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Published on February 28, 2014

Author: rohithpallippat

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E-WASTE MANAGEMENT SEMINAR REPORT 2014 Submitted In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of DIPLOMA IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG. The Board of Technical Education, Govt. Of Kerala. Done by ROHITH. P Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Govt. Polytechnic College Kunnamkulam 2014

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I bring out the report of my seminar endeavoring my biggest gratitude to GOD the almighty. I take this opportunity to list the wonderful names of few valuable individuals. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to Mr. N Krishnan Kutty, Principal, Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam, and Mrs. K.B Geetha, HOD, Department of Electronics and Communication for equipping with all facilities during the development of my seminar. I make use of this opportunity to express my hearty gratitude to my class tutor Mr. P.K. Balan for providing his enlightening guidance throughout the seminar and the staff in charge to my seminar, for giving me relevant ideas and advices and assisting me in times of need for making this seminar a success. Without whose help I could have been far from completion of seminar. I also express my thanks to our respected teachers for their kind cooperation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar. This acknowledgement will stand incomplete if my friends and classmates aren’t thanked, whose constant encouragement and timely criticism helped me a great extent and fuelled my determination. I take this opportunity to thank all who helped directly or indirectly through this endeavour.I acknowledge with great gratitude to all those who helped me to make this seminar a great success. At the very outset, I express my thanks to the Almighty God who has blessed me with a healthy constitution and has bestowed upon me the required skill to pursue this High Tech Course. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 1

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) ABSTRACT The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the conception of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of material disposed in landfills . Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste Introduction, sources, generation of e-waste, composition, environmental & health hazards, methods of treatment, case study etc. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 2

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) CONTENTS…………………………….. 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………....................................................4 2. SOURCES...........................................................................................7 3. CATEGORIES…………………...................................................................10 4. GENERATION…………………..................................................................11 5. COMPOSITION…………………...............................................................13 6. HAZARDS…………………...................................................................... 14 7. METHODS OF TREATEMENT AND DISPOSAL…………………………………...16 8. RECYCLING OF E-WASTE ………………….................................................18 9. REUSE OF E- WASTE ………………….......................................................19 10. CASE STUDY…………………...................................................................21 11. CONCLUSION………………….................................................................29 12. REFERENCES……………….....................................................................30 Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 3

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) INTRODUCTION “Electronic waste” may be defined as discarded computers, mobile phones, office electronic equipment’s, entertainment device electronics, television sets refrigerators etc. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and nonrecyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term “e-waste” broadly to all surplus electronics. Management of solid waste has become a critical issue for almost all the major cities in India. Increase in population coupled with the rapid urbanization of Indian cities, has lead to new conception patterns. Which typically affect the waste stream through the successive addition of new kinds of waste. Over last two decades, spectacular advances in technology and the changing lifestyle of people has lead to an increasing rate of consumption electronic products. A trend today is dependence on information technology. The fast rate of technological change has lead to the rapid obsolescence rate of IT products added to the huge import of junk computers from abroad creating dramatic scenario for solid waste management. E-WASTE is a collective name for discarded electronic devices that enter the waste stream from various sources. It includes electronic appliances such as televisions, personal computers, telephones, air conditioners, cell phones, electronic toys, etc. The list of e-waste items is very large and can be further widened if we include other electronic waste emanating from electrical appliances such as lifts, refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, and kitchen utilities even air planes, etc. Faster technological innovation and consequently a high obsolete rate poses a direct challenge for its proper disposal or recycling. This problem has assumed a global dimension, of which India is an integral and affected part. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 4

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) WEEE has been defined as any equipment that is depend on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly, including equipment for the generation, transfer, and measurement of current. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 5

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 6

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR SOURSE OF E-WASTEElectronic waste especially computer waste is growing exponentially in volume because of increasing demand of information technology and its application in the national growth process. Various government department, public as well as private sectors are fast feeding old electronics appliances such as computers, telephones, etc., into the waste stream.  Individual household and small business  Large business, Institutions, government house and Foreign Embassies  PC manufacturers and retailers  E waste from imports  Secondary market of old PCs Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 7

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) PERCENTAGE OF SOURCES CONSTITUTING E – WASTE: Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 8

