Published on January 20, 2008
Implementing e-Government: Implementing e-Government An overview of effective delivery Table of Contents: Table of Contents Introduction What is e-Government? Why e-Government IT Projects fail How to implement e-Government projects successfully Conclusions and summary Questions Introduction: Introduction Eur. Ing. Andrew Hardie BSc CEng CITP FBCS FIMIS FIAP Independent Consultant, West Indies Management s.r.o. After fifteen years industry experience, including posts as technical director of an electronic engineering company and managing director of a software and consulting company. Since 1990 as an independent consultant to central, local and international government bodies, including seven parliaments. Computerised the production of Hansard at the House of Commons, helped set up the systems for the Northern Ireland Assembly in Belfast, worked for several Government Departments and did several projects for the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. Online collaboration and workflow systems, leading to a strong interest in the theory and implementation of online communities for social and business networking. Specialist in information architecture, requirements capture and business change projects and has been a long-standing proponent of human-centred computing, Open Systems, Open Source, the Internet and the Web. Also active in the areas of policy and strategy, especially at the interface between technology and legislation Introduction: Introduction West Indies Management Charter Member of Holistic Business Services Niche consultancy focused on Strategic Business Change Management Transformation Management Program/Project Management Knowledge & Knowledge Transfer Management Governance, Steering, Risk Program/Project Office Setup and Implementation US Corporation founded 2001 Czech s.r.o. founded 2003 Introduction - West Indies Management Value Chain: Introduction - West Indies Management Value Chain West Indies Management provides Strategic Business Change/ Transformation Management, with end-to-end ownership. This graphic outlines the top level of the West Indies Management Value Chain. Introduction - Vision, Strategy and Roadmap Creation: Introduction - Vision, Strategy and Roadmap Creation West Indies Management brings the expertise across various industries and the processes, organization, tools / technologies and services to deliver. Introduction - Solutions Design: Introduction - Solutions Design Solutions Design distills the Vision & Strategy Roadmap into a Transformation Plan Introduction - Resourcing: Introduction - Resourcing Many of the resources for a program will be internal to the customer or their existing vendors West Indies Management can bridge gaps in program resourcing or expertise Introduction - Delivery: Introduction - Delivery Implementation phase focuses on running the plans and delivering Transformation Management Governance & Steering Risk Management Introduction - Steady State – Business As Usual: Introduction - Steady State – Business As Usual When done correctly, the customer’s organization is already running everything before “handover” occurs Any outsourced components (such as IT) are integrated transparently Slide11: Implementing e-Government What is e-Government? What is e-Government?: What is e-Government? “eGovernment is one of the priorities set by the eEurope 2005 action plan. It is a powerful means to deliver more efficient and better quality public services, reduce waiting times for users and improve transparency and accountability in services.” 1 This table shows the 20 basic services that e-Government should provide (i2010). 2 Slide13: Implementing e-Government Why e-Government IT Projects Fail e-Government IT Project Failures: e-Government IT Project Failures Lots of reports! CHAOS – Standish Group (1995) OASIG – Organisational Aspects SIG (1996) PAC – Public Accounts Committee(1999) Schmidt et al (2001) NAO/OGC – National Audit Office / Office of Government Commerce (2002) POST – Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) e-Government IT Project Failures: e-Government IT Project Failures Collate those figures for IT Project Success Rates:- Ten Years on, it’s the same! Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – : Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – : Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – : Why e-Government IT Projects Fail – Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail Cobb's Paradox: "We know why projects fail, we know how to prevent their failure -- so why do they still fail?" (Martin Cobb, Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, 1996) Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to FailMPA (Major Projects Association) report (2003) – General:: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail MPA (Major Projects Association) report (2003) – General: Not making good use of the tools available Political pressures and other adverse political interference may lead to unrealistic timescales Insufficient project agility – planning only for a smooth implementation, not catering for possible problems We don’t listen to those on the front line We don’t understand the nature of organizational learning We don’t invest enough in team training and development. Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to FailMPA (Major Projects Association) report (2003) – ICT specific:: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail MPA (Major Projects Association) report (2003) – ICT specific: Protracted period of specification - and under-specification is as bad as over-specification Poor project structure—e.g. PFI has not always worked well Failure to analyze and understand the causes of slippage Big-bang implementation (although sometimes unavoidable) Losing sight of the end goal and a tendency to get buried in the technical detail in the later stages. Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare?1. Because Stakeholders Don't Want To Learn.: Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare? 1. Because Stakeholders Don't Want To Learn. Why don't they want to learn: Irrelevance of success/failure. For example, some stakeholders might only be interested in association with the high-profile inception of the e-govt project, not with the implementation and outcomes. Others might see the project as a means of directing investments to local IT firms, not as a means to achieve e-government goals. In these and similar cases, the outcome – whether the project succeeds or fails – is of no importance to the stakeholders, so they have no interest in trying to learn in order to do better next time. Fear of exposure. Some stakeholders fear that a learning process will expose their shortcomings: their ignorance about ICTs, their self-serving behaviours, their corruption, etc. They will thus resist a learning process. Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare?1. Because Stakeholders Don't Want To Learn.: Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare? 1. Because Stakeholders Don't Want To Learn. Why don't they want to learn: Cultural inappropriateness. In some organizational or national cultures, it is acceptable to admit and learn from failure. In others, it is not: failures are to be ignored or denied, certainly not to be discussed for the purposes of learning. Skewing of incentives. In some situations, there may be incentives for ongoing failure. For example, with some e-govt applications, "success" can mean that the public agency is downsized or loses financial resources because of its efficiency gains, whereas “failure” can mean business, and funds, as usual. Stakeholder absence. By the time an e-govt project ends, key stakeholders have often moved on to other jobs/projects and have no continuing interest in the original project. Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare?2. Because Learning Is Hard: Why Is Learning From e-Government Failure So Rare? 2. Because Learning Is Hard Learning per se costs time and money – often a lot of time and money if it's to be done properly. Public services lack both those resources. E-Govt systems may cost more than most because they are so complex, involving so many stakeholders in a situation that is typically very politicised. Learning approach needed: Recognition. Capture Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Apply Knowledge Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail The bigger the project, the less likely it is any of the staff worked on the last project – they will have moved up or out The bigger the project, the greater the risk of failure and then the ‘catch-up’ project afterwards is even riskier Risk/reward structure in public sector wrong – little reward for success and heavy punishment for failure IT project procurement often delegated down to junior staff Poor requirements capture – leading to a bad specification Not talking to the people who will actually use the system Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail Feasibility studies deliberately scoped to reinforce original policy decision, not to investigate feasibility, desirability, benefits, etc A negative Feasibility Study can be a good thing! Misguided outlook on Pilot Projects A pilot project failing can be a good result! Pilots should not be ‘grown on’ into a full project Suppression or playing down of project problems for political reasons until it’s too late – e.g. Gateway Reviews Failure to conduct a Post Implementation Review or to publish reviews that are critical of the project Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail: Why e-Government IT Projects Continue to Fail All of these factors, and others, result in: Failure to learn – not being a ‘learning organisation’ No knowledge sharing No knowledge accumulation No competence development … COFFEE BREAK!: COFFEE BREAK! Table of Contents - Revisited: Table of Contents - Revisited Introduction What is e-Government? Why e-Government IT Projects fail How to implement e-Government projects successfully Conclusions and summary Questions Slide30: Implementing e-Government How to Implement e-Government Projects Successfully Plan carefully: Plan carefully Ensure timetables are realistic allow for early planning and detailed specification will save both time and resources in the long run Make full use of pilots to test schemes on a small scale prior to rolling out and testing on a larger scale Ensure that pilot schemes are subject to rigorous monitoring and evaluation Strengthen project management : Strengthen project management More realistic business cases and timescales. Better assessment and management of risk. Breaking large complex projects into smaller more manageable components. Having reliable contingency arrangements in place. Be more commercially astute: Be more commercially astute Taking greater advantage of departments’ buying power to secure better deals. Increased use of professional procurement expertise in framing contract strategies. More awarding of contracts on achieving longer term sustainable VFM than simply lowest price. Greater use of incentives and partnership working with suppliers where appropriate. Better and more timely implementationof policies and programs: Better and more timely implementation of policies and programs More reliable information on which to base decisions about new policies. Clearly thought through implementation plans. Not losing sight of existing well established good practice. Exercising strong management grip. Prepare and plan project implementation: Prepare and plan project implementation Careful planning is a pre-requisite of successful implementation. All risks and business requirements must be considered Rushed procurement can result in the loss of taxpayers’ money. Project Management –Roles of the SRO (Senior Responsible Owner): Project Management – Roles of the SRO (Senior Responsible Owner) Overseeing the development of the project brief and business case Ensuring there is a coherent project organization structure & logical plan's Monitoring and controlling the progress of the project at a strategic level (at an operational level, this is the responsibility of a project manager) Formally closing the project and ensuring that the lessons learnt from the project are documented within the end of project evaluation report Ensuring that the post-implementation review takes place, the output is forwarded to appropriate stakeholders and the benefits have been realized Referring serious problems upwards to top management and/or Ministers as necessary, in a timely manner Pilot Projects: Pilot Projects Good way of assessing whether a project is likely to work in practice Allows observation of user reaction to the planned project Gives more realistic indication of the costs of wider implementation. Allow departments to identify potential barriers to the implementation of the project which may not have been seen during the design stages. But, the lessons learnt from pilot projects must be used! Strengthen project management: Strengthen project management Don’t forget the basics: Determining and defining operational needs clearly Development of a sound business case Assigning risk to whoever is best placed to manage it Monitoring progress Having reliable contingency arrangements in place to maintain services to the public if something goes wrong. Break large complex projects into smaller, more manageable components PPM – Project & Program ManagementWhat is it?: PPM – Project & Program Management What is it? PPM is about: setting agreed goals and milestones regularly assessing progress; clarity of accountability, roles and responsibilities at all levels; transparent reporting of progress and problems –including to Ministers – so that remedial action can be taken in good time; offering a framework within which to balance risk and departmental capability. intelligent application of principles to suit the nature and scale of the task in hand. PPM – Project & Program ManagementKey Requirements: PPM – Project & Program Management Key Requirements Organizational level top team being clear about strategic goals and actively overseeing the portfolio of major programs, managing risk against capability Program level understanding strategic departmental priorities, identifying and managing risk and interdependencies with regular independent scrutiny of progress Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) or equivalent – needs to be accountable for each major program PPM – Project & Program ManagementKey Requirements: PPM – Project & Program Management Key Requirements Project level The team needs clear roles and responsibilities and a vision translated into a plan with milestones, regular reporting and review, and stakeholder involvement from the start. Projects are about delivering outputs; programs focus on achieving the resultant outcomes. PPM – Project & Program ManagementBenefits – PPM provides:: PPM – Project & Program Management Benefits – PPM provides: Clear focus on objectives, with clear accountability for delivering results to required time, cost & quality Framework for prioritizing and managing resources: for cross-boundary working which is almost always needed to deliver outcomes for government’s customers for transparent reporting internally and externally a robust factual basis on which to advise Ministers and Management Boards, giving them the data they need to make informed decisions a medium for identifying risk and uncertainty, assessing and managing them to focus management resources where they will provide most benefit. PPM – Part of the overall delivery processFull picture includes:: PPM – Part of the overall delivery process Full picture includes: Ensuring delivery planning happens at an early stage in the policy process, so Ministerial commitments are underpinned by an understanding of the risks and challenges of delivery Measuring and reducing the administrative burdens on frontline staff, so more time is spent delivering outcomes, not servicing ‘the machine’ Using earned autonomy and making smarter use of levers such as targets, ring-fenced budgets, mandated partnership vehicles or requirements to produce plans, so as to give local managers scope to implement policy innovatively and in line with individual customer needs. Implementing PPM FrameworkKey questions:: Implementing PPM Framework Key questions: Who should use the framework? Should it be made mandatory? How will the purpose of the framework be communicated to staff? What training will they require? How will you ensure the ‘lightness of touch’ is appropriate to program/project risk? Will your department’s centre of excellence adapt the framework to your needs e.g. by including its own procedures and models on the framework? How will the framework’s usefulness be monitored? Implementing PPM Structures & CultureKey questions (1):: Implementing PPM Structures & Culture Key questions (1): What programs and projects do you currently have in the department? Is there effective integration of policy and implementation? Is there the project and program capability to meet current and planned delivery commitments? Do you perform risk assessment to identify the right level of Ministerial and Management Board oversight and governance? Do you have an experienced SRO for each high-risk program? Are there additional policy/PSA delivery areas that you should manage as programs? Implementing PPM Structures & CultureKey questions (2):: Implementing PPM Structures & Culture Key questions (2): Where will the centre of excellence sit in the organization and how will it relate to other internal functions? Which Board member