Concentrating 9 9
Where is the Green-Eyed Man? Under-Utilized Areas If it isn’t being used and it has sun on it – Let’s cover it with PV! Storm water Retention Canals Air Field space Erosion Control Method for Ammunition Bunkers Hangar Space and Air Craft Sunshade – Potential for Danger… Parking Lots Rooftops 10 10
He is fully awesome! Solar Partnering and Results Team up with Tucson Airport Authority and Tucson Electric Company Potential to produce over 124% of bases current needs with only land use on base. 11 11
Whole wheat is not the same thing as whole grain Solar Energy at Buckley AFB, CO Economies of Scale – Design and Build 1.2MW solar field 230 Separate panels – Single axis tilt 5% of total energy needs 6 Acres Not plug and play – Design needed Footings Maintenance Accessibility Grid Interconnection Loading controls 12 12
SuperBark! Solar Challenges and Caveats Expense - $4 – 8/watt Variability of load Efficiency vs Cost Design Historical Consideration The REC question Qualified Installer Safety Disposal 13 13
I wanted to give them a little sizzle…. Waste to Energy – Kadena AB, Japan Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Island, Japan Scope of Work Determine viability of Waste to Energy generation on or near Kadena – Wet process – Dry process – Energetic process Determine environmental impacts of such processes Additional uses of byproducts Cost Estimates Life Cycle analysis 14 14
You got more talent in one lug nut than most cars have in their whole body… Driving Factors Island of Okinawa has no place to put their trash Political reasons Reducing American Impact Old Battlefields to be reclaimed 15,000 tons of Municiple Solid Waste per year (pop. ~ 55,000) Energy generation, reduction goals Similar technology employed by the Japanese Cost considerations $150/ton for disposal May increase to $425/ton Waste heat to create steam for: Desalination Chilled Water for base consolidation Heating base facilities 15 15
Turn Left to Go Right Differing Processes Bio-Digestion Limited Fuel availability – Chow Hall Municipal Wastewater system Incineration Reduced Fuel availability Stack requirements Can desalinate sea water Plasma Gasification Full waste reduction Potential Untried Technology Energy Intensive Start-up Pyrolysis Fuel Production 16 16
If anyone asks, we were out smashing mailboxes all night Environmental Impacts New Municipal Waste Combustion systems (including plasma) are required to comply with Japanese Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) which are very similar to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) from the USEPA Drinking water could be generated on base Potential to destroy HAZWASTE on site Potential to destroy Lead Based Paint on site Potential to destroy asbestos, PCBs, and other 17 17
I’m happier than a tornado in a trailer park… Kadena AB Feasibility Results (Draft) 300 square foot footprint Potential to eliminate waste (10-100%) Potential to create energy (up to 1.6MW) Potential to create fresh water (350gpm) Potential to create steam for heat or adsorption chiller Potential to break even if costs for waste disposal increase 18 18
What are you going to do, he’s my best friend… Kadena WTE Challenges and Caveats Unproven Technology – Plasma Japanese Mainland Canada 52 sites worldwide Hurlburt Field, FL Political Issues Local Incineration plant Increased Infrastructure Self-sufficiency of military base Costs Research costs driving initial costs High Maintenance costs Limited expertise Cheap energy/waste disposal costs will highly impact 19 19
We dig, dig, dig, dig the whole day through Geothermal Energy vs Ground Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Energy Generation Ground Source Heat Pumps Additional Presentation 20 20
Whistle while you work… Case Studies Minot AFB Installation – Two facilities with more planned Cavalier Air Station – Design underway to augment or replace chiller towers Cannon AFB – Design underway to determine feasibility Vance AFB – Design finishing to determine feasibility Altus AFB – Design finishing to determine feasibility Sheppard AFB – Design finishing to determine feasibility FE Warren AFB – Design underway to determine feasibility and impact to historical sites 21 21
Have an apple, my dear…. Challenges and Caveats Energy Prices drive cost analysis Demand costs Electrical Costs Gas/Heating Costs Mild temperatures Process load impacts GSHP not a generation technology Drilling costs wildly vary Space intensive Best for new construction Geothermal generation only limited to a few places in the US Geothermal generation often hard to access 22 22
But you see, I have the other slipper… Other RE resources investigated Small scale Wind FE Warren Hydrokinetic River Ocean Biomass Eglin Human Potential 23 23
Did you ever see an elephant fly? Upcoming Research Potentials Air Force Funded ESTCP Funded International Technology Exchange Hush House Energy Recovery Ultra-Capacitor Grid Power Electric Transportation Renewable Energy Storage Hydrogen Creation Renewable Energy Storage Plastic Thermal Cracking (Pyrolysis) Missile Silo Conversion Sun Shade Safety Joint Base/Mega Base Mass Transit Geothermal Mine Shafts 24 24
You look more like a Cornelius… I get that alot Conclusion Understanding the drivers Solar Energy Tucson ANGB Net - Zero Case Study Buckley AFB – Solar Field Installation Waste to Energy Feasibility Case Study – Kadena AB Geothermal Energy GSHP Case Studies Other Potentials for Renewable Energy Upcoming Research Potentials 25 25
Those good old bear necessities…. Any More Questions? See me after. Or Stop by Booth #403. email@example.com 612-252-3667 Shaping the Future
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