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) E-WASTE FROM INDIVIDUAL HOUSHOLDS As far as PCs emanating from individual households are concerned, it is difficult to know the exact quantity. Individual households are not major contributors in India. They account for 22% of total computers in India. The rest of share, that is 78%, comes from the business sector. E-WASTE FROM BUSINESS SECTORThe business sectors (government department, public or private sector, MNC offices, etc.) were the earliest users of electronic products; today they account for 78 per cent of total installed PCs. Hence, they are the major producers of obsolete technology in India. It is observed that the total no of obsolete PCs emanating from business as well as from individual households will be around 1.38 million. E-WASTE FROM MANUFACTORS & RETAILERS – PCs manufacturer and retailers are next on the list of contributors to the e- waste segment in India. The waste form this sector comprises defective IC chips, motherboards, cathode ray tubes and other peripheral items produced during the production process. It also includes defective PCs under guarantee procured from consumer as replacement items. It is estimated that around 1050 tons per year of waste comes from this sector. E-WASTE FROM IMPORTSThe biggest sources of PC scrap are imports. Huge quantities of e-waste such as monitors, printers, keyboards, CPU’s, projectors, mobile phones, PVC wires, etc. are imported. The computers thus imported are of all ranges, models and sizes, and functional as well as junk materials. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 9

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR SECONDARY MARKETThese are the waste coming from the secondary market. It includes TV, computers, mobiles, electric boards etc. CATEGORIES OF E-WASTE The electrical and electronic equipment can be broadly categorized into following categories.          Large household appliances (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine cooking appliances, etc.) Small household appliances (vacuum cleaners, watches, grinders, etc.) Consumer equipment (TV, radio, video camera, amplifiers, etc.) Lightning equipment (CFL, high intensity sodium lamp, etc.) Electrical and electronic tools (drills, saws, sewing machine, etc.) Toys, leisure, and sport equipment (computer/video games, electric trains, etc.) Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products radiotherapy equipment, cardiology, dialysis, nuclear medicine, etc.) Monitoring and control instruments (smoke detector, heating regulators, thermostat, etc.) Automatic dispensers (for hot drinks, money, hot and cold bottles, etc.) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 10

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR GENERATION OF E-WASTE  International of scenario- In Europe, the production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing business sectors. In Europe the expected growth rate of WEEE is at least 3 to 5% per year In USA, it accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation.  Indian scenario- The preliminary estimates suggest that total WEEE generation in India approximately 1, 46, 180 tones/year which is expected to exceed 800,000 ton by 2012. In India to date, e-waste generation is estimated to be around 0.1-0.2%, municipal waste.  State scenario- The top states, in order of highest contribution to WEEE, include Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Punjab. The city wise ranking of largest WEEE generators is Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat, and Nagpur. This is due to the presence of a large number of Info Tech Parks & electronic products manufacturing companies situated in these areas, which plays the main role in waste generation. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 11

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 12

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) Figure 1 WEEE WASTE GENERATION IN INDIA IN 2005 Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 13

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH E-WASTE WEEE should not be combined with unsorted municipal waste destined for landfills because electronic waste can contain more than 1000 different substances, many of which are toxic, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, and hexavalent chromium. Some of the toxic effects of the heavy metals are given below.  LeadLead causes damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood systems, kidney and reproductive systems in humans. The main applications of lead in computers are: glass panels and gasket (frit) in computer monitors, and solder in printed circuit boards and other components.  CadmiumCadmium compounds are toxic, they can bio accumulate, and they pose a risk of irreversible effects on human health. Cadmium occurs in certain components such as surface mound devices (SMD) chip resisters, infrared detectors, and semiconductor chips.  MercuryMercury can cause damage to various organs including the brain and kidneys. Most importantly, the developing fetus is highly susceptible through maternal exposure to mercury. Mercury is used in thermostats, sensors, relays, switches (e.g. on printed circuit boards and in measuring equipment), medical equipment’s, lamps, mobile phones, and in batteries.  Hexavalent chromium/chromium VIChromium VI is still used for corrosion protection of untreated and galvanized steel plates and as a decorative or hardener for steel housing. It easily passes through all membranes and is then absorbed---producing various toxic effects in contaminated cells. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 14