will take responsibility for its establishment? What skills will you need within the centre of excellence? Do you have access to the right expertise from within or will you need external recruitment? How will the centre of excellence be implemented and its purpose communicated to the department, including details of support available? How will its impact be measured? Centres of Excellence: Centres of Excellence Research carried out by the Improving Program and Project Delivery (IPPD) team showed that those departments with a good track record on program and project management had built up a permanent central facility to: Provide a strategic overview of departmental programs and interdependencies to senior management; Provide ‘consultancy-style’ support to project teams and boards at initiation and throughout the lifecycle of the project; Ensure ‘Gateway’ disciplines are applied – external and internal scrutiny; Carry out health checks and advise on solutions during the lifetime of individual projects across the department. Where the Centre of Excellence fits in: Where the Centre of Excellence fits in Centre of Excellence functions:1. Upwards support to the Management Board: Centre of Excellence functions: 1. Upwards support to the Management Board Provide departmental Management Boards with strategic overview of major programs so the Board can: Manage priorities and interdependencies Make informed, forward-thinking decisions on resourcing Monitor of progress towards delivery of objectives Provide assurance to Ministers based on real knowledge of current capacity. Provide the information & support to the Management Board and report directly to the Board on a regular basis. This has two benefits: It signals the importance placed on delivery across the department It provides the Centre of Excellence with the authority to become involved in the major programs of the department. The Centre of Excellence does not take on the role of managing programs/ projects itself (but can act as resource pool in larger organizations) Centre of Excellence functions:2. Methods of support: Centre of Excellence functions: 2. Methods of support Identifying and agreeing with the Board the top [x] delivery areas critical to success and advising on implications for the department’s business planning and HR strategy Carrying out regular assessments of agreed priority areas to provide highlight reports to the Board on: Current status (time/cost/quality/resourcing/whether to plan or behind) Risks, Issues, Areas of Weakness Carrying out more detailed reports of major programs at key stages during the departmental finance and planning cycle Ensuring review disciplines are applied appropriately and maximum value is obtained from the process Ensuring program interdependencies are identified, understood and managed Identifying capacity and competence issues as they arise and reporting these to the Management Board to support strategic HR planning Taking part in informal meetings with representatives from other key departmental functions (e.g. Internal Audit, Finance, Procurement, Contracting) Centre of Excellence functions:3. Inwards support to departmental staff: Centre of Excellence functions: 3. Inwards support to departmental staff Policy development stage Involvement at an early stage of policy development to assist analysis and understanding of scope Program/project definition stage Information on/provision of developmental opportunities for the SRO Expert support and advice to program directors on developing a business case Advice on resources and program structure Centre of Excellence functions:3. Inwards support to departmental staff: Centre of Excellence functions: 3. Inwards support to departmental staff Program/project start-up stage: Start-up workshop with project team members and/or boards Workshop for program/project boards Provision of clear guidance on internal approval process for programs/ projects and on management board requirements for oversight Advice on the structure of the program and processes for risk management and control appropriate to its size Provision of HR advice on using existing HR systems effectively to maximize the chance of getting the right people in the right place at the right time Centre of Excellence functions:3. Inwards support to departmental staff: Centre of Excellence functions: 3. Inwards support to departmental staff Program/project delivery stage: Standardization of reporting processes and documentation to ensure information on programs and projects is consistent across the department Regular reviews of the progress of programs and projects Program and project scrutiny Ad-hoc advice and trouble-shooting to program and project teams Guidance on consultants, e.g. firms, procurement & contracts Assistance with resource deployment and identification of the right people for the right projects as required Centre of Excellence functions:4. Resources: Centre of Excellence functions: 4. Resources The following skills and experience should also be available among the mix of Centre of Excellence staff: Proven track record in applying PPM methods to policy formulation and delivery Proven track record in Program/project management and implementation Expertise in Program/project management methodologies and processes Active experience in risk management Business Case and appraisal skills Conclusions & Summary: Conclusions & Summary To effectively implement e-Government, the Czech Government should urgently consider establishing Centers of Excellence West Indies Management, a member of Holistic Business Services, can assist the Czech Government to build Centers of Excellence Establishment of the Centers within the Ministries and/or Departments Mentoring internal specialists On-going support Resources Expertise Governance Frameworks Questions: Questions Answers
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