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR  Plastic including PVCIt is used in the cabling & computer housing. It contain dioxins. Reproductive and developmental problems, immune system damage, interface with regulatory hormones. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ON- GRID SYSTEMS  Hazards due to Incineration- The incineration of brominated flame-retardants at a low temperature of 600-800 degree Celsius may lead to the generation of extremely toxic polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated furans (PBDfs). Significant quantity of PVC is contained in e-waste, which makes the flue gas residues and air emissions particularly dangerous.  Hazards due to LandfillingIt has become common knowledge that all landfills leak. Even the best “state of the art” landfills are not completely tight throughout their lifetimes and a certain amount of chemical and metal leaching will occur. The situation is worse for older or less stringent dump sites. Mercury will leach when certain electronic devices, such as circuit breakers are destroyed. The same is true for PCBs from a consider. When brominated flame retarded plastics or cadmium containing plastics are landfilled, both PBDE and the cadmium may leach into the soil and groundwater. It has been found that significant amounts of lead ions are dissolved from broken lead containing glass, such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes, when mixed with acid waters which commonly occur in landfills.  Hazards due to recycling- Recycling of hazardous products has little environmental benefit. It simply moves the hazard into secondary products that will have to be disposed of eventually. Unless the goal is to redesign the product to use non-hazardous materials, such recycling is an ineffective solution. Halogenated substance contained in e-waste, in particular brominated flame-retardants are also of concern during the extrusion of plastics, which is a part of plastic recycling. Environmental problems during the recycling of e-waste are not only linked to halogenated substances. A hazardous emission into the air also result from recycling of e-waste containing heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. These emissions could be significantly reduced by means of pretreatment operation. Another problem with heavy metals and halogenated substances in untreated e-waste occurs during the shredding process. Since most of e-waste are shredded without proper disassembly, hazardous substances, such as PCB containing in capacitors, may be dispersed into the recovered metals and the shredder waste. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 15

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR METHODS OF TREATMENT & DISPOSAL      Landfilling Incineration Pyrolysis & gasification Landfilling & dumps Recycle & Reuse LANDFILLING: In this method a ditch is dug in the soil and the soil is excavated from it. The e-waste is then buried in the ditch and then covered by a thick layer of soil. This is one of the most widely used methods of disposing off e-waste. The e-waste takes a lot of time to be degraded in this case as the process of degradation in the case of landfills is very complex and take a long time. However, disposal of e-waste by landfilling is not entirely safe for the environment as certain metals like cadmium can leach into the soil and ground water. INCINERATION: In this process controlled and complete combustion of e-waste is carried out in which the waste material is burned in specially designed incinerators at a high temperature (9001000oC). The main benefit of incineration of e-waste is the reduction of waste volume and the utilization of the energy content of combustible materials. Some of the recycling plants remove iron from the slag for recycling purposes. During incineration some environmentally hazardous organic substances are converted into less hazardous compounds. The main problem with incineration is the emission to air of substances escaping flue gas cleaning and the large amount of residues from gas cleaning and combustion. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 16

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR PYROLYSIS & GASIFICATION: Pyrolysis works on the same methodology as incineration ie, burning solid waste at high temperatures to compose its size. Pyrolysis differs from incineration in the aspect that solid waste is burned in the absence of oxygen. Gasification, on the other hand, allows a low supply of oxygen to convert waste in to combustible and non-combustible gases along with some liquids. The end material can then be used as heat energy, and the left over waste can then be taken for landfilling which will take comparatively lesser space. LANDFILLING & DUMPS Landfills and dumps are used to store waste materials beneath the soil, In many causes, remnants of waste material are not disposed even during the process of incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification. These waste materials are transported to landfills and dumps. Many landfills/dumps are also designed in such as way that energy releases during the process of decomposition of e-waste is tapped and used for generating power. But landfills make soil become polluted. E WASTE EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA Plastic waste- Products made from plastics such as like casing, front panel, and rear panel. Miscellaneous parts encased in plastics. Management practice-The shredding & melting.  Printed circuit board waste- Used in the fire inhibitors & in some electronic parts. Management practice- Desoldering & open burning to remove metals.  Miscellaneous waste- Chips, electronic wire, broken glass waste, copper containing waste. Management practice – Chemical stripping & open burning & some of the waste is mixed with the municipal solid waste. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 17

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR  Liquid waste- It contain internal chemicals, general waste, and acid stripping waste. Management practice –Sewerage system. RECYCLING OF E-WASTE – WEEE recycling is in its infancy, and consumer recognition of the need for recycling is a critical factor in the further expansion of this industry. More than 90% of WEEE is landfilled, and in other countries a large fraction of WEEE waste from households ends up in waste incinerators. Many consumers do not immediately discard or recycle unused electronics, since they think that the products retain value. More than 70% of retired CEDs are kept in storage for 3-5 years. However, with the rapid development of electronic technologies, the residual value of outdated electronic devices decreases rapidly as machines and devices age. Consumers also need to be educated about the effects of such waste on the environment and health, and learn the significance of the recycling symbol that must appear on the packaging of such equipment. Recycling of WEEE can be divided into three major stages.  DISASSEMBLY/DISMANTLING- Disassembly is the systematic removal of components, part, a group of parts or a subassembly from a product (I.e. partial disassembly) or the complete disassembly of a product for a given purpose. This is often necessary to isolate hazardous or valuable materials.  UPGRADING WEEE can be regarded as a resource of metals, such as copper, aluminum and gold, and nonmetals. Upgrading typically includes two stages: commination and separation of metals using mechanical/physical and /or metallurgical processing to prepare the materials for refining processes. Precious metal oriented recovery techniques, such as hydrometallurgy and pyro metallurgy, are becoming less popular whereas mechanical / physical separation of WEEE, which are easier to operate and more environmentally sound, are becoming more prevalent. Other methods to recover materials include incineration and refining, in which metal can be recovered after the more combustible material has been incinerated; and chemical recycling, in which chemical processes are used to remove precious metals such as gold and silver from printed circuit boards. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 18

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR A mechanical processes is an ideal for upgrading recycling WEEE because it yield full material recovery including plastics. Sometimes products will be dismantled to remove the hazardous components and then the remaining material will be granulating and shredded in order to remove the recyclable raw materials such as plastic and ferrous metal. Shredded is often used to produce small even fine-sized particles; usually below 10mm. Many of the traditional recycling processes, such as screening, shape separation and magnetic separation can be used for particle separation.  MATERIAL RECOVERING The major materials in TV and computer are metals, plastics, and glass, and the rate at which these materials can be recovered at a given materials recycling facility (MRF) will depend on varies parameters such as the size of the facility and the target electronics products. PRODUCT REUSEReuse is the environmentally preferable option for managing older electronics equipment. By extending the useful life of old products, reuse conserves the energy and raw materials needed to manufacture new products and doing so reduces the pollution associated with energy use and manufacturing. Reuse also gives people who cannot afford new products access to electronic equipment at reduced or at low cost. Almost all domestic and part of imported e-waste are reused in following ways:-    Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 19

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 20

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR CASE STUDYA COMPARISON OF ELECTRONICS WASTE RECYCLING SWITZERLAND & INDIA Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste .India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that ewaste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliance in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of current practices. Electronics waste recycling is gaining currency around the world as larger quantities of electronics are coming into the waste stream. Managing the increasing volumes of e-waste effectively and effectively-in cost and environmental impact-is complex task. Firstly, special logistic requirements are necessary for collecting the e-waste. Secondly e-waste contains many hazardous substances which are extremely dangerous to human health and the environment, and there for requires special treatment to prevent the leakage and dissipation of toxic into the environment. At the same time, it is a rich source of metal such as gold, silver and copper, which can be recovered and brought back into the production cycle. This particular characteristic of e-waste has made e-waste recycling a lucrative business in both developed as well as developing countries. While some countries have organized system for the collection, recycling, disposal and monitoring, other countries are still to find a solution that ensures jobs while minimizing the negative environmental impacts of e-waste recycling. Switzerland was chosen because it was the first country to implement an industry wide organized system for the collection and recycling of electronic waste. India was chosen as the other country for study because it is not only among the fastest growing markets for the consumption of electronic appliances, but also because it has a large recycling industry and has emerged as a major markets for old and junked computers.  MATERIAL RECOVERING Switzerland, with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, 2 is also among its most technologically advanced countries. The total installed PC base in Switzerland is 3.15 million PCs. Which translates into one PC for almost every two persons, over 99% of the household have refrigerators and over 96% have TVs. Even though market penetration of electrical and electronic goods is high, the market for new appliances remains strong, with annual per capita spending on ICT products topping USS3600, the highest in the work. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 21

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) Switzerland also ranks among the top countries in the world regarding environment protection. Ranked 7th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index. Switzerland is the first country in the world to have established a formal system to manage e-waste. Even though the 68,000 tons of e-waste collected in Switzerland in 2003. Legislation on e-waste management was introduced into Switzerland only in 1998. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 22

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR The collection and recycling of e-waste in Switzerland is an intentionally developed and organized system. As mentioned before, the Swiss system is based on EPR—both legally and operationally. This places both the physical as well as the financial responsibility of an environmentally sound disposal of end-of-life electronics with the manufacturers and importers of these products. The entire operative responsibility is however with the two PROs—SWICO and S.EN.S—who manage and operate the system on behalf of their member producers. One of the pillars of the system is secured financing of the collection and recycling by way of the Advanced Recycling Fee (ARF) charged on all new appliances. The ARF is used to pay for the collection, the transport and the recycling of the disposal appliances. The ARF can range from a minimum CHF (Swiss franc) 1 on small items, such as hair dryers and electric shavers, to up CHF 20 for TVs or CHF 40 for refrigerators. The total ARF collected in 2003 was CHF 71.66 million. Another key feature of the system is its comprehensive scope and nationwide acceptance. SWICO and S.EN.S had 500 official collection points (in 2003) around Switzerland in addition to the thousands of retail locations which have to take back old equipment free of charge, irrespective of the brand or year of manufacture, thereby making it easier for consumers to dispose of their e-waste at appropriate locations. SWICO and S.EN.S incomes and expenditure For period 01.01.03-31.12.03 SWICO S.EN.S system total Income (in million CHF) Total ARF income 33.66 38.00 71.66 Experience (in million CHF) Recycling expense 23.40 18.01 41.41 Transport and logistic expense 4.54 5.96 10.50 Collection point expenses 1.75 3.86 5.61 Others (PR, Controlling, Administrative, etc.) 5.24 4.26 9.50 34.93 29.98 64.91 Total expenses Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 23

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR One of the pillars that facilitates the smooth functioning of the system is the multiple levels of independent controls which are able to check free riding and pilferage as well as to ensure that the recyclers maintain quality and environmental standards. Both material and financial flows are controlled at every stage. The independent controls not only deter free riders, but also give credibility to the entire system, thereby also ensuring the participation of retailers and consumers. E-WASTE RECYCLING IN INDIABackground – India, with over 1 billion people, is the second most populous country in the world. Although the penetration of India’s market for consumer durables is substantially lower than that of developed countries, the size of India’s market in absolute terms is larger than that of many high-income countries. Moreover, India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world and the domestic demand for consumer durables in India has been skyrocketing. From 1998 to 2002, there was a 53.1% increase in the sales of domestic household appliances, both large and small. The growth in PC ownership per capita in India between 1993 and 200 was 604% compared to a world average of 181%. Unfortunately, economic growth and environmental protection indicators are at odds with one another. India ranks an abysmal 101th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index. A report by a New Delhi based NGO, Toxic Links, on computer waste, estimated that in India business and individual households make approximately 1.38 million personal computers obsolete every year. In addition to post consumer e-waste, there is also a large quantity of e-waste from manufacturing in the form of defective printed wiring boards, IC chips and other components discarded in the production process. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 24

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) In contrast to switzerland, where consumers pay a recycling fee, in India it is the waste collectors who pay consumers a positive price for their obsolute appliences, as can be seen in fig.. The small collectors in turn sell their collection to traders who aggregate and sort different kinds of waste and then sell it to recyclers, who recover the metals. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 25

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) The entire industry is based on a network existing among collectors, traders and recyclers, each adding value, and creating jobs, at every point in the chain. As the volume of e-waste has grown, a noticeable degree of specialization has emerged, with some waste processors focusing only on e-waste. Given the low levels of initial investment required to start a collection, dismantling, sorting or recovery business, it is attractive for small entrepreneurs to join the industry. This recycling network is substantiated by similar results of field work by on solid waste management in Chennai, India which found a series private – private relationship among waste pickers, itinerant buyers, dealers, wholesalers and recycling enterprises. The main incentive for the players is financial profit, not environmental or social awareness. Nevertheless, these trade and recycling alliances provide employment to many groups of people. E-waste recycling has become a profitable business, flourishing as an unorganized sector, mainly as backyard workshops. For Delhi, study estimates the number of unskilled workers in recycling and recovering operations to be at least 10,000 people. The biggest drawback of the current Indian system is the uncontrolled emission of hazardous toxics that are going into the air, water and soil. The health hazards from fumes, ashes and harmful chemicals affect not only the workers who come into contact with the ewaste, but also the environment. From the two case studies above, it is clear that the e-waste management systems in the two countries are very different. Based on observation of both systems. A qualitative comparison is done using four criteria: Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 26

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR     E-waste per capita Employment potential Occupational Hazards Emissions of Toxics A higher value in either factor leads to a higher annual accrual of e-waste per capita. Compared to India, Switzerland shows a higher value for per capita waste with its more wide spread use of appliances and shorter product service lives, given the lower rate of repair and reuse. Switzerland has a much higher annual accrual of e-waste per capita. In the year 2003, more than 9kg of e-waste per resident were taken back in Switzerland by the SWICO and S.EN.S recycling. Using the Employment potential offered by the system as one criterion to judge the social impact of the system, it can be seen that the Indian system generates far more jobs than the Swiss system per tons of e-waste processed. Collection, dismantling, sorting and segregation and even metal recovery are done manually in India. Therefore, the e-waste recycling sector, albeit informal, employs many unskilled or semi-skilled workers. Study show that at least 10,000 people are involved in the recycling and recovery operations in Delhi alone. The figure would be much higher if the entire value chain of collectors, transporters and traders were included. Comparatively, e-waste management in Switzerland is highly mechanized, and employs far fewer people. For example, the S.EN.S recycling system, which manages discarded household appliances totaling over 34,000 tones (for all of Switzerland) engages 470 persons in all including collection, transportation recycling, administration and controlling. The main reason for this large difference in compared to the high labor costs in Switzerland. However, when considered from the perspective of Occupational Hazard, e-waste handlers in India are at a much higher risk than in Switzerland. One reason for this is the low level of awareness among workers regarding the hazards of the chemicals and process they are exposed to and the minimum protection and safety measures they are obliged to take. The other reason is the lack of formal guidelines as well as a lax enforcement of existing environmental laws. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 27

SOLAR E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) The Emissions of Toxics into the environment is another aspect to consider. Due to the manual processes used for material recovery, the level of toxics such as dioxins and acids released has been found to be much higher in India than in Switzerland. Culpable for the high level of these externalities are backyard processing techniques such as open burning of cables, which is conducted in the open without any controls or precautions. The material flow in and out of the system is totally unmonitored at present. In contrast, the Swiss system imposes high safety and emission standards and emphasizes the implementation of regular controls and monitoring at every stage of the material and financial flow through the system. External auditors mandated by the PRO’s carry out at least one annual audit at each recycler, and unless standards are compiled with, the recycler’s license is revoked. This monitoring has the effect that the e-waste recyclers stay within the strict Swiss emission limits Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 28

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR CONCLUSIONElectronic equipment is one of the largest known source of heavy metals and organic pollutants in the waste stream. Without effective collection, reuse, and recycling system, highly toxic chemicals are found in electronic appliances like lead, beryllium, mercury, cadmium chromium, brominated flame retardant, etc. will continue to contaminate soil and ground water as well as pollute the air, posing a threat to wildlife and people. In India, domestic generation and imports are the two main sources of e-waste. It is impossible to determine how much e-waste is generated in India and how much is imported. But the growing quantities at a disastrous proportion and uncontrolled disposal practices are alarming the situation from an environmental point of view. Reuse and recycling of electronic equipment is a beneficial alternative than disposal as it reduces the amount of toxic and hazardous substances that may enter the environment through disposal. Thus, it is opined that e-waste management is a new challenge for waste management in India and for its proper management, various measures for improvement in product design by using safe and environmentally friendly raw materials and most emerging technologies have been suggested. Adoption of all those measures will minimize the environmental pollution due to toxic constituents present in electronic products and help in achieving a clean environment. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 29

E-WASTE MANAGEMENT POWER GRIDS (HOW TO IMPLEMENT SOLAR ENERGY AT HOME) SOLAR REFERENCES A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India Deepali Sinha-Khetriwal, Philipp Kraeuchi, Markus Schwaninger Received 17 March 2005, accepted 22 April 2005 Journal of Environmental impact assessment.  E-waste scenario in India, its management and implication. Sushant B. Wath.P.S. Dutt .T.Chakrabarti Received; 25 may 2009/Accepted: 18 Jan 2010 Journal of environmental monitoring assessment.  E-waste: A new challenge for waste management in India. M.N.Mundada, Sunil Kumar and A.V Shekdar Available online: 26 Jan 2007 Journal of Environmental studies.  Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem. Balakrishnan Ramesh Babu, Anand Kuber Parande, Chiya Ahamed Basha Received 3 march 2006; accepted in revised from 17 December 2006 Journal of waste management. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Govt. Polytechnic College, Kunnamkulam 30